• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipid composition

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Production of Saccharogenic Mixed Grain Beverages with Various Strains and Comparison of Common Ingredients (다양한 균주를 이용한 혼합곡물 발효음료의 제조와 일반 성분 비교)

  • Lee, Jae Sung;Kang, Yun Hwan;Kim, Kyoung Kon;Lim, Jun Gu;Kim, Tae Woo;Kim, Dae Jung;Bae, Moo Hoan;Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.53-61
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    • 2014
  • In this study, we investigated the production process and the chemical composition of saccharogenic mixed grain beverages (SMGBs). Various SMGBs were prepared through saccharification with Aspergillus (A.) oryzae CF1003 (A), A. acidus KACC46420 (B), Rhizopus (R.) delemar KACC46149 (C), R. oryzae KACC45714 (D), R. oryzae KACC46148 (E), A~E mixed strains (F), A. oryzae CF1001 (G), A. acidus CF1005 (H) and A+H mixed strains (I)-starter at $53^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours. The saccharogenic power of the strains was higher in samples F and G. The soluble solid ($^{\circ}Brix$) of SMGBs were the highest in Sample C. The moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, and crude ash content of various SMGBs showed a range of 77.9~80.7%, 3.7~7.5%, 0.37~0.97% and 1.81~7.47%, respectively. The viscosity of various SMGBs were in the range of 60~528. Further, free amino acid contents of SMGBs were in the range of 347~1,352 ${\mu}g/$ 100 g, respectively. From these results, we could secure the possibility and basic information for the development of SMGBs products. For future studies, we need to improve the taste and functionality of the products.

Spatial Variation in the Reproductive Effort of Mania Clam Ruditapes philippinarum during Spawning and Effects of the Protozoan Parasite Perkinsus olseni Infection on the Reproductive Effort (여름철 산란기에 있어 바지락 번식량의 공간적 변이와 기생 원생생물 Perkinsus olseni 감염이 바지락 번식에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Hyun-Sil;Hong, Hyun-Ki;Yang, Hyun-Sung;Park, Kyung-Il;Lee, Taek-Kyun;Kim, Young-Ok;Choi, Kwang-Sik
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.49-59
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    • 2015
  • Spatial variation in the reproductive effort of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum is often closely associated with variation in the seawater temperature and food availability, which determines gonad maturity and the quantity of gamates produced during spawning. Previous studies also have reported that severe infection by the protozoan parasite Perkinsus olseni exerts a negative impact on clam reproduction, retarding gonad maturation or decreasing the reproductive effort. In the present study, we investigated impacts of P. olseni infection on the reproductive condition of Manila clam during a spawning season. Histology revealed that 54% of female clams in Wando off the south coast were in spawning, while only 10% of the female from Gomso and 0% of the female from Seonjaedo in Gyeonggi bay off the west coast were engaged in spawning at the end of May in 2004. Ray's fluid thioglycollate media (RFTM) assay was applied to assess P. olseni infection and indicated that the infection intensity in Wando ($3,608,000{\pm}258,000cells/g$ wet tissue) was significantly higher than the levels in Gomso ($1,305,000{\pm}106,000cells/g$ wet tissue) and Seonjaedo ($1,083,000{\pm}137,000cells/g$ wet tissue, p < 0.001). The size of the ripe female follicle determined from histology was significantly smaller in Wando ($0.032mm^2$) compared to the sizes in Gomso ($0.059mm^2$) and Seonjaedo ($0.052mm^2$, p < 0.05). Accordingly, the number of ripe eggs in the follicle was significantly fewer among clams in Wando (14) compared to the numbers determined in Gomso (23) and Seonjaedo (22). The absolute quantity of egg in ripe clams from Wando (31.01 mg) was also significantly smaller than Seonjaedo (61.79 mg) and Gomso (133.3 mg). Quantity of total protein, carbohydrate, and lipid in the tissue in the Wando samples was significantly smaller than the quantities determined in Gomso and Seonjaedo (p < 0.001). The observed poor reproductive condition and proximate tissue composition of the females in Wando were, in part, explained by the extremely high level of the parasites, sapping the ability to store energy in the host tissues, which is used in tissue growth and the egg production.

