• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipid composition

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Changes in Contents of Total Lipid, Total Cholesterol and Fatty Acid Composition of Preterm Milk during Lactation (Preterm Milk의 총지질, 총콜레스테롤 함량 및 지방산 조성 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 안홍석
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.215-227
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    • 1994
  • Changes in total lipid content, total cholesterol content and fatty acid composition of preterm milk were investigated during early lactation. Milk samples were collected from Korean mothers of 16 premature(34 to 36 weeks gestation age) infants on day 2 to 5(colostrum) and at 6 weeks(mature) postpartum. We estimated the lipid nutrition of preterm milk by comparing with the lipids of term milk. The total lipid content of preterm colostrum was significantly lower than the lipid content of preterm mature milk(p<0.001). Lipid content, determined gravimetrically in colostrum and matured milk, was 1.50g/이 and 3.2g/dl, respectively. Also the total cholesterol content(mg/dl) in preterm milk tends to increase from 14.16mg/dl to 15.20mg/dl, while the total cholesterol(mg/g lipid) concentration higher significantly in colostrum(12.36mg/g) than in mature(5.73mg/g)(p<0.001). The total unsaturated fatty acid contents in preterm milk were higher in colostrum than in mature milk and the total saturated fatty acids were higher in mature milk. The average DHA contents of colostrum and matured milk was 0.64%, 0.53% and the P/M/S ratio of preterm milk were 0.63 : 1.05 : 1.00, 0.47 : 0.79 : 1.00, respectively. Also, $\omega$6/$\omega$3 ratio of preterm milk were 2.35 in colostrum and 5.81 in mature. Therefore, colostrum in preterm milk contained higher amounts of $\omega$3 PUFA than mature milk. The levels of total lipid in preterm milk were higher than term milk. Also, preterm milk is richer in cholesterol, and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid than term. It appears that the milk secreted by mothers who delivered prematurely differs from milk in several important respect. These components may serve as precursors for membrane, myelin development in the preterm infants. Therefore, it would be necessary to study further into the machanism of how the gestation age might affect to the lipid composition in human milk. These data may provide a basis for better construction of infant formaulas to provide more adequately for the lipid requirements of the Korean premature infant.

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Effects of Dietary Lipid Level on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Red Sea Bream (Pagurus major) during Winter (저수온기 참돔 치어의 성장 및 체조성에 미치는 사료내 지질의 영향)

  • Hwang, Hyung-Kyu;Kim, Kyoung-Duck;Park, Min-Woo;Han, Seock-Jung;Kang, Yong-Jin;Kim, Eung-Oh;Kim, Dae-Hyun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.344-348
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary lipid level on growth and body composition of juvenile red sea bream in low temperatures. Duplicate groups of fish (initial body weight of 79 g) were fed one of three isonitronic diets (47% crude protein) containing different lipid levels (10%, 17% and 22%) for 25 weeks during the winter season. Weight gain and survival of fish fed 17% lipid diet were significantly (P<0.05) higher than those fish fed the 10% or 22% lipid diet. Protein efficiency ratio, daily feed intake, condition factor, hepatosomatic index and viscerasomatic index were not affected by dietary lipid level, but feed efficiency of fish fed 10% lipid diet was significantly (P<0.05) lower than those fish fed the 17% or 22% lipid diet. Proximate composition of the whole body, liver, viscera and dorsal muscle were not significantly different among all groups except for crude protein content of dorsal muscle. The contents of 16:0, 18:0, 20:4n-3 and 20:5n-3 of the whole body were significantly (P<0.05) affected by dietary lipid level. The results of this study suggest that an increased dietary lipid level from 10% to 17% can improve growth of juvenile red sea bream in low temperature periods.

Composition of Okara Produced from Soymilk Processing (두유생산공정 중에 발생하는 비지의 성분에 관한 연구)

  • 우은열;이경애;이옥희;김강성
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.14 no.6
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    • pp.562-567
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    • 2001
  • In order to utilize okara protein as a food auditive, nutritional composition of soymilk okara was investigated. Protein in okara Is highly insoluble due to excessive heat treatment during soymilk processing. Protein content of okara was 37.3% as compared to 42.5 % for soybean. Carbohydrate and lipid contents of okara were 40.6% and 17.9%, respectively. Okara lipid extracted with chloroform-methanol consisted of neutral lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid, with neutral lipid making up 98.6% . Linoleic acid, ileic acid, and palmitic acids accounted for about 80% of the total fatty acids with linoleic acid sharing 50.3% of the total. Amino acid composition of okara protein was dissimilar to that of soy Protein : Cysteine was totally absent in okara while lysine, which is the limiting amino acid of soy protein, was present in higher amount in okara on dry weight basis. Both aqueous extract of okara protein and soy Protein were found to have ACE inhibitory activity.

