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Effect of Modified Live Virus Vaccine aganist Canine Parvovirus Infection (개 파보바이러스 감염에 대한 Modified Live Virus Vaccine의 효과)

  • 한정희;유기일;권혁무;서강문
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.46-55
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    • 1998
  • This study was performed to verify the effect of modified live virus vaccine against canine parvovirus (CPV) infection. Serum hemagglutination inhibition (Hl) test, histopathological and immunohistochemical techniques and polymerase chain reaction were used. The results were as follows: 1. During the experimental terms after vaccination, serum Hl titer was stable. Geometric mean titer (GMT) after the 1st vaccination was 280. After virulent CPV was challenged, GMT was 1,306. 2. After challenge by virulent CPV, the vaccinated group was not shown clinical signs and gross and histopathological findings. 3. After challenge by virulent CPV, the vaccinated group was not detected viral antigens in the small intestine immunohistochemically. 4. After challenge by violent CPV, the vaccinated group was not shown virus shedding in feces. In conclusions the overall results confirmed that modified live virus vaccine was effective on prevention of canine parvovirus infection.

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Studies on the Immunization Against Newcastle Disease III. Investions on the Immunity of Newcatle Disease with Special Reference to Vaccination Program and Route (뉴캣슬병 면역에 대한 검토 III. 예방접종 프로그램과 접종경노를 중심으로 한 뉴캣슬병 면역능 검토)

  • 이학철;정유열
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.77-89
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    • 1981
  • The experimental study was undertaken to confirm the effect of vaccination of birds with Newcastle disease (ND) vaccines on the Market by use of th. various vaccination programs. Sixteen groups of birds varying from 2 to f days of age, which were originated from hyper-immunised hens against ND were immunised by three different ways, a live vaccine only, a killed vaccine only, and the combination of a live and killed vaccine according to the each schedule of employed programs. In the administration of a live vaccine only, birds were immunized by one of following methods, the combination of intranasal and intraocular inoculation, intramuscular inoculation, via drinking water and the double inoculation by spray and drinking water application. Except for the double application, all the birds were vaccinated 2,3 or 4 times with two volumes of the virus dose (drinking water application) instructed by the commercial vaccine laboratory, until 21, 28 or 30 days of age, and all the immunized birds 19, 21 or 28 days postvaccination were challenged intramuscularly with 1.0$m\ell$ of 10,000 MLD per $m\ell$ of a virulent ND virus. In the administration of the combination of a live and killed vaccine, birds were immunized 2 or 3 times intranasally at first until 14 or 28 days of age with the same dose of the above experiment of a live vaccine, and then inoculated intramuscularly 1 or 2 times until 60 days of age with 1.0 $m\ell$ of a killed vaccine. And all immunized birds 11 days postvaccination were challenged with the same procedure of the above experiment. In the administration of a killed vaccine only, birds were immunized 3 times intramuscularly until 28 days of age with varied dose (0.2-0.5 $m\ell$) of a killed vaccine and all immunized birds 33 days postvaccination were challenged with the same procedure of the above experiment. The results obtained are summerised as follows: All birds vaccinated by using the combination of a live and killed vaccine program or a killed vaccin only appeared to be refractory. without any sign of illness, to the challenge exposure with 1.0$m\ell$ of 10,000 MLD per $m\ell$ of a virulent ND virus. On the other hand, the survival rates of birds of live vaccine groups immunized by a number of vaccine program such as Salsbury's day old program, 3-3-3 program, the Institute of Veterinary Reserch program and Multiple inoculation program, were 39.58%, 43.7%, 43.75% and 47.80%, respectively. And the survival rates of birds vaccinated with a live vaccine by 4 different ways of administration, i.e., double inoculation by water and aerosol application, intramuscular injection, intranasal instillation and via 4.inking water were 87.50%, 64.06%, 42.18% and 25.00%, respectively.

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The Japanese Encephalitis Vaccine: Worldwide and Korean Status (일본뇌염백신: 국제적 현황과 우리나라 현황)

  • Hong, Young Jin
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.108-114
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    • 2008
  • Japanese encephalitis is the leading cause of viral encephalitis in Asia, where it accounts for up to 50,000 cases. Approximately 20% of affected patients die, and 30-50% of survivors have significant neurological sequelae. Inactivated mouse-brain derived Japanese encephalitis vaccines has been effectively implemented to control the disease effectively in Korea and several other Asian countries. However, the vaccine is expensive and difficult to produce, requires multiple doses, and has been associated with hypersensitivity reactions and rare adverse neurologicale events. The live-attenuated SA14-14-2 vaccine derived from primary hamster kidney (PHK) cells was developed in China and has been used there since 1988. Outside China, it has been licensed and used in Korea and several other Asian countries. This vaccine is effective and inexpensive. However, the lack of precedence for using a PHK cell substrate in a live-attenuated vaccine is a special issue of concern. The WHO working group has recommended additional safety studies in selected high-risk groups, as well as ongoing post-marketing studies to ensure long-term safety. Recently, a new inactivated vaccine and live-attenuated chimeric vaccine have been developed from vero cells. With this background, this article summarized the current status of Japanese encephalitis vaccination worldwide and in Korea.