Processing and Quality Properties of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Cutlet (넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus) 커틀렛 제품의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • YOON, Moon-Joo;LEE, Jae-Dong;KWON, Soon-Jae;PARK, Si-Young;KONG, Cheong-Sik;JOO, Jong-Chan;KIM, Jeong-Gyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.625-633
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    • 2015
  • Olive flounder (Parlichthys olivaceus) is a large carnivorous fish that live at coastal area and shallow seas in Korea. It was good texture and clean taste because of a high collagen content and low lipid content. More than 70% of olive flounder annual production was traded alive, consequently processing food product from olive flounder is rare to be towed. This study was conducted to investigate the best method of olive flounder cutlet processing. Clean fillet (headless, skinless and contain no viscera part) of olive flounder were divided into 5 portion. Every 100 g of olive flounder meat was wrapped with vinyl then flatten with meat hammer. Flatten fillet then was coated with wheat flour, and seasoned with salt and pepper. These were then coated with egg wash and bread crumbs. Two different method of processing was to make this olive flounder cutlet. Cutlet-1 was fried for 1 min in olive oil, then kept in polyethylene film vacuum packaging ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$) and stored at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. After 7 days the cutlet was thawed and heat up in microwave for 2 min (Sample-1). The other proup is cutlet-2, which is directly stored in polyethylene film vacuum packaging at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days then thawed and fried for 1 min in olive oil (Sample-2). The factors such as pH, TBA value, amino-N, free amino acid, chemical composition, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, sensory evaluation and viable bacterial count of the olive flounder cutlet (Sample-1, Sample-2) were measured. From the result of sensory evaluation, Sample-2 showed a little high scores than Sample-1. But there was no significant differences in color, odor, taste, texture and overall acceptance between Sample-1 and Sample-2 products.

Processing and Property of Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus Steak (넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus)스테이크제품의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • Yoon, Moon-Joo;Kwon, Soon-Jae;Lee, Jae-Dong;Park, Si-Young;Kong, Cheong-Sik;Joo, Jong-Chan;Kim, Jeong-Gyun
    • Journal of Fisheries and Marine Sciences Education
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.98-107
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    • 2015
  • Olive flounder contains rich amount of lysine which is required for children's growth. Moreover, it is good foodstuffs for elderly, convalescent and diabetics because of low lipid content and high digestibility. This study was investigated for the purpose of obtaining basic data which can be applied to the processing of olive flounder steak. Olive flounder 100 g were chopped, mixed with vegetable (onion 20%, celery 10%, carrot 15%, garlic 1% of chopped olive flounder meat) and ingredient (bread crumbs 20 g, onion 15 g, celery 10 g, egg 1 ea, tarragon 1/2 t, blanc sauce 20 g, fresh cream 20 mL, salt and pepper pinch). Mixed dough was molded into steak shape ($12{\times}7cm$) and was processed by two types of products, Steak-1 {Roasting for 2 minutes in a frying pan wrapped with olive oil and then vacuum packaging in polyethylene film ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$), and then storage at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days, next thawed and warmed by microwave for 2 minutes} and Steak-2 {vacuum-packaging in polyethylene film ($20{\times}30{\times}0.05mm$), and then storage at $-20^{\circ}C$ for 7 days, after thawed, roasted during 2 minutes in a frying pan wrapped with olive oil}. The factors such as pH, TBA value, amino-N, free amino acid, chemical composition, color value (L, a, b), texture profile, sensory evaluation and viable bacterial count of the olive flounder steak (Steak-1, Steak-2) were measured. From the result of sensory evaluation, Steak-2 showed a bit more high scores than Steak-1 but it was difficult to distinguish significant difference (color, odor, taste, texture and acceptance) between Steak-1 and Steak-2 products.

Quality Characteristics of Low-Salt Yacon Jangachi Using Rice Wine Lees during Storage (주박을 이용한 저염 야콘 장아찌의 저장 중 품질특성)

  • Jung, Hee-Nam;Kim, Hae-Ok;Shim, Hae-Hyun;Jung, Hyun-Sook;Choi, Ok-Ja
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.383-389
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    • 2012
  • The objective of this study was to develop and standardize a preparation method for low-salt yacon jangachi using rice wine lees. The proximate composition of yacon was 81.08% (moisture), 0.77% (crude protein), 0.14% (crude lipid) and 0.70% (crude ash). In order to determine the preferred sodium concentrations of soaking solution and rice wine lees, we investigated the quality characteristics of yacon jangachi during storage for 50 days at $18^{\circ}C$. The salinity of yacon jangachi using rice wine lees with 2% and 4% salt increased with storage time, but the salinity did not rise above 3% during storage for 50 days. The salinity of rice wine lees with 4% salt decreased during storage time. a and b color values along with sheared force of yacon jangachi increased as storage time increased, but L color value was reversed. In the sensory evaluation, the color preference for yacon jangachi increased during storage time, and the taste preference was highest at day 30. The flavor preference decreased during storage time, but the texture preference was reversed. In the sensory evaluation of overall preference, yacon jangachi using rice wine lees with 0% salt decreased at day 30, whereas yacon jangachi using rice wine lees with 2% and 4% salt increased during storage time. In conclusion, the salinity of yacon jangachi stored for 50 days with 4% salt did not rise above 3%, and softening was not observed.

