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Effects of Very Low Calorie Diet using Meal Replacements on Weight Reduction and Health in the Obese Adult Women (식사대용식을 이용한 초저열량 식사요법이 성인 비만 여성들의 체중감량과 건강에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim Jiyoung;Kim Sangyeon;Jung Kyung-Ah;Chang Yukyung;Choi Hyeongsuk;Choi Sung;Park Mihyeon;Hong Seonggi1;Hwang Sungjoo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.38 no.9
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    • pp.739-749
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of very low calorie diet (VLCD) using newly meal replacements that contain the wild grass extracts based on Samul-tang ingredients on weight reduction and health in the obese adult women ($BMI{\geq}25\;kg/^2$) for four weeks. Seventy five women participated in this experiment. Subjects were randomly classified three groups: 1) General Diet group (GD group, n=25) consumed 3 regular meals within 600 kcal/day, 2) Meal replacements group (MR group, n=25) consumed 1 regular meal and 2 meal replacements within 600 kcal/day, 3) Herbal Meal replacements group (HMR group, n=25) consumed 1 regular meal and 2 meal replacements within 600 kcal/day. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, biochemical measurements and body symptoms were assessed before (the initial) and after (the 4th week) the study. Anthropometry measurements such as weight, waist and hip circumference, and BMI and body composition such as body fat percent, fat mass significantly decreased in all groups after diet intervention. Anthropometric measurements and body composition of the ]lim group significantly decreased more than those of GD and MR groups. Serum Total cholesterol was significantly decreased in all groups. However, there was no significant difference among three groups during the experimental period. HMR group had significantly less felt a pain than GD and MR groups in body symptoms such as anemia, powerlessness, vomiting, constipation and dryness of skin during the experimental period. Therefore, very low calorie diet (VLCD) using meal replacements that contain the wild grass extracts based on Samul-tang ingredients was very effective on weight reduction and health in the obese adult women.

Effects of Very Low Calorie Diet using Meal Replacements on Psychological Factors and Quality of Life in the Obese Women Aged Twenties (식사대용식을 이용한 초저열량 식사요법이 20대 비만 여성들의 심리적 요인과 삶의 질에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Ji-Young;Kim, Sang-Yeon;Jung, Kyung-A;Chang, Yu-Kyung;Choi, Hyeong-Suk;Choi, Sung;Park, Mi-Hyeon;Hong, Seong-Gil;Hwang, Sung-Joo
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.639-649
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    • 2007
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of very low calorie diet (VLCD) using meal replacements that contain the wild grass extracts based on Samul-tang ingredients on psychological factors and quality of life in the obese women $(BMI{\geq}25kg/m^2)$ for four weeks. Seventy five women $(20{\leq}age<26)$ participated in this experiment. Subjects were randomly classified three groups: 1) General diet group (GD roup, n=27) consumed 3 regular meals within 600 kcal/day 2) Meal replacements group (MR group, n=27) consumed 1 regular meal and 2 meal replacements within 600 kcal/day 3) Herbal Meal replacements group (HMR group, n=27) consumed 1 regular meal and 2 meal replacements within 600 kcal/day. Physical factors (weight, BMI, fat (%)) of the HMR group significantly decreased more than those of GD and MR groups. Moreover, binge eating habit and environmental factors (surrounding support, emotional reaction, expression of opinion) of the HMR group significantly decreased more than those of GD and MR groups. Psychological factor and quality of life were no significant differences among three groups during the experimental period, because both were significantly decreased in all groups after 4 weeks. Therefore, very low calorie diet using meal replacements that contain the wild grass extracts based on Samul-tang ingredients for 4 weeks was effective on improvement of psychological factor and quality of life as well as weight reduction in the obese premenopausal women.

