• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipid composition

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Evaluation of quality characteristics of Korean and Chinese buckwheats (품종에 따른 국내산 및 중국산 메밀의 품질특성)

  • Cho, MyoungLae;Choi, Sun-il;Lee, Jin-Ha;Cho, Bong-Jae;Lee, Hyo-ku;Rhee, Seong-Kap;Lim, Jeong-Ho;Lee, Ok-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 2016
  • This study investigated the quality characteristics (chemical composition, amino acid content, lipid content, and rutin content) of common and tartary buckwheats cultivated from Korea and China. The moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, and carbohydrate contents of various common and tartary buckwheats were 8.78~13.37%, 11.00~12.11%, 2.87~3.18%, 1.80~2.58%, and 70.2~73.8%, respectively. The major amino acids in Korean and Chinese buckwheats were aspartic acid (1,105.1~1,403.5 mg/100 g), glutamine (2,250.9~2,996.1 mg/100 g), and arginine (932.5~1,388.6 mg/100 g). The major minerals were K (423.7~569.4 mg/100 g), Mg (181.8~255.9 mg/100 g), and P (328.6~555.0 mg/100 g). Palmitic acid (14.2~16.1%) was the major saturated fatty acid, and oleic (37.0~40.8%) and linoleic (31.7~38.6%) acids were the major unsaturated fatty acids. Tartary buckwheats (261.0~265.0 mg/g) had significantly higher rutin contents than that of common buckwheats (4.39~5.68 mg/g). These results suggested that common and tartary buckwheats cultivated in Korea and China contain naturally occurringnutrients in an abundance.

Quality and Functional Components of Commercial Chungkukjang Powders (시판 청국장 분말제품의 품질 및 기능성분)

  • Lee, Hyo-Jin;Cho, Sang-A;Shin, Jin-Gi;Kim, Jeong-Sang;Jeong, Yong-Jin;Moon, Kwong-Duck;Kwon, Joong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.65-71
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    • 2007
  • Five different commercial chungkukjang powders (A$\sim$E) were compared based on their physicochemical, organoleptic and functional properties. The proximate composition of the five samples ranged from 6.07 to 8.54% in moisture, 15.31 to 27.07% in crude protein, 20.19 to 24.75% in crude lipid, 34.84 to 52.41% in carbohydrate, and 3.69 to 5.26% in ash. The pH of the samples ranged from 5.58 to 6.11, and Hunter's colors showed 70.01$\sim$77.22 for L value, 0.91$\sim$4.64 for a value and 23.72$\sim$31.00 for b value depending on the product. The microbial counts were 8.16$\sim$g.60 log CFU/g for aerobic bacteria, $\sim$4.16 log CFU/g for yeasts & molds, and 1.07$\sim$3.88 log CFU/g for coliforms. The contents of reducing sugars and amino-N were 1.89$\sim$2.41% and 2.83$\sim$7.31%, respectively. Free amino acids were mainly composed of glutamic acid, valine, leucine, phenylalanine, and lysine. The amounts of total phenolics and total flavonoids were 108$\sim$302 mg% and 2.73$\sim$9.41, respectively, with some variations in the products. However, the isoflavone contents, which were composed of genistein (63.26$\sim$217.16${\mu}g/g$), daidzein (58.24$\sim$166.65${\mu}g/g$), genistin (2.66$\sim$55.68${\mu}g/g$), and glycitein (12.26$\sim$17.82${\mu}g/g$), were apparently different per product. The sensory scores for color, smell, taste and overall preference for the five chungkukjang products, which were evaluated by panels in their 20's and 30's using 7-point scoring test, ranged from 3.20 to 4.05.