Physicochemical properties of edible cricket (Gryllus bimaculatus) in different districts (산지별 식용 귀뚜라미의 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Eun-Mi;Kim, Dae-Hyun;Lim, Jeong-Ho;Chang, Yoon-Je;Lee, Yong-Hwan;Park, Jin Ju;Ahn, Mi-Young
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.831-837
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    • 2015
  • Insects have gained increasing attention as an alternative protein and nutrient rich food source for humans. This study was conducted to investigate the physicochemical characteristics and harmful components of edible crickets (Gryllus bimaculatus) in the 6 districts of Yeonggwang (YG), Jeongseon (JS), Wonju (WJ), Hwaseong (HS), Geochang (GC), and Chungju (CJ). The average crude protein and crude lipid contents on a dry basis were 64.34% and 16.60%, respectively. The crude protein content of CJ was the highest (67.40%), whereas YG (59.42%) had the lowest content. On the other hand, the crude fat content of YG was the highest (20.61%), whereas CJ (14.04%) had the lowest content. The unsaturated fatty acid contents were 57.97-63.93 g/100 g of the total fatty acid content in the crickets of the 6 districts. The major fatty acids of the crickets in the 6 districts were palmitic acid, oleic acid, and linoleic acid. Among the essential amino acids, valine, leucine, and lysine were the most abundant. GC had the highest total amino acids (57.93 g/100 g), whereas YG (48.65 g/100 g) had the lowest. Major mineral contents included potassium (K, 0.92~1.01 mg/100 mg) and phosphorus (P, 0.74~0.88 mg/100 mg). The mineral composition was fairly similar among the crickets. Crickets in the 6 districts were verified to have safe levels of residual heavy metals according to the Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA) advisory levels.

Quality Characteristics of Doenjang by Aging Period (전통 된장의 숙성 기간에 따른 감각·화학적 품질특성)

  • Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Park, Kyungmin;Kim, Hyun Jung;Kim, Yoonsook;Koo, Minseon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.720-728
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    • 2014
  • In order to characterize the quality of Doenjang, fermented Korean soybean paste, subjected to long-term aging, this study performed physico-chemical analyses and sensory evaluation according to aging period (from 1 to 9 years). Regarding the proximate composition of Doenjang according to aging period, moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, crude ash, and salt contents showed little differences among Doenjang samples. Amino-type nitrogen content was 1,046.7 mg% in the 1 year-aged sample, 990.9~996.9 mg% in the 2~5 year-aged samples, and 1,214.1~1,304.8 mg% in the samples fermented more than 5 years. ${\Delta}$E value, reflecting total color differences between the samples, increased according to aging period. Ratios of linoleic and linolenic acids, which are essential fatty acids in soybeans, constituted 55% of total fatty acids, which was the most abundant among all fatty acids. The major free sugar in Doenjang was fructose at a content of 1.6~2.2% in 1~9 year-aged Doenjang. Glycoside form of isoflavones in Meju constituted 77.1%, and the aglycon form constituted 22.9%. However, the glycoside type of isoflavones in soybeans was converted to aglycon type in Doenjang through fermentation and aging. In the sensory evaluation of Doenjang samples, brown color, salt smell, soy sauce flavor, and viscosity all increased according to aging period, whereas sweet flavor, roast smell, beany flavor, salty taste, and acrid taste showed no significant differences. In cluster analysis of the sensory attributes of Doenjang according to aging period, 1 year-aged Doenjang was significantly different between 2 year- and 3~5 year-aged Doenjang.

