• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipid composition

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Stratification of Lipid Content and Composition in Blubber of Marine Cetacean from Korean Waters (한국 근해에 서식하는 고래 피하지방의 층별 지방 함량 및 구성 변화)

  • Ko, Ah-Ra;Ju, Se-Jong;Moon, Dae-Yeon;Choi, Seok-Gwan;Kim, Zang-Geun;Shin, Kyung-Hoon
    • Ocean and Polar Research
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.35-43
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    • 2011
  • Blubber plays different biological roles in cetaceans, including structural support, physiological demands (thermoregulation, streamlining, buoyancy, etc.), and energy storage. As such, biochemical composition, especially lipid, in the blubber may be vertically stratified in order to effectively assist with these functions. We analysed lipid content, class and fatty acid composition in the blubber of by-catch minke whale (Balaenoptera acutorostrata; n = 11), long-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus capensis; n = 3) and Pacific white-sided dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obiquidens; n = 2) from Korean waters. Lipid content for all three species ranged from 55 to 96% of wet weight, with a dominance of triacylglycerols. Vertical stratification of blubber lipid content was different between species. For minke whale and longbeaked common dolphin, it increased from inner (near the muscle) to outer (near the skin) layer, whereas it decreased for Pacific white-sided dolphin. Thirty-one fatty acids were found in all blubber samples and vertical stratification of fatty acid composition was similar among all three species. Among grouped fatty acids, monounsaturates were the most abundant, gradually increasing from inner to outer blubber layer, whereas polyunsaturates and saturates decreased. Such vertical stratification of lipid content and composition suggests that the modification and accumulation of lipid occur in the blubber itself in order to help cetaceans with their specific physiological needs.

Fatty Acids Composition in Viscera and Muscle of the Philippines Pinkgray Goby, Amblvchaeturichthys hexanema

  • Choi Byeong-Dae;Kang Seok-Joong;Jeong Bo-Young;Mendoza Lonarda S.
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.4 no.4
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    • pp.265-267
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    • 2001
  • In this study, lipid classes and fatty acids composition in viscera and muscle of the philippines Pinkgray goby, Amblychaeturichtys hexanema were determined. The viscera contained high levels of total lipid $(TL,\;4.8\%)$, while the muscle contained less TL $(0.5\%)$. TL in the viscera consisted of triacylglycerol $(83.9\%)$, diacylglycerol $(7.9\%)$, polar lipid $(7.4\%)$, and cholesterol $(0.8\%)$. However, the muscle contained a small amount of TG $(3.0\%)$ and much more PL $(73.8\%)$. Principal fatty acids composition of PL and NL in the viscera and muscle were 16:0, 16:1n-7, 18:0, 18: 1n-9, 18:1n-7, l8:3n-3, 20:5n-3, 22:5n-3, and 22:6n-3.

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Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Far Eastern Catfish Silurus asotus

  • Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Lim, Sang-Gu;Kang, Yong-Jin;Kim, Kang-Woong;Son, Maeng-Hyun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.369-374
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    • 2012
  • A $3{\times}2$ factorial experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dietary protein and lipid levels on the growth and body composition of juvenile far eastern catfish. Six diets were formulated to contain three levels of protein (20%, 30% and 40%) and two levels of lipid (9% and 17%). Triplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 7.6 g) were hand-fed to apparent satiation for 66 days. Final mean weight was improved with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels, and the highest final mean weight was observed in fish fed the 40/17 (% protein/% lipid) diet. No significant difference was observed in final mean weight for fish fed between 30/17 diet and 40/9 diet. Feed efficiency of fish fed the diets containing over 30% protein levels with 9% and 17% lipid levels were significantly higher than those of fish fed the 20% protein levels. Feed efficiency of fish fed the 30/17 diet was not significantly different from that of fish fed the 40/9 diet or 40/17 diet. Feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio of fish fed the 20% protein diets with 17% lipid level were significantly higher than those of fish fed 9% lipid diet. Daily feed intake of fish tended to decrease with increasing dietary protein and lipid levels. Moisture content of whole body in fish fed the 9% lipid diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed the 17% lipid diets at the same protein level, but the opposite trends were found for crude lipid content. Significant effects of dietary lipid were observed for most fatty acids, according to their relative values in the diets. The results of this study suggest that the protein requirement for maximum growth of juvenile far eastern catfish may be higher than 40%, and an increase of dietary lipid level from 9% to 17% can improve growth and feed utilization.