The effect of providing nutritional information about fast-food restaurant menus on parents' meal choices for their children

  • Ahn, Jae-Young;Park, Hae-Ryun;Lee, Kiwon;Kwon, Sooyoun;Kim, Soyeong;Yang, Jihye;Song, Kyung-Hee;Lee, Youngmi
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.667-672
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    • 2015
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To encourage healthier food choices for children in fast-food restaurants, many initiatives have been proposed. This study aimed to examine the effect of disclosing nutritional information on parents' meal choices for their children at fast-food restaurants in South Korea. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An online experimental survey using a menu board was conducted with 242 parents of children aged 2-12 years who dined with them at fast-food restaurants at least once a month. Participants were classified into two groups: the low-calorie group (n = 41) who chose at least one of the lowest calorie meals in each menu category, and the high-calorie group (n = 201) who did not. The attributes including perceived empowerment, use of provided nutritional information, and perceived difficulties were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: The low-calorie group perceived significantly higher empowerment with the nutritional information provided than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.020). Additionally, the low-calorie group was more interested in nutrition labeling (P < 0.001) and considered the nutritional value of menus when selecting restaurants for their children more than did the high-calorie group (P = 0.017). The low-calorie group used the nutritional information provided when choosing meals for their children significantly more than did the high-calorie group (P < 0.001), but the high-calorie group had greater difficulty using the nutritional information provided (P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that improving the empowerment of parents using nutritional information could be a strategy for promoting healthier parental food choices for their children at fast-food restaurants.

A study of the development of physical standard and calorie of the lunches of the middle school boys & girls (중학생(中學生)의 도시락의 열량(熱量)과 체위(體位)의 발달도(發達度)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Geum-Yeong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.9-15
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    • 1977
  • 1. Boys and girls in our country are recommended to take 2,400 calorie a day, but the pupils in this school take no more than $500{\sim}600$ calorie from their lunches. They must take 800 calorie a meal. According to the weight ($40{\sim}43kg$, on the average) the necessary calorie a meal is 700. To raise the calorie, the side dish must be reformed from Gimchi or Ggagdugi to protein and fat food. 2. The average distance to the school is not far, but their bags are too heavy (about 5kg). It prevents them from approving their physical constitution. 3. Except the chest of the girls, the degree of the physical development is inferior to that of Kyongkydo, the Development of Education, or that of Japan. In short, the low degree of the physical development is caused by the low calorie and the heavy bags, as shown in Lee & Yonsei.

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The Effects of Low Calorie Meal and Weight Control Preparation on the Reduction of Body Weight and Visceral Fat in Obese Females (비만여성에서 저열량식사와 체중감량제 섭취에 의한 체중 및 체지방 감소 효과)

  • Park, Sun-Mi;Han, Dae-Seok;Kim, Dong-Woo;Lee, Sun-Yung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.1492-1500
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    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of low calorie meal substitute and weight control preparation containing dietary fibers, ${\alpha}$-amylase inhibitor and hydroxycitrate on the reduction of body weight and visceral fat in obese women. Sixteen pre-menoposal healthy women (age: 20∼50 y, body mass index >25) who were living in the Daejeon area participated in this study. We replaced one meal of the subject with low calorie meal substitute and fed the weight control preparation twice a day for 9 weeks. Anthropometric indices, body composition, dietary intake and stool movements were investigated every 3 weeks during the dietary intervention. The blood was collected before and after the dietary intervention. Results are as follows: 1) The subjects' body weight, body fat, BMI, waist, hip and abdominal adipose tissue decreased gradually and significantly between 3rd and 9th week after intervention. 2) The levels of fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and cholesterol, the indicators of liver dysfunction such as activities of ALT, AST and ALP, and bilirubin level were within a normal range and not affected significantly by dietary intervention. 3) Hemoglobin levels increased significantly and blood urea nitrogen level decreased. 4) Their stool movement was improved 5) Compared with the baseline values, calorie intake decreased by 17.5∼21.9% and the intakes of vitamin A, vitamin B2, folate, Ca, Fe, and Zn were below 80% of Korean RDA. In conclusion, the intake of low calorie meal substitute and weight control preparation could be effective in reduction of body weight and fat mass, improving the stool movement and the general physical symptoms.

