• Title, Summary, Keyword: loperamide

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Effects of the Actindia chinensis on Loperamide-induced Constipation in Rat (제주산 참다래가 Loperamide로 유도된 변비에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Geon;Jin, Young-Geon;Jin, Ju-Youn;Kim, Sang-Cheol;Kim, Seong-Cheol;Han, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Young-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 2011
  • Loperamide-induced constipation reduced gastric emptying, small-intestinal and colonic motility, and these effects were prevented by Actindia chinensis(Gold Kiwi Fruit, GKF). In this study, the effects of Actindia chinensis on constipated male Sprague-Dawley rats induced by loperamide(2 mg/kg, s.c.,5 days) were investigated. Rats were randomly assigned to the normal control rats(regular diet), constipated rats(regular diet plus loperamide), constipated rats treated with 2.5% GKF(regular diet supplemented with 2.5% GKF plus loperamide), constipated rats treated with 5% GKF (regular diet supplemented with 5% GKF plus loperamide). There was less fecal excretion and lower fecal water content in loperamide-treated rats than in control rats. Oral administration of GKF blocked the decrease of fecal excretion and fecal water content in the loperamide-treated rats. Mucus production of crypt cell and mucus contents at fecal and mucosa surface were reduced by loperamide-treated rat. But colonic crypt cell contained increased mucin in the GKF treated group and mucus layer stained with alcian blue was significantly thicker in GKF treated rats compared with in loperamide-treated rats. In isolated rat ileum, loperamide produced inhibition of ileal motility. Pretreatment with methanolic extracts of GKF in isolated rat ileum prevented inhibition by loperamide. These findings indicated that the GKF was effective for alleviation of inhibition of colonic peristalsis by loperamide and that GKF might be of value in the prevention of constipation.

Effects of Dietary Mulberry Leaf on Loperamide-Induced Constipation in Rats (식이뽕잎이 흰쥐의 Loperamide로 유도된 변비에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Jae-Joon;Lee, Yu-Mi;Jung, Seoung-Ki;Kim, Keun-Young;Lee, Myung-Yul
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.280-287
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    • 2008
  • We investigated the effect of dietary mulberry leaf powder (MP) on loperamide-induced constipation in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given MP in their diets at a concentration of 0% 5% and 10% for 33 days. Rats were divided into 4 groups: normal diet group (NOR), normal diet and loperamide treated group (MPL0), 5% MP and loperamide treated group (MPL5), and 10% MP and loperamide treated group (MPL10). Constipation was induced by subcutaneous injection of loperamide (1.5 mg/kg body weight/day) for the final 5 days of the experiment Supplemental MP had no effect on the food efficiency ratio, but it reduced body weight gain and food intake in a concentration dependent manner. Administration of loperamide decreased food intake. MP had a concentration-dependent effect on decreasing total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and on increasing HDL-cholesterol. Loperamide had no significant effect on serum lipid profiles. Loperamide decreased the number and wet weight of fecal pellets and fecal water content MP increased the number and wet weight of fecal pellets and fecal water content in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, MP increased gut transit time and transit speed, and the guts of mts treated with MP plus loperamide were longer than those of mts treated with loperamide alone. These results indicate that MP is an effective treatment for constipation.

Effects of Lentinus edodes Extract on the Loperamide-induced Constipation in Rats (표고버섯 추출액이 loperamide로 유도된 변비에 미치는 영향)

  • Jin, Young-Gun;Kim, Dong-Gun;Jin, Ju-Yeon;Lee, Young-Jae;Park, Min-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.88-93
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    • 2007
  • The preventive effect of Lentinus edodes extract (LE) against constipation was studied in rats. Rats were pretreated with LE contained in drinking water at the concentration of 10%, 20% and 40% over 30 days. Constipation was induced by subcutaneous injection of loperamide (4 mg/kg/day) 3 days prior to sacrifice. Treatment of loperamide resulted in decreases in the number and wet weight of fecal pellets, and increase in the number of fecal pellet in the distal colon and cecocolon weight. In contrast, the number and wet weight of fecal pellets were increased, and the number of fecal pellet in the distal colon and the cecocolon weight were decreased in LE-pretreated groups compared to the loperamide-treated group. Blood parameters such as white blood cell, red blood cell, hemoglobin, hematocrit, platelet, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and serum alanine transaminase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activities, and blood urea nitrogen and creatinine values were not significantly different between the groups. In addition, LE (0.5 mg/mL) increased spontaneous contractile activity, which was reduced by atropine or loperamide in isolated rat ileum. Theses results suggest that the improvement of constipation symptoms in LE-pretreated rats resulted from a stimulatory effect of LE on intestine contractile activity.