Evaluation of quality characteristics of Korean and Chinese buckwheats (품종에 따른 국내산 및 중국산 메밀의 품질특성)

  • Cho, MyoungLae;Choi, Sun-il;Lee, Jin-Ha;Cho, Bong-Jae;Lee, Hyo-ku;Rhee, Seong-Kap;Lim, Jeong-Ho;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics (chemical composition, amino acid content, lipid content, and rutin content) of common and tartary buckwheats cultivated from Korea and China. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, and carbohydrate contents of various common and tartary buckwheats were 8.78~13.37%, 11.00~12.11%, 2.87~3.18%, 1.80~2.58%, and 70.2~73.8%, respectively. The major amino acids in Korean and Chinese buckwheats were aspartic acid (1,105.1~1,403.5 mg/100 g), glutamine (2,250.9~2,996.1 mg/100 g), and arginine (932.5~1,388.6 mg/100 g). The major minerals were K (423.7~569.4 mg/100 g), Mg (181.8~255.9 mg/100 g), and P (328.6~555.0 mg/100 g). Palmitic acid (14.2~16.1%) was the major saturated fatty acid, and oleic (37.0~40.8%) and linoleic (31.7~38.6%) acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Tartary buckwheats (261.0~265.0 mg/g) had significantly higher rutin contents than that of common buckwheats (4.39~5.68 mg/g). These results suggested that common and tartary buckwheats cultivated in Korea and China contain naturally occurringnutrients in an abundance.

Characterization of a Korean Domestic Cyanobacterium Limnothrix sp. KNUA012 for Biofuel Feedstock (토착 남세균 림노트릭스 속 KNUA012 균주의 바이오연료 원료로서의 특성 연구)

  • Hong, Ji Won;Jo, Seung-Woo;Kim, Oh Hong;Jeong, Mi Rang;Kim, Hyeon;Park, Kyung Mok;Lee, Kyoung In;Yoon, Ho-Sung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.460-467
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    • 2016
  • A filamentous cyanobacterium, Limnothrix sp. KNUA012, was axenically isolated from a freshwater bloom sample in Lake Hapcheon, Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do, Korea. Its morphological and molecular characteristics led to identification of the isolate as a member of the genus Limnothrix. Maximal growth was attained when the culture was incubated at 25℃. Analysis of its lipid composition revealed that strain KNUA012 could autotrophically synthesize alkanes, such as pentadecane (C15H32) and heptadecane (C17H36), which can be directly used as fuel without requiring a transesterification step. Two genes involved in alkane biosynthesis-an acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and an aldehyde decarbonylase-were present in this cyanobacterium. Some common algal biodiesel constituents-myristoleic acid (C14:1), palmitic acid (C16:0), and palmitoleic acid (C16:1)-were produced by strain KNUA012 as its major fatty acids. A proximate analysis showed that the volatile matter content was 86.0% and an ultimate analysis indicated that the higher heating value was 19.8 MJ kg−1. The isolate also autotrophically produced 21.4 mg g−1 phycocyanin-a high-value antioxidant compound. Therefore, Limnothrix sp. KNUA012 appears to show promise for application in cost-effective production of microalga-based biofuels and biomass feedstock over crop plants.

Chemical Properties and Biological Activity of Garlic (Allium sativum L.) Shoots (마늘종의 화학적 특성 및 생리활성)

  • Kang, Min-Jung;Yoon, Hwan-Sik;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.129-139
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the chemical properties and functional characteristics, such as general composition and bioactivity compounds contents of fresh and blanched (at $95^{\circ}C$, for 5min) garlic shoot from Namhae. Also, evaluated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of water and ethanol extract of fresh and blanched garlic shoot. The moisture content of fresh garlic steam was $ 85.14{\pm}0.35%$, crude protein and crude lipid were $0.79{\pm}0.26%$ and $2.96{\pm}0.03%$ respectively. Vitamin C content was higher in fresh garlic shoot ($7.07{\pm}0.84mg/100g$) than blanched. Total phenol and total chlorophyll contents were respectively $16.93{\pm}1.17mM/g$ and $6.70{\pm}0.46mg/g$ in fresh garlic shoot. Allicin content of blanched garlic shoot was $128.63{\pm}1.59mM/g$. This content was 1.82 times higher than the fresh garlic shoot. Total pyruvate content was higher in fresh garlic shoot ($24.63{\pm}1.59mM/g$), but thiosulfinate was higher in fresh garlic shoot. Total flavonoide was the highest in water extract of blanched garlic shoot ($3.67{\pm}0.00mM/g$). ABTS radical scavenging activity of water extract form blanched garlic shoot was $85.09{\pm}0.28%$, which was higher than the other extracts. NO radical scavenging activity of ethanol extract from blanched garlic shoot was significantly higher than the extracts from fresh garlic shoot. Antibacterial activity to S. aureus, S. enterica, B. cereus and E. coli was only indicated in water extract of fresh garlic shoot.