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Effects of Gamibangpungtongseungsan on lipid composition and antioxidant in rat fed high fat (가미방풍통성산(加味防風通聖散)이 고지방식이 급여 흰쥐의 체지질구성과 항산화능에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jang-Cheon
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 2005
  • Objective : Effects of Gamibangpungtongseungsan on lipid composition and antioxidant system were investigated in rat fed high fat diet. Methods : We fed control group rats high fat diet and administered normal saline for 8 weeks, and experimental group rats high fat diet and administered extract of Gamibangpungtongseungsan for 8 weeks. Results : Body weight gain, concentration of plasma triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol showed a tendency to decrease in Gamibangpungtongseungsan groups. However, the concentration of LDL-cholesterol showed a tendency to increase in Gamibangpungtongseungsan groups. Plasma and liver TBARS concentration showed a low values in Gamibangpungtongseungsan groups. Activities of SOD, GSH-Px and CAT showed a tendency to increase in Gamibangpungtongseungsan groups. Conclusions : These results indicate that Gamibangpungtongseungsan has a deep inhibitory effect on lipid composition and antioxidant system.

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Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Broiler (male , female) Breast and Thigh Meat (부로일러육의 지질함량 및 지방산 조성)

  • 문윤희;공양숙;정인철
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.247-251
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    • 1988
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate comparison of total cholesterol, lipid and fatty acid composition of breast and thigh from female and male broiler meats. Total lipid and neutral lipid content of female and male broiler breast meats were lower, but phospholipid and glycolipid contents were highter than thigh meats. Unsaturated fatty acid composition of broiler thigh meats were higher than breast meats on neutral and phospholipid, but breast meat was higher than thigh meat on glycolipid. Glycolipid content in total lipid was lower in female than male broiler meat. Contents of palmitic acid in neutral lipid, palmitic stearic linolenic arachidic and arachidonic acid in phospholipid, palmitic and stearic acid in glycolipid were higher than male broiler meat. The highest content of total cholesterol in defatted tissue was thigh tissue of male and undefatted thigh tissue of female.

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Studies on the Lipid Components of Edible Shellfishes in Korea (한국산 식용패류중의 지방질성분에 관한 연구)

  • 노정미
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 1987
  • This study was designed to elucidate the lipid contents, neutral lipids components and fatty acid composition in fresh shellfishes, produced in Korea. Four kinds of shellfishes including sea mussel, short-necked clam, corb shell and and ark shell were selected according to the higher sales order and cheaper retail price at fish markets in Seoul in July 1985. The results abtained were as follows; 1. The average total lipid contents in four shellfishes were 2.3% by wet weight basis. The ratios of neutrial lipid, glycolipid and phospholipid in the total lipid were 51.1 : 4.9 : 44.0 in sea mussel, 66.0 : 3.2 : 30.8 in ark shell, 37.8 : 2.2 : 60.0 in short-necked clam and 54.5 : 2.0 : 53.5 in corb shell, 2. The average value of acid value, iodine value and unsaponifiables contents of total lipids were 1.3, 217.8, 92.0 and 20.3%, respectively. 3. The composition of the neutral lipids were triglycerides, esterified fatty acids, sterylesters, free sterols and monoglycerides in four shellfishes. 4. The major fatty acid composition of total lipids were palmitic, eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic and palmitoleic acids in four shellfishes. The average total unsaturated fatty acids of total lipid were 64.5%, and $\omega$-3 highly unsaturated fatty acids were 27.0%. The average p/s Ratiio were 1.3.

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Influences of Dietary Lipid Source on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Juvenile Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

  • Seo, Joo-Young;Choi, Jin;Lee, Sang-Min
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2010
  • A study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary lipid sources on the growth and fatty acid composition of juvenile sea cucumber. For 12 weeks, three replicate groups of sea cucumber (average weight 1.4 g) were fed one of three diets, containing squid liver oil (SLO), soybean oil (SO), or linseed oil (LO) as a dietary lipid source, or a control diet (CON) without added lipids. Sea cucumber survival was not significantly different among dietary treatments (P>0.05). The highest weight gain was observed in sea cucumber fed the SLO diet, whereas the weight gain of sea cucumber fed the SO diet was the lowest among dietary treatments (P<0.05). No significant differences were found in the moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, and ash contents of whole sea cucumber body among dietary treatments (P>0.05). Concentrations of 20:5n-3 and 22:6n-3 were significantly higher in sea cucumber fed the SLO diet than in those fed on the other diets. The highest 18:2n-6 and 18:3n-3 contents were observed in sea cucumber fed the SO and LO diets, respectively. The results of this study suggest that squid liver oil could be used as a good lipid source in formulated diets for juvenile sea cucumber.