Changes of Protein and Lipid Composition During Germination of Perilla frutescens Seeds (들깨 종자의 발아에 따른 단백질 및 지방의 조성 변화)

  • 정대수;김현경
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.318-325
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    • 1998
  • To investigate changes in protein and total lipid contents, seed storage protein pattern, and fatty acid composition of germination perilla(Perilla frutescens) seeds. Also, the corresponding value components in cotyledons, hypocotyles and roots were measured according to germination stage. The results were summarized as follows ; During germination, pertein and total lipid contents of Yepsilldalggae and Kwangyang cultivar were decreased continuously. In particular, protein contents rapidly decreased to the 3 days after germination(DAG), and then total lipid contents rapidly decreased between 3 DAG and 10 DAG. In changes of protein and total lipid contents of cotyledons, protein contents of Yeupsildalggae was increased during the germination, but Kwangyang cultivar was decreased during the same periods. The total lipids contents of Yeupsildalggae and Kwangyang cultivar were decreased during the germination. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, there was no detectible polypeptide bands on the gel before seed germination suggesting that this may be due to the rapid degradation of the storage proteins in the mature seed by hydrolyttic enzymes during the stage. During germinatation , the polypeptide band with 27$\sim$28KD of Yeupsildalggae and Kwangyang cultivar were accumulated gradually. In changes of fatty acid composition of total lipid of Yeupsildalggae and Kwangyang cultivar , saturated fatty acids such as palmitic acid and stearic acid increased during the germination. On the other hand, unsaturated fatty acid such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid decreased during the same periods. However, oleic acid increased to the 5 DAG, and then was repidly decreased.

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Composition of Lipid and Amino Acid in Semisulcospira gottschei Tissues (다슬기중 지방질 및 아미노산 조성)

  • 심태흠;한규석;이태준;정의호;이해금
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.81-87
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    • 1994
  • This study was performed to investigate the detailed lipid content, lipid composition and amino acid composition of Semisulcospira gottschei tissues. Lipids of Semisulcospira gottschei tissues were extracted by the mixture of chloloform-methanol, fractionated into neutral lipids, glycolipids and phospholipids by silicic acid column chromatography and the composition of these lipid classes were determined by TLC and GLC. the amino acids in Semisulcospira gottschei tissues was analyzed by the amino acid auto analyzer. The total lipids content was 1.4% and the main components of the total lipids were neutral lipids 67.9%, glycolipids 19.3% and phospholipids 12.8%, respectively. The main fatty acids of total lipids were palmitic acid (20.5%), palmitoleic acid (16.45) and linolenic acid+eicosenoic acid (15.0%) and linoleic acid(13.1%), the main fatty acids of glycolipids were palmitic acid (41.9%), palmitoleic acid (19.7%) and oleic acid (11.7%), and the main fatty acids of phospholipids were linolenic acid+eicosenoic acid (55.1%), oleic acid (17.3%) and palmitic acid (11.4%). The main amino acids were glutamic acid (16.0%) and aspartic acid (11.1%).

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Property Characterization and Lipid - Compositional Analysis of Lipid Granules Isolated from an Oleaginous Yeast Rhodotorula glutinis

  • Ham, Kyung-Sik;Rhee, Joon-Shick
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.211-215
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    • 1998
  • Preparative isolation of lipid granules from Fhodotorula glutinis, which has been studied for long time to produce edible lipids, was carried out by flotation method in Ficoll-Linear density gradient. When the isolated lipid granules were suspended in a series of solutions containing varying concentration of osmotic stabilizer (sorbitoal and mannitol) ranging from 0.8M to 0M, the lipid granules appeared to be disrupted at a concentration between 0.8M and 0.7, and again at a concentration below 0.1M, suggesting that lipid granules have a membraneous structure and that at least two types of lipid granules are present. Compositional analysis of lipids from lipid granules revealed that lipids are composed mainly of neutral lipids (87.8% of total lipids), predominantly as triacylglycerols (71.89%). Marked differences were observed inphospholipids between lipids of lipid granules and those of whole cells . The major components of phospholipids in lipid granules and inwhole cells are phosphatidylcholine(38.6%) and phosphatidylserine(42.8%), respectively. In addition, significant differences were also observed in the fatty acid composition of phospholipids. As phospholipids are important structural components of membranes, these differences lead to the suggesting that the membrane of lipid granules may be distinct functionally and structurally from other membranes of yeast cells. The major fatty acid components of neutral lipidss of whole cells and lipid granules are palmitic , oleic and linoleic acid. However , degreeof fatty acid unsaturation of neutal lipids of lipid granules was much lower than that of neutral lipids of whole cells.