The Effects of Very Low Calorie Diet Using Meal Replacements that Contain the Wild Grass Extracts Based on Samul-tang Prescription on Weight Reduction and Health Promotion in the Obese Premenopausal Women (산야초 추출물을 함유한 식사 대용식을 이용한 초저열량 식사요법이 성인 비만 여성들의 체중감량과 건강 개선에 미치는 영향)

  • Chang, Yukyung;Kim, Jiyoung;Kim, Sangyeon;Choi, Hyeongsuk;Choi, Sung;Park, Mihyeon;Hong, Seonggil;Lee, Moo-Young;Hwang, Sungjoo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2005
  • This study was performed to investigate the effects of very low calorie diet (VLCD) using meal replacements that contain the wild grass extracts that are consisted of mainly Samul-tang ingredients on weight reduction and health promotion in the obese women (BMI$\geq$25 kg/$m^2$) for four weeks. Fifty six premenopausal women participated in this experiment. Each subject was either classified as part of the control group (C group, n=28) that consumed 3 regular meals a day or the meal replacement group (MR group, n=28) that consumed 1 regular meal and 2 meal replacements within 600 kcal/day. Anthropometric measurements, body composition, health related factors, and psychological factors were assessed before (the initial) and after (the 4$^{th}$ week) the study. Obesity was significantly decreased after the diet intervention. Anthropometric measurements such as weight, waist and hip circumference, and BMI and body composition such as body fat, and fat mass were significantly decreased in all groups after the diet intervention. Anthropometric measurements and body composition of the MR group were significantly decreased more than those of the C group. Serum total cholesterol was significantly decreased in the MR groups but not in the C group and serum triglyceride concentration was significantly decreased in all groups after the diet intervention. All the biochemical measurements were within normal ranges after the diet intervention. Psychological factors such as stress and depression were significantly decreased in two groups after the diet intervention. Therefore, VLCD using meal replacements is very effective for weight reduction in the obese premenopausal women.

Parents' meal choices for their children at fast food and family restaurants with different menu labeling presentations

  • Lee, Kiwon;Lee, Youngmi
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.243-250
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    • 2018
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: This study examined the effect of nutrition labeling formats on parents' food choices for their children at different restaurant types. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An online survey was conducted with 1,980 parents of children aged 3-12 years. Participants were randomly assigned to fast food or family restaurant scenarios, and one of four menu stimuli conditions: no labeling, low-calorie symbol (symbol), numeric value (numeric), and both low-calorie symbol and numeric value (symbol + numeric). Participants selected menu items for their children. Menu choices and total calories were compared by nutrition labeling formats in each type of the restaurant. RESULTS: Low-calorie item selections were scored and a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was conducted for an interaction effect between restaurant and labeling type. In the fast food restaurant group, parents presented with low-calorie symbols selected the lowest calorie items more often than those not presented with the format. Parents in the symbol + numeric condition selected significantly fewer calories (653 kcal) than those in the no labeling (677 kcal) or numeric conditions (674 kcal) (P = 0.006). In the family restaurant group, no significant difference were observed among different labeling conditions. A significant interaction between restaurant and labeling type on low-calorie selection score (F = 6.03, P < 0.01) suggests that the effect of nutrition labeling format interplays with restaurant type to jointly affect parents' food choices for their children. CONCLUSIONS: The provision of easily interpretable nutritional information format at fast food restaurants may encourage healthier food choices of parents for their children; however, the effects were negligible at family restaurants.