Effect of Chlorine Treatment on the Lipid Composition of Wheat Flour (염소처리가 밀가루의 지방질 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Myung-Kyu;Shin, Hyo-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.132-136
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    • 1992
  • The effects of chlorine treatment on the lipid composition of wheat flour were studied by treating flour with different amounts (1, 2 and 4 ounces per 100 pounds of flour) of liquidized chlorine gas. The contents of free lipid increased slightly while those of the bound lipid decreased at all levels of chlorine used. The contents of neutral lipid in the free lipid decreased while those in the bound lipid increased as the level of chlorine increased. The contents of triglycerides in the free and bound lipids decreased as the level of chlorine increased. As the level of chlorine increased, digalactosyl diglycerides in the bound lipid decreased, whereas those in the free lipid increased within the range of 1 to 2 oz of chlorine. The phosphatidylcholine content in the free and bound lipids decreased while the lysophosphatidylcholine increased in both free and bound lipids as the level of chlorine increased. The content of saturated fatty acids increased while that of unsaturated ones decreased as the level of chlorine increased.

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Effect of dietary protein and lipid level on growth, feed utilization, and muscle composition in golden mandarin fish Siniperca scherzeri

  • Sankian, Zohreh;Khosravi, Sanaz;Kim, Yi-Oh;Lee, Sang-Min
    • Fisheries and aquatic sciences
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.7.1-7.6
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    • 2017
  • A feeding trial was designed to assess the effects of dietary protein and lipid content on growth, feed utilization efficiency, and muscle proximate composition of juvenile mandarin fish, Siniperca scherzeri. Six experimental diets were formulated with a combination of three protein (35, 45, and 55%) and two dietary lipid levels (7 and 14%). Each diet was fed to triplicate groups of fish ($8.3{\pm}0.1g$) to apparent satiation for 8 weeks. The results showed that growth performance in terms of weight gain (WG) and specific growth rate (SGR) increased with increasing dietary protein level from 35 to 55% at the same dietary lipid level. At the same dietary lipid content, WG and SGR obtained with diets containing 55% protein was significantly higher than those obtained with diets containing 45 and 35% protein. No significant effect on growth rate was found when the dietary level of lipid was increased from 7 to 14%. While the levels of protein and lipid in the diets had no significant effect on feed intake, other nutrient utilization efficiency parameters including daily protein intake (DPI), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) showed a similar trend to that of growth rates, with the highest values obtained with diets containing 55% protein. Muscle chemical composition was not significantly affected by the different dietary treatments for each dietary lipid or protein level tested. These findings may suggest that a practical diet containing 55% protein and 7% lipid provides sufficient nutrient and energy to support the acceptable growth rates and nutrient utilization of mandarin fish juveniles.

Studies on the Lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Ark-Shell, Anadara broughtonii (피조개 지질 및 지방산 조성에 관한 연구)

  • 문숙임
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.436-442
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    • 1992
  • The present study was designed to analyze the lipid and fatty acid compositions of ark shell, Anadara broughtonii. The crude lipid was extracted by Bligh and Dyer's method, and then fractionated by TLC and quantitatively analyzed by TLC scanner. Lipid extracted from ark shell was fractionated into neutral and polar lipid by column chromatography with silicic acid. The fatty acid composition of lipid fractions were determined by gas liquid chromatography. Total lipid content of ark shell was 0.83% base on wet weight. The content of unsaponifiable matter was 20.19%, and iodine value was 156.13. The main components of total lipids were triglyceride, diglyceride, hydrocarbon, and sterol ester. The fatty acid composition of total lipid chiefly consisted of $C_{17 : 0}$, $C_{16 : 0}$, $C_{18 : 1}$ and $CT_{16 : 1}$. The main fatty acids of neutral lipid were $C_{16 : 0}$, $C_{18 : 1}$, $C_{22 : 1}$, $C_{18 : 0}$ and $C_{16 : 1}$. The major fatty acids of polar lipid were $C_{16 : 0}$, $C_{18 : 2}$, $C_{20 : 5}$ and $C_{22 : 6}$. In total lipid fractionation, saturated acid contents were high in all (SA>MA> PA), in neutral lipid fractionation, menoenoic acid contents were high in all (MA > SA> PA), and in polar lipid fractionation, saturated acid con-tents were high in all (SA> PA> MA).

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