Physicochemical Characteristics of Black Garlic (Allium sativum L.) (흑마늘의 이화학적 특성)

  • Choi, Duk-Ju;Lee, Soo-Jung;Kang, Min-Jung;Cho, Hee-Sook;Sung, Nak-Ju;Shin, Jung-Hye
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.465-471
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    • 2008
  • Physicochemical characteristics of black garlic were analyzed. Colorimetry measurement showed that the black garlic, compared with fresh and steamed garlics, was the highest in a value and the lowest in L and b values. Crude lipid, crude protein, and total sugars were the highest in black garlic, which was followed by steamed and fresh garlic. On the other hand, moisture content was the lowest in the black garlic and the highest in the fresh garlic. The pH of garlics was ca. 6.8, 6.5, and 4.4 in fresh, steamed, and black garlic, respectively, which indicated that garlics tended to be acidified with the thermal processing. Total pyruvate and total thiosulfinates were the lowest in steamed garlic ($77{\mu}mol$/g and 0.07 OD/g for each) and the highest in black garlic ($278{\mu}mol$/g and 0.77 OD/g). Arabinose and galactose were detected only in black garlic and their contents were 1.6 and 13 mg/100 g, respectively. Free sugars such as glucose, sucrose and fructose were the highest in the order of fresh, steamed, and black garlic. Potassium was a predominant mineral in all garlics, constituting 76% of total minerals. Glutamic acid, arginine, and aspartic acid were the major composition amino acids in all garlics, regardless of processing conditions. 15 kinds of free amino acids were detected in fresh and steamed garlic, while five more free amino acids, O-phosphoethanolamine, and urea were additionally detected in black garlic.

Development and Food Component Characteristics of Canned Boiled Rainbow Trout (송어 보일드 통조림의 개발 및 식품학적 성분 특성)

  • Kang, Kyung-Tae;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Lee, Take-Sang;Kim, Hye-Suk;Heu, Min-Soo;Hwang, Na-Ae;Ha, Jin-Hwan;Ham, Joon-Sik;Kim, Jin-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.36 no.8
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    • pp.1015-1021
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    • 2007
  • To expand the use of rainbow trout, the preparation of canned rainbow trout was conducted and the characteristics were also examined. Canned boiled rainbow trout was low in moisture, while high in lipid and ash compared to commercial canned salmon. There was no difference in the protein content between two kinds of canned fish. The contents of free amino acid and total amino acid of canned boiled rainbow trout were 330.9 mg/100 g and 18.2 g/100 g, respectively, and the major amino acids were glutamic acid (68.6 mg/100 g) and anserine (124.1 mg/100 g) in free amino acid and glutamic acid (18.0%), aspartic acid (8.6%), lysine (8.4%) and leucine (8.9%) in total amino acid. The mineral contents of canned boiled rainbow trout were 123.3 mg/100 g for potassium, 271.3 mg/100 g for calcium, 40.3 mg/100 g for magnesium, 2.4 mg/100 g for ferrous and 244.3 mg/100 g for phosphorus. The fatty acid composition of canned boiled rainbow trout was the highest (43.7%) in polyenoic acid, followed by monoenoic acid (28.8%) and saturated acid (27.5%) and their main fatty acids were 16:0 (18.4%), l8:1n-9 (20.6%), l8:2n-6 (17.3%) and 22:6n-3 (12.7%), respectively.

Quality Characteristics of Doenjang by Aging Period (전통 된장의 숙성 기간에 따른 감각·화학적 품질특성)

  • Ku, Kyung-Hyung;Park, Kyungmin;Kim, Hyun Jung;Kim, Yoonsook;Koo, Minseon
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.720-728
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    • 2014
  • In order to characterize the quality of Doenjang, fermented Korean soybean paste, subjected to long-term aging, this study performed physico-chemical analyses and sensory evaluation according to aging period (from 1 to 9 years). Regarding the proximate composition of Doenjang according to aging period, moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, crude ash, and salt contents showed little differences among Doenjang samples. Amino-type nitrogen content was 1,046.7 mg% in the 1 year-aged sample, 990.9~996.9 mg% in the 2~5 year-aged samples, and 1,214.1~1,304.8 mg% in the samples fermented more than 5 years. ${\Delta}$E value, reflecting total color differences between the samples, increased according to aging period. Ratios of linoleic and linolenic acids, which are essential fatty acids in soybeans, constituted 55% of total fatty acids, which was the most abundant among all fatty acids. The major free sugar in Doenjang was fructose at a content of 1.6~2.2% in 1~9 year-aged Doenjang. Glycoside form of isoflavones in Meju constituted 77.1%, and the aglycon form constituted 22.9%. However, the glycoside type of isoflavones in soybeans was converted to aglycon type in Doenjang through fermentation and aging. In the sensory evaluation of Doenjang samples, brown color, salt smell, soy sauce flavor, and viscosity all increased according to aging period, whereas sweet flavor, roast smell, beany flavor, salty taste, and acrid taste showed no significant differences. In cluster analysis of the sensory attributes of Doenjang according to aging period, 1 year-aged Doenjang was significantly different between 2 year- and 3~5 year-aged Doenjang.