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Establishment of a live vaccine strain against fowl typhoid and paratyphoid

  • Cho, Sun-Hee;Ahn, Young-Jin;Kim, Tae-Eun;Kim, Sun-Joong;Huh, Won;Moon, Young-Sik;Lee, Byung-Hyung;Kim, Jae-Hong;Kwon, Hyuk Joon
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2015
  • To develop a live vaccine strain against fowl typhoid and paratyphoid caused by Salmonella serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum (Salmonella Gallinarum) and Salmonella serovar Enteritidis (Salmonella Enteritidis), respectively, several nalidixic acid resistant mutants were selected from lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rough strains of Salmonella Gallinarum that escaped from fatal infection of a LPS-binding lytic bacteriophage. A non-virulent and immunogenic vaccine strain of Salmonella Gallinarum, SR2-N6, was established through in vivo pathogenicity and protection efficacy tests. SR2-N6 was highly protective against Salmonella Gallinarum and Salmonella Enteritidis and safer than Salmonella Gallinarum vaccine strain SG 9R in the condition of protein-energy malnutrition. Thus, SR2-N6 may be a safe and efficacious vaccine strain to prevent both fowl typhoid and paratyphoid.

An animal model using Eimeria live vaccine and to study coccidiosis protozoa pathogenesis

  • Lee, Hyun-A;Hong, Sunhwa;Choe, Ohmok;Kim, Okjin
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.249-252
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    • 2011
  • Cell culture systems for the protozoan Eimeria are not yet available. The present study was conducted to develop an animal model system by inoculating animals with a live Eimeria vaccine. This study was conducted on 3-day-old chickens (n = 20) pretreated with cyclophosphamide. The chickens were divided into 2 groups: the control group (n = 10) and the inoculated group that received the live Eimeria vaccine (n = 10). During the study period, we compared the clinical signs, changes in body weight, and number of oocysts shed in the feces of the control and inoculated group. This study showed that oocyst shedding was significantly higher in the chickens inoculated with live Eimeria oocysts than in the control chickens. Moreover, body weight gain was lesser in the animals in the inoculated group than in the control animals. Fecal oocyst shedding was observed in the inoculated animals. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that live Eimeria vaccination with cyclophosphamide pretreatment may be used to obtain an effective animal model for studying protozoan infections. This animal study model may eliminate the need for a tedious continuous animal inoculation process every 6 months because the live coccidiosis vaccine contains live oocysts.

A comparative study on immunogenicity of the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus live-vaccine and inactivated-vaccine (돼지유행성설사병(PEDV) 생독과 사독백신의 면역형성 비교연구)

  • Kwon, Mee-Soon;Cho, Hyun-Ung;Lee, Eun-Mi;Lee, Ji-Yoog;Seo, Heyng-Seok;Im, Jeong-Cheol;Hur, Boo-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2009
  • Porcine transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) and rotaviruses are considered as the most important causative agents of diarrhea in piglets. The study established 3 method vaccination programs to prevent PEDV. A (LL)group inoculated twice vaccinations on 2-weeks-interval during the late term of pregnant sows with PEDV live vaccine. The B (LKK) group was applied that one time single PEDV live vaccine at the pre-mate followed by the TGEV PEDV combined inactivated vaccine (twice vaccination on 2-weeks interval at the third-trimester). C (KK) group was applied to sow which inoculated twice vaccination on 2-weeks-interval during the late term of pregnant sows with by the TGEV, PEDV combined inactivated vaccine. As the result of SN test on sows in the pig farm before vaccination, antibody titers was showed 9/45 (20.0%). By comparison with the serum neutralizing antibody titers against PEDV of the vaccination programs after PEDV of the vaccination, A group and B group vaccination method was higher than those of C group in sows. In the piglets up to 2 weeks of age, A group was showed antibody titers of 17/22 (81.8%) that showed 2-128, and B group was showed antibody titers of 30/37 (81.1%) that showed 2-512, and C group was showed antibody titers of 14/28 (50.0%) that showed 2-32. On the other hand, PEDV antibody titers were tested for the survey. As the results of SN test, Aujeszky's disease survey in 54 pig farms from november 2005 to august 2006, antibody titers of 47/286 (16.4%) showed above 2. Five breeding farms were antibody titers of 38/77 (49.4%), Wanggung zone farms antibody titers of 59/85 (69.4%). In pigs farms vaccinated the first of twice PEDV live vaccine, and after 6 month, the second of twice TGEV PEDV combined inactivated vaccine (LLKK, 256-1024 titer) method was higher than those of vaccinated twice the early term of pregnant, and twice the late term of pregnant sows of PEDV live vaccine (LLLL, 32 titer).

