• Title, Summary, Keyword: lipophile

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Mechanism of Action of Fatty Alcohol Ethoxylate on Foliar Penetration of Dimethomorph into Cucumber (Fatty Alcohol Ethoxylate에 의해 유도되는 Dimethomorph의 오이 엽면 침투 기작)

  • Yu, Ju-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.127-133
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    • 2008
  • The foliar uptake of dimethomorph into cucumber was assessed by spray application of aqueous dimethomorph solution containing fatty alcohol ethoxylate (FAE) or fatty acid alkyl ester as activator adjuvants. Afterward, the possible mechanism of action of FAE on foliar penetration of active ingredient was suggested by speculating on the effect of lipophile and hydrophile of FAEs. The amount of absorbed dimethomorph induced by polyoxyethylene mono-9-octadecenyl ether (6 moles ethylene oxide, $C_{18=9}E_6$) was linearly related to the concentrations of surfactant as well as dimethomorph in spray solution, suggesting that it is simply a diffusion phenomenon of the solute molecule through a cuticular membrane from leaf surface. Octadecanol attached to FAE was most effective lipophile on the leaf penetration of dimethomorph. And, the more ethylene oxide had the polyoxyethylene chain of FAE up to 20 moles, the higher the uptake rate was. Therefore, the role of lipophile of FAE on dimethomorph penetration to cucumber leaf, probably, is to modify the physico-chemical properties of cuticular membrane to be permeable to dimethomorph, and the polyoxyethylene chain having less than 20 moles ethylene oxide, which is moderately permeable to cuticular membrane by its molar volume, is to let the physically-modified cuticular membrane to be maintained for a longtime.

The Factors Influencing Latent Fingermark Development on Adhesive Side of Iron Oxide Powder-based Small Particle Reagent (사삼산화철 기반의 소립자시약(Small Particle Reagent)의 접착면 잠재지문 현출 효과에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Kim, Sun-Min;Go, Gang-Seok;Lee, Seul-Bi;Yu, Je-Seol
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.16 no.8
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    • pp.209-216
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    • 2016
  • Latent fingerprint left on the adhesive sides of tapes can be easily found at a crime scene. Small Particle Reagents(SPR) based on iron oxide($Fe_3O_4$) is a technique for the detection of a latent fingerprint adhesive surface. In this study, found out that the causes affecting the quality of the fingerprints developed when used SPR based on iron oxide. To a suspension of 0.5g of iron oxide in 100ml of distilled water, 0.5ml or more surfactant were added can be developed latent fingerprints of good quality. In addition, using surfactants HLB(hydrophile-lipophile balance) value of 11~18 showed good contrast to the background and latent fingerprint.

Simultaneous analysis of β-lactam antibiotics and β-blockers by LC-MS/MS (LC-MS/MS를 이용한 베타락탐계 항생제와 베타차단제의 동시분석)

  • Son, Bo-young;Kim, Jun-il;An, Chi-hwa;Lee, Su-won;Kim, Bogsoon;Chung, Deukmo
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 2016
  • An effective analytical method has been developed for the determination of β-blockers(atenolol, metoprolol and propranolol) and 6 β-lactams(amoxicillin, penicillin G, cefaclor, cefadroxil, cephalexin and cephradine) in water samples using two different cartridges. The samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction (SPE) with the usage of polymeric hydrophile-lipophile balance(HLB cartridges) and strong cation-exchange mixed-mode polymeric sorbent (MCX cartridges). A XDB-C18 column(1.8 μm; 3.0 mm × 100 mm) was used for the sufficient chromatographic resolution. The calibration curves showed good linearity with high correlation coefficients (>0.995). The method detection limits (MDL) and the limits of quantification(LOQ) were from 1.1 to 3.9 ng/L and from 5 to 13 ng/L, respectively. The method was applied for the determination of the target compounds in tributaries and raw water of the Han River and these were found at N.D. to 0.209 μg/L.