Proximate Compositions Changed Before and After Fermentation of Rice Spent Water (발효 전후 쌀뜨물의 일반성분 변화)

  • Kim, Min-Ju;Park, Sung-Soo;Kim, Dong-Ho;Kim, Keun-Sung
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.192-197
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    • 2011
  • Rice spent water (RSW) is generated when rice is rinsed before cooking. RSW has been discarded into sewerages due to its low usage in our daily life and become a major domestic wastewater for many years. But RSW can be used as a value-added resource because it contains various beneficial bioactive components. Therefore, fermented rice spent water (FRSW) has been already produced in our previous value-added fermentation process. In this study, proximate compositions and contents of other typical fermentation products were compared between RSW and FRSW. Both RSW and FRSW contain approximately 99.3% moisture and 0.7% total solids. Compared to those of RSW on a dry basis, carbohydrate content of FRSW was decreased by 44.8% and crude protein, lipid, and ash contents of FRSW were increased by 16.4%, 18.8%, and 36.6%, respectively. In addition, starch granules of RSW were intact as those of rice flour were, but those of FRSW were not. RSW did not have lactic acid, but FRSW had 212.13 and 181.25 g/kg D- and L-lactic acid, respectively. Free amino and ammoniacal nitrogen contents of FRSW were 12 and 7 times higher than those of RSW, respectively. Lactic acid, free amino, and ammonical nitrogen contents were considered to be increased in FRSW because carbohydrates could be disintegrated into lactic acids and proteins into free amino or ammoniacal nitrogens during the fermentation process.

Quality and genetic relationship on dehulling characteristic in oat variety (국내 귀리품종 탈부특성에 따른 품질 및 유연관계 분석)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Min;Shin, Dongjin;Kim, Kyeong-Hoon;Kwon, Yu-Ri;Park, Hyo-Jin;Hyun, Jong-Nae;Kim, Young-Jin;Oh, Myung-Kyu;Park, Young-Hoon
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.375-381
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    • 2018
  • The consumption of oats (Avena sativa L.) with high nutritional utility is accelerating due to the increased consumers' demand for functional foods. In Korea, naked oats are used as food, while covered oats are used for animal feed. However, it is difficult to distinguish naked oats from covered oats when the husk is removed from the grains by a special process. The present study was carried out to investigate experimental methods that would be beneficial in the segregation of different types of oats after husk removal. Grain quality-related biochemical compounds were analyzed in a bid to differentiate the oat dehulling characteristics. In addition, 61 SSR markers were examined for genetic relationship and variety identification of oats using five naked and seven covered oat varieties. Results showed that, the contents of protein, lipid, and ${\beta}-glucan$ were not significantly different among the oat varieties and this could not be used as an index for distinguishing oats husk character. However, in the fatty acid composition ratio,, naked oats had a higher ratio of stearic acid (C18:0) and oleic acid (C18:1) than covered oats, and covered oats had a higher ratio of linoleic acid (C18:2) and linoleic acid (C18:3) than naked oats. The assessment of SSR marker genotype revealed that 33 polymorphic bands among 12 oat varieties and 1 variety could be distinguished through the combination of polymorphic markers thus indicating the usability of these markers for variety identification in oats.