Antidiarrheal Effect of LacteolTM-Loperamide Combination on Castor oil-induced Mice Model

  • Hwang, Se-Hee;Sung, Hee-Jin;Chung, Yong-Ho;Ryu, Jei-Man;Seong, Seung-Kyoo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.236-239
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    • 2002
  • The goal of this study was to evaluate the antidiarrheal efficacy of $Lacteol^{TM}$-loperamide combination against the mouse model of secretory diarrhea. Secretory dirrhea was induced in mice by p.o. administration of castor oil (0.3 ml). Antidirrheal effects of $Lacteol^{TM}$-loperamide combination were compared with each individual component. $Lacteol^{TM}$-loperamide combination was the most potent among these agents, eliminating diarrhea in 100% of mice at a dose 1360/4 mg/kg (Lacteol/loperamide, respectively). In this study, we also measured changes of bodyweight as another indicator of the dirrhea, based on the assumption that lower bodyweight loss represented reduced fecal passage. The bodyweight loss of $Lacteol^{TM}$-loperamide combination administered group was 4 times lower than that of vehicle control. These findings indicate that $Lacteol^{TM}$-loperamide combination may be more potent than individual component in its antidiarrheal action, so we are going to challenge this combination for further study and clinical evaluation.

Effect of Yam Yogurt on Colon Mucosal Tissue of Rats with Loperamide-induced Constipation

  • Jeon, Jeong-Ryae;Kim, Joo-Young;Choi, Joon-Hyuk
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.605-609
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    • 2007
  • The effects of lactic acid fermented yam yogurt (Yam/YG) on colon mucosal tissue were investigated in a loperamide-induced constipation rat models. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 6 weeks with 3 types of diets (normal, supplemented with lactic acid bacteria, and supplemented with Yam/YG), and were then administered loperamide intraperitoneally twice daily for 5 days. Administration of loperamide decreased fecal excretion and the moisture content of feces with increasing of numbers of pellets in the colon. On the histopathologic findings from hematoxylin and eosin (H& E) and alcian blue stainings, supplementation with Yam/YG resulted in the recovery of depleted goblet cells and mucin, and increased the numbers of Ki-67 positive cells, indicating restoration of colonic mucosa through cell proliferation and crypt regeneration against damages observed in crypt epithelial cells of loperamide-induced rats. These results indicate that Yam/YG improves evacuation and mucus production in the gastrointestinal tracts of constipated-induced rats.

Effect of Pine Inner Bark (Song-gi) Powder on Relief from Constipation in Loperamide-induced Rats (송기 분말이 Loperamide로 유도된 흰쥐의 변비 완화에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Chang-Hyeon;Jang, Hyun-Wook;Kim, Young;Lee, Young-Eun
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.548-557
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    • 2017
  • This study investigated the effects of insoluble dietary fibers from pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) inner bark powder (PIBP) on loperamide constipation in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered PIBP in their diets at concentrations of 5% and 10% for 4 weeks. Rats were divided in to four groups, normal diet group (Cont), a normal diet and loperamide group (Lop), 5% PIBP experimental diet and loperamide group (Lop+PIBP 5%), and 10% PIBP experimental diet and loperamide group (Lop+PIBP 10%). Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide (2 mg/kg, twice per day) for the last three days of the experiment. Food intake, body weight, properties of feces, gastrointestinal transit time, and serum lipid profiles were measured. When compared with the normal diet and loperamide group (Lop), there were increases in fecal pellet number (p<0.05), wet weight (p<0.001), and water content (p<0.001). Positive results were derived from relevant indicators to improve constipation. In addition, the number of fecal pellets in the colon was not significant, and decreased as PIBP content increased. PIBP had a concentration-dependent effect on reduction of total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, and triglycerides and elevation of HDL-cholesterol. These results indicate that PIBP may effectively prevent constipation.

Effects of Bifidus Enhancer Yogurt on Relief from Loperamide-induced Constipation

  • Choi, Jin-Hee;Jeong, Seung-Hwan;Cho, Young-Hoon;Cho, Yun-Kyung;Choi, Hae-Yeon;Kim, Sun-Im
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.24-30
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    • 2012
  • This study investigated the effects of bifidus enhancer yogurt (BEY) on loperamide-induced constipation in rats. The bifidus enhancer, made of rice-DDGS (Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles), improved proliferation of bifidobacteria (BB-12). Male SD rats were induced with constipation using loperamide and were then used to test the effectiveness of BEY in relieving constipation. The rats were divided into four groups: normal group (NOR), loperamide-treated group (LOP), bifidus enhancer yogurt and loperamide-treated group (L-BEY), and commercial yogurt and loperamide-treated group (L-CY). Treatment of loperamide reduced the wet weight and water content of fecal pellets, but increased the number of fecal pellets in the distal colon. Meanwhile, the fecal weight of the L-BEY group showed an increase of 43% and 23% versus the LOP and L-CY group, respectively. Also, the fecal water content in the L-BEY group was 14.5% and 6.8% higher than that in the LOP and L-CY group, respectively. In addition, the L-BEY group had the fewest fecal pellets in the distal colon. In the serum lipid parameters, the LOP group had a HDL/total cholesterol ratio that was 43% lower than the NOR group, but the L-BEY group had 27% lower than NOR group. These results suggest that bifidus enhancer yogurt has superior effects when it comes to relieving loperamide-induced constipation in rats.