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Fatty Acid Composition and Electrophoretic Patterns of Proteins of Korean Soybeans (우리나라 콩의 지방산 조성 및 단백질의 전기영동 패턴)

  • Kim, Jong-Goon;Kim, Sung-Kon;Lee, Joon-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.263-271
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    • 1988
  • Fatty acid composition and electrophoretic patterns of protein of Korean soybeans were studied, The protein content showed an inverse relation with the lipid content, The content of lipid types of total lipid was in the order of neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid, Cultivar 102-B had higher content of neutral lipid but lower content of phospholipid compared with others. The main component of neutral lipid was triglyceride followed by sterol. The main fatty acids of total lipid were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids, which comprised over 85% of total fatty acids. The main fatty acid of neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid were linoleic acid. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoretic pattern of protein showed seven bands. The cultivar 102-B had the highest content of IIS globulin. Sodium-dodecyl sulfate PAG electrophoresis demonstrated that all soybeans had similar composition of subunit.

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Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Korean Breast Milk and Infant Formula (모유와 유아용 조제분유의 지질 및 지방산 조성)

  • 임현숙
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.563-573
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    • 1994
  • This study was conducted to compare the lipid content and fatty acid composition of the Korean breast milk produced at 1, 2 and 3 months postpartum with the infant formula produced in Korea. The content of total lipids of the breast milk was low compared with the other data of Korean as well as foreign breast milk, and the content tended to reduce during the progress of lactation. The composition of fatty acids of the breast milk was characterized by low saturated fatty acids(SFA) and high $\omega$3 series of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially 20:5 and 22:6, so the P/S and $\omega$6/$\omega$3 rations were high. The formulas had more total lipids, triglycerides(TG) and phospholipids and less cholesterol(CHOL) and free fatty acids than the breast milk. The cholesterol content of the formulas was around 50% of that of the breast milk, so the CHOL/TG ratio was low. Although the formulas varied in fatty acid composition, the formulas had more SFA and $\omega$6 series of PUFA, but less monounsaturated fatty acids and $\omega$3 series of PUFA than the breast milk. This study shows that there are some differences in lipid content and fatty acid composition between breast milk and infant formula. Therefore, further studies needed to investigate the physiological effect of this difference on lipid metabolism of infants.

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Age Related Changes of Microsomal Fatty Acid Composition and Lipid Peroxidation in 2-acetylaminofluorene Treated rats. (2-Acetylaminofluorene의 투여와 나이에 따른 쥐의 세포막 지방산 조성 및 지질과산화물 생성의 변화)

  • 윤은영;최혜미;김현아;김숙희
    • Environmental Mutagens and Carcinogens
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.140-147
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    • 1995
  • For studying the effect of different dietary fats on carcinogenesis, fatty acid composition of membrane and lipid peroxidation were measured. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed on diet containing 15%(w/w) beef tallow or soybean oil. A single dose of 50 mg 2-AAF/kg B.W. was injected i.p. in each diet group 10 times. Rats were sacrifled after 1, 5, 10, and 15 weeks from the first injection. By 2-AAF injection, !ipid peroxidation increased slightly compared to control group. The rats fed on different fats had similar MDA production and those fed on soybean oil had slightly higher free radical concentration measured by ESR. In young rats, iipid peroxidation level was high and hydroxy radical production was higher in soybean oil group than in beef tallow group. With age, the lipid peroxidation values were decreased initially then increased. The fatty acid composition in microsomal membrane was reflected by dietary fatty acid composition. In soybean oil group, monoenoic acid was lower and polyunsaturated fatty acid was higher than beef tallow group. Linoleic acid contents showed the most discrepancy among groups. By 2-AAF treatment, iinoleic acid content and unsaturation index increased in soybean oil group. But in beef tallow group, there was no difference in fatty acid contents.

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Concentration of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Their Composition in Octopus minor Collected from Seosan Intertidal Zone (낙지(Octopus minor)에서의 브롬계화합물(Polybrominated diphenyl ethers, PBDEs)의 잔류농도와 조성특성)

  • Lee, Hyo-Jin;Kim, Gi-Beum;Stapleton, Heather
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.68-74
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    • 2010
  • Octopus(Octopus minor), benthic cephalopod, were collected from intertidal zone in Seosan, Choongnam and analyzed for polybrominted diphenyl ethers(PBDEs). PBDEs concentrations ranged from 29 to 109 ng/g lipid wt(mean; 54 ng/g) in mantle and from 12 to 89 ng/g lipid wt(mean; 48 ng/g) in internal organ. PBDEs concentrations in octopus internal organ were lower about two times than that in common squid collected in Yellow Sea, indicating Seosan is relatively less contaminated with PBDEs. Major congener was BDE 206, occupying 72% and 49% of total PBDE concentration in mantle and in internal organ, respectively, which is very different from PBDE composition in common squid with major congeners of BDE 47 and 99. From PBDE composition, octopus seemed to concentrate higher brominated BDE rather than lower brominated BDE. This PBDE composition in octopus may be affected by sediment with extremely high contribution of deca-BDE to total PBDE concentration.