The Effect of Nonionic Surfactants on the Solubility and Biodegradation of PAHs in Soil Slurry (PAHs의 용해도와 생분해에 미치는 비이온계 계면활성제의 영향)

  • 박종섭;김인수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.174-177
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    • 1998
  • The effects of surfactants affecting polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon(PAHs) solubility and biodegradation in soil slurry were investigated. The critical micelle concentration(CMC) values of surfactants used in this study were 12.7mg/L(Brij 30), 13.4mg/L(Tween 80), 13.6mg/t(Triton X-100). The solubility of PAH increased as the Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance(HLB) value of surfactant decrease. At surfactant biodegradation and toxicity experiement using respirometer, Brij 30 did not show any toxic effect and substrate inhibition upon the level of 1.5g/L. Also, biodegradation of Brij 30 gave no reduction on the phenanthrene biodegradation rate. When the desorption rate of phenanthrene between sand and clay is compared, lower percentage of phenanthrene was desorbed at clay because of the larger surface aera and higher organic content of clay. At the biodegradation experiments of phenanthrene in soil slurry phase, more than 90% of initial phenanthrene adsorbed onto both sand and clay were biodegraded by phenanthrene- acclimated cultures.

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Isolation, Characterization, and Investigation of Surface and Hemolytic Activities of a Lipopeptide Biosurfactant Produced by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633

  • Dehghan-Noudeh Gholamreza;Housaindokht Mohammadreza;Bazzaz Bibi Sedigeh Fazly
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.272-276
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    • 2005
  • Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 was grown in BHIB medium supplemented with $Mn^{2+}$ for 96 h at $37^{\circ}C$ in a shaker incubator. After removing the microbial biomass, a lipopeptide biosurfactant was extracted from the supernatant. Its structure was established by chemical and spectroscopy methods. The structure was confirmed by physical properties, such as Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB), surface activity and erythrocyte hemolytic capacity. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) and erythrocyte hemolytic capacity of the biosurfactant were compared to those of surfactants such as SDS, BC (benzalkonium chloride), TTAB (tetradecyltrimethylammonium bromide) and HTAB (hexadecyltrimethylammonium bromide). The maximum hemolytic effect for all surfactants mentioned was observed at concentrations above cmc. The maximum hemolytic effect of synthetic surfactants was more than that of the biosurfactant produced by B. subtilis ATCC 6633. Therefore, biosurfactant would be considered a suitable surface-active agent due to low toxicity to the membrane.

Comparison of Liquid Chromatography-Mass/Mass Spectrometry (MS) and Gas Chromatography-MS for Quantitative Analysis of Indole-3-acetic acid and Indole-3-butyric acid from the Concentrated Liquid Fertilizer (Liquid Chromatography-Mass/Mass Spectrometry (MS)와 Gas Chromatography-MS를 이용한 농축 액상 비료제품 중 Indole-3-acetic acid 및 Indole-3-butyric acid 정량분석능 비교)

  • Kim, Jin Hyo;Park, Jong Min;Choi, Geun-Hyoung;Park, Yun-Ki;Im, Geon-Jae;Kim, Doo-Ho;Kwon, Oh-Kyung
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.56 no.1
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    • pp.53-57
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    • 2013
  • In here, we investigated the quantitative analysis method of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) with liquid chromatography-mass/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) or gas chromatography-MS. Two ways of clean-up process were investigated for LC-MS/MS instrumental analysis of IAA, but both a simple dilution and hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) solid phase extraction (SPE) were not met the optimal recovery rates for quantitative analysis. On the other hand, the clean-up method for GC-MS was finally optimized through HLB-SPE from 250-folds diluted sample and methylation with trimethylsilyl chloride in methanol for 4 h. The limit of detection for methyl ester of IAA and IBA were both 1.4 mg/L, and recovery rates showed 93-107% from the concentrated liquid fertilizer.

A Study on Combustion And Exhaust Emissions of Diesel Engine -For Gas Oil-Water Emulsified Fuel- (디젤 기관의 연소와 배출물에 관한 연구 -경유-물물의 유화연료 사용시-)

  • 조진호;김형섭;박정률
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.180-188
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    • 1992
  • By means of the compatibility according to solving environmental pollution and energy problem due to the emissions of NOx and smoke from diesel engine this paper experimentally inspected the effect of using emulsified fuel, gas oil-water, for combustion characteristic, that is combustion pressure, pressure rise rate, heat generating rate, the period of ignition delay and specific fuel consumption, and CO, HC, NOx concentration and smoke density. When using emulsified fuel, as a water addition rate was increased, combustion pressure, pressure rise rate and heat generating rate was increased, the period of ignition delay was lengthening, the specific fuel consumption was some what increased in contrast to diesel fuel in low load, but deceased in high load region. And NOx concentration was decreased, CO concentration was increased in low load, but decreased in high load region, HC concentration was increased in contrast to diesel fuel in all region.