Effects of Medicinal Enzyme Powder on Intestinal Mobility, Lipid Level, and Blood Parameters of Loperamide-Induced Constipation in Rats (약선효소 분말식이가 Loperamide의 투여로 유발된 변비 쥐의 장 운동과 지질 함량 및 혈액학적 성분 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Chan Sung;Park, Kyung Soo;Kim, Mi Lim;Kong, Hyun Joo;Yang, Kyung Mi
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.228-236
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    • 2013
  • This study was aimed at investigating whether dietary therapy using medicinal enzyme powder is effective in reducing constipation caused by loperamide in rats. Nine-week-old male Sprague Dawley were subdivided into 4 groups: normal diet group (C), loperamide treatment and normal diet (CL), medicinal enzyme powder diet (E), and loperamide treatment and medicinal enzyme powder diet (EL). Constipation was induced by subcutaneous injection of loperamide (1.5 mg/kg) 3 days prior to sacrifice. The treatment with loperamide led to an increase in weight gain, a decrease in the number and wet weight of fecal pellets, and a decrease in intestinal motility. The administration of the medicinal enzyme powder significantly reduced weight gain but increased intestinal mobility compared with the loperamide-treated group. The treatment with loperamide in the normal diet group reduced the activities of both suggesting that constipation may be involved in the low level of glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). Additionally, the loperamide treatment in the medicinal enzyme powder diet group increased the level of GOT, but reduced the level of GPT. Loperamide treatment also reduced cholesterol and increased the atherogenic index (AI) and cardiac risk factors (CRFs). Interestingly, the treatment with the medicinal enzyme powder effectively attenuated both the increase in AI and the reduction in high density lipopretein (HDL)-cholesterol, caused by the treatment with loperamide. Although there were no significant differences in the blood protein level, including hemoglobin and hematocrit, between the normal diet group and the loperamide-treated group, the administration of the medicinal enzyme powder to the loperamide-treated group effectively increased the levels of both hemoglobin and hematocrit. Collectively, the results demonstrate that the medicinal enzyme powder can help to combat the negative events caused by constipation.

The Effect of Acupuncture and Electro-acupuncture at ST41 on Experimentally-induced Intestinal Hypo-motility in Rats: Comparison between Pre-treatment and Post-treatment (해계(解谿)(ST41) 유침 및 전침의 전.후처치가 loperamide로 억제된 흰쥐의 장운동에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, KyungMin;Lee, Hyun;Yim, YunKyoung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.33 no.3
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    • pp.20-32
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acupuncture and electro-acupuncture (EA) of low and high frequencies at Haegye (ST41) in rats. Methods: The intestinal motility of rats was experimentally suppressed with loperamide. Acupuncture, low frequency EA and high frequency EA were carried out before the loperamide administration in the pre-treatment group, and after the loperamide administration in the post-treatment group. The rats were fed charcoal and the travel rate of charcoal in the gastrointestinal track was measured to analyze the effect of acupuncture, low frequency EA and high frequency EA on the intestinal hypo-motility. Results: 1. None of acupuncture, low frequency EA or high frequency EA at ST41 showed significant influences on intestinal motility of rats in normal status. 2. Pre-treatment with acupuncture at ST41 showed no significant effect on the intestinal hypo-motility induced by loperamide in rats. 3. Pre-treatment with low frequency EA and high frequency EA at ST41 significantly reduced the suppression of intestinal motility by loperamide in rats. 4. Post-treatment of acupuncture, low frequency EA and high frequency EA at ST41 had no significant influences on the intestinal hypo-motility induced by loperamide in rats. Conclusions: These results suggest that low and high frequency EA at ST41 may be effective to prevent gastric disorders such as intestinal hypo-motility.

Beneficial Effects of Oat (Avena sativa L.) Bran Extract in Loperamide-induced Constipated SD Rats

  • Lee, Sung-Gyu;Jang, Hyun-Joo;Kang, Hyun
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.207-210
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    • 2016
  • The efficacy of extracts of oat (Avena sativa L.) bran in loperamide-induced constipation in SD rats was evaluated. The rats were divided into six groups of five rats each. The animals in Group 1 (control) and Group 2 (constipated control) were administered with distilled water orally. Groups 3, 4 and 5 comprised of constipated rats administered 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body weight per day of extract of oat (Avena sativa L.) bran respectively while Group 6 were constipated rats administered bisacodyl (0.25 mg/kg body weight). Constipation was induced by oral administration of loperamide. The feeding characteristics, body weight, fecal properties were monitored. The results show that oats (Avena sativa L.) bran possesses laxative effects in loperamide-induced constipated rats.