Perspectives of AIDS Vaccine Development: T Cell-based Vaccine

  • Sung, Young Chul
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2002
  • Estimated number of adults and children newly infected with HIV-1 during 2001 alone is 5 million in total. An effective vaccine, in addition to education & public health approaches, has been believed to be the best option to stop the HIV-1 transmission, especially for developing countries. Among AIDS vaccine candidates, DNA vaccine is relatively safe and, in a certain extent, mimics some attributes of live attenuated vaccine, with regard to in vivo gene expression & the type of immunity induced. We recently demonstrated that DNA vaccines expressing SIVmac239 structural and regulatory genes, augmented with coadministration of IL-12 mutant induced the strongest T cell responses, resulting in low to undetectable setpoint viral loads, stable $CD4^+$ T cell counts, and no evidence of clinical diseases or mortality by day 420 after challenge. This finding is the second demonstration, following the protective result of live attenuated SIV vaccine in SIVmac-rhesus monkey model, which was known to have safety problem. So, our DNA vaccines could give a significant impact on HIV-1 epidemic by slowing or stopping the spread of HIV-1, leading to eventual eradication of HIV-1 and AIDS in the population.

Development of Vaccine Delivery System and Challenges (백신 전달기술 개발 동향과 과제)

  • Jung, Hyung-Il;Kim, Jung-Dong;Kim, Mi-Roo;Dangol, Manita
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.497-506
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    • 2010
  • Vaccine is a protective clinical measure capable of persuading immune system against infectious agents. Vaccine can be categorized as live attenuated and inactivated. Live attenuated vaccines activate immunity similar to natural infection by replicating living organisms whereas inactivated vaccines are either whole cell vaccines, eliciting immune response by killed organisms,or subunit vaccines, stimulating immunity by non-replicating sub cellular parts. The components of vaccine play a critical role in deciding the immune response mediated by the vaccine. The innate immune responds against the antigen component. Adjuvants represent an importantcomponent of vaccine for enhancing the immunogenicity of the antigens. Subunit vaccines with isolated fractions of killed and recombinant antigens are mostly co-administered with adjuvants. The delivery system of the vaccine is another essential component to ensurethat vaccine is delivered to the right target with right dosage form. Furthermore, vaccine delivery system ensures that the desired immune response is achieved by manipulating the optimal interaction of vaccine and adjuvantwith the immune cell. The aforementioned components along with routes of administration of vaccine are the key elements of a successful vaccination procedure. Vaccines can be administered either orally or by parenteral routes. Many groups had made remarkable efforts for the development of new vaccine and delivery system. The emergence of new vaccine delivery system may lead to pursue the immunization goals with better clinical practices.

Expression of recombinant Bordetella pertussis filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) antigen in Live Attenuated Salmonella typhimurium Vaccine Strain (약독화 Salmonella typhimurium 생백신 균주에서 Bordetella pertussis 의 filamentous hemagglutinin(F HA))

  • 강호영
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2001
  • Filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) is considered as an essential immunogenic component for incorporation into acellular vaccines against Bordetella pertussis, the causative agent of whooping cough. Classically, antipertussis vaccination has employed an intramuscular route. An alternative approach to stimulate mucosal and systemic immune responses is oral immunization with recombinant live vaccine carrier strains of Salmonella typhimurium. An attenuated live Salmonella vaccine sgrain($\Delta$cya $\Delta$crp) expressing recombinant FHA(rFHA) was developed. Stable expressionof rFHA was achieved by the use of balanced-lethal vector-host system. which employs an asd deletion in the host chromosome to impose in obligate requirement for diaminopimelic acid. The chromosomal $\Delta$asd mutation was complemented by a plasmid vector possessing the asd$^{+}$ gene. A 3 kb DNA fragment encoding immuno dominant regionof FHA was subcloned in-frame downstream to the ATG translation initiation codon in the multicopy Asd$^{+}$ pYA3341 vector to create pYA3457. Salmonella vaccine harboring pYA3457 expressed approximately 105kDa rFHA protein. The 100% maintenance of [YA3457 in vaccine strain was confirmed by stability examinations. Additionally, a recombinant plasmid pYA3458 was constructed to overpress His(8X)-tagged rFHA in Essherichia coli. His-tagged rFHA was purified from the E. coli strain harboring pYA3458 using Ni$^{2+}$-NTA affinity purification system.>$^{2+}$-NTA affinity purification system.

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