Detergency and Liquid Wetting/Retention Properties of Soiled Polyester/Cotton(65/35) Cloth in Nonionic Surfactant Solutions (비이온계 계면활성제 수용액에서 Polyester/Cotton(65/35) 오염포의 습윤특성과 세척성)

  • Kim, Chun-Hee
    • Textile Coloration and Finishing
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.140-145
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    • 2011
  • The effects of nonionic surfactant solutions of 0.1g/dL on detergency and liquid wetting/retention properties of soiled polyester/cotton(65/35) cloth were studied. Soiled polyester/cotton(65/35) cloth (EMPA 104) and 10 different nonionic surfactants (Span 20, Tween 20, 40, 60, 80, 21, 61, 81, 65, 85) were used in the study. The water retention and liquid retention capacity values of soiled cloth were decreased compared with those of unsoiled cloth. The wetting and water retention of soiled cloth improved with addition of surfactants, whereas water retention ratio(W/H) values didnot change markedly. Generally surfactants with low surface tension and high HLB (Hydrophile-lipophile balance) were more effective in improving the wetting/retention properties of soiled cloth. Nonionic surfactants having high ethylene oxide contents of 20 moles; i.e., Tween 20, 40, 60 & 80, showed better detergency than low ethylene oxide contents of 4 moles; i.e., Tween 21, 61 & 81. As HLB values of surfactants and $cos{\theta}$ of the soiled cloth increase, the detergency values of soiled cloth increased.

Effect on Nonionic Surfactant Solutions on Wetting and Absorbancy of Cotton Fabrics (비이온계 계면활성제 수용액이 면직물의 습윤특성에 미치는 영향)

  • 김천희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.25 no.8
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    • pp.1444-1452
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    • 2001
  • Textile materials are frequently in contact with surfactant solutions during their manufacturing or finishing processes as well as cleaning processes in use. Liquid wetting, wicking and absorbency of textile materials, and the liquid properties, surface characteristics and pore geometry of textile materials, and the liquie-solid interactions, In this paper, 10 different nonionic surfactants, including Span 20, Twen 20, 40, 60, 80, 21, 61, 81, 65, 85, were used. The surfactants were characterized by their hydrophile-lipophile-balance (HLB) values, structures, and surface tensions. The 0.1g/dL and 1.0g/dL surfactant solutions, which were both above critical micelle concentration (CMC), were used to see the concentration effects on the wetting and absorbency of cotton fabrics. The wetting behavior and liquid retention properties of hydrophobic cotton fabrics with different nonionic surfactant solutions are reported. The contact angles are greatly decreased and the water retention values are greatly increased by adding most of the surfactants studied into the system. The extents of this effects are influenced by the characteristics of surfactants and its solutions. Hydrophilic surfactants which have low number of carbon atoms or unsaturated hydrophobe structures are more effective in improving the wetting and absorbancy of hydrophobic cotton fabrics. The water retention of hydrophobic cotton fabrics has positive relations with $cos{\theta}$, adhesion tension and work of adhesion. The 1.0g/dL surfactant solutions show similar, but slightly improved wetting and absorbency characteristics of hydrophobic cotton fabrics compared to the 0.1g/dL surfactant solutions.

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Effect of pH, Chemical Composition and Additives on Stability of Soymilk Suspension (pH, 화학적 조성 및 첨가제가 두유(豆乳)의 현탁안정성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Soo;Chung, Seong-Soo;Jo, Jae-Sun
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 1990
  • The effects of pH, protein and fat content, addition of emulsifiers, stabilizer, sugar, salt and calcium salt on the stability of soymilk suspension were investigated by analyzing the cream separated and precipitates of soymilk which is prepared by various conditions. In the alkaline region of pH, soymilk showed a good stability of the suspension and particularly, above pH 10, precipitates were not formed. When 1.5% of palm oil with 0.4% of glycerine monostearate was added to soymilk in the hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB) value of 4 to 7, resulted maximal emulsion stability occured below H LB 6. The stability was decreased with increasing the fat concentration and soy oil showed better emulsion stability than that of palm oil. Among the commercial stabilizers, 0.03% of carrageenan was most effective. The stability was not decreased by addition of sugar up to 3% while it was decreased by addition of sodium salt and calcium salt at low level.

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