Representative Nutrients Contents and Nutritional Adequacy Evaluation of Single-Dish Meal for Middle School Students (일부 지역 중학생 대상 일품요리의 대표영양가 산출 및 영양적정성 평가)

  • Lee, Gisun;Kim, Youngnam
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.93-101
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: With the increasing number of single households and so-called Honbab-jok, those who eat alone, people tend to enjoy convenient and simple meals, such as single dish meals. This study was performed to provide data on the energy and nutrient content, and nutritional adequacy of single-dish meal. Methods: From the literature reviews, 61 types of single-dish meals were selected, and divided into 4 groups (steamed rice, noodle, porridge, and sandwich burger), and a further 11 sub-groups (bibimbab, fried rice, topped rice, rolled rice/ warm noodle, cold noodle, seasoned noodle, dukgook/ porridge/, and sandwich, burger). In addition, 382 junior high school students from Gyeonggi, Sejong, Jeonbuk, and Chungnam areas were recruited for the survey. The survey questionnaires were composed of the characteristics, preference, and intake frequency of single-dish meals. The representative energy content (arithmetic mean) of single-dish meals were calculated, and compared with the energy contents of preference and intake frequency-weighted values adjusted. The representative nutrient contents, energy contribution ratio, and INQ (index of nutritional quality) of a single-dish meal were calculated for a nutritional adequacy evaluation. Results: The study subjects considered a single-dish meal as tasty, simple and fast to prepare, inexpensive, nutritious, and no low calorie food. The preference scores of all but 1 sub-group of singledish meals were ${\geq}5.00$ (5.00~5.97), and 1 sub-group (porridge) was 4.67 on a 7-point scale. The intake frequency of 11 sub-groups were 0.31~1.71/week, porridge was the lowest at 0.31 and warm noodles was the highest at 1.71. Fried rice, rolled rice, and warm noodle' intake frequency were ${\geq}1/week$. The representative energy of steamed rice, noodle, sandwich burger were 443, 429, and 428 kcal, respectively, and that of porridge was 264 kcal. Less than 5% differences in the representative energy of 4 groups were observed when adjusted for the preference or intake frequency-weighted values. The energy contribution ratio of macro-nutrients calculations showed that porridge was a high carbohydrate and low fat food, whereas sandwich burger were high fat and low carbohydrate foods. The INQ of calcium and vitamin C were less than 1.0 in all 4 food groups, but the INQ of protein and thiamin were > 1.0 in all 4 single-dish food groups. Conclusions: The representative energy in the 4 groups of single-dish meal was 264~450 kcal, which is a rather low calorie meal, and the energy contribution ratio of macro-nutrients were inadequate. The protein and thiamin levels were sufficient but the calcium and vitamin C levels were insufficient in all 4 groups of a single-dish meal judged by the INQ. The additional intake of fruits and milk dairy products between meals with a single-dish meal, supply of calcium and vitamin C may increase, which will result in an improved nutritional balance.

The Study on the Consumers' Perception and Purchasing Behavior of Rice Cake as a Meal (떡 상품의 식사대용을 위한 소비자의 인식도 및 이용 실태 조사)

  • Kim, Chung-Ho;Lee, Ji-Hyun
    • Culinary science and hospitality research
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2007
  • This research was to investigate the consumers' perception and purchase behavior of Korean rice cake as a meal. The rate of consumers who had eaten rice cake as a meal was 64.7% and that of those who had not was 35.3%.. For breakfast, 49.83% of them ate rice cake and for lunch 21.2% of them did. Reasons for eating rice cake for meal were investigated on 'easy to eat(63.21%), 'the others(13.0%)', 'good taste (12.3%)' and 'healthy food(10.8%)'. Reasons for not eating rice cake for meal were researched on 'snack(40.09%), 'difficult storage(21.9%)' and 'expensive(9.7%)'. After purchasing or making rice cake, 45.4% of consumers ate immediately and 30.9% of them ate within $1{\sim}2\;days$. In thawing methods of frozen rice cake as a meal, 51.3% of consumers used a microwave. Kinds of beverage with which rice cake was eaten were water(35.3%), coffee(14.9%), milk(13.8%) and Kimchi(dongchimi, 13.8%). The complementary points for purchase of rice cake as a meal were 'Small package(23.2%)', 'Good preference'(20.5%), 'Healthy food(15.0%)', 'Affordable price(12.7%)' and 'Low calorie(9.5%). Kinds of rice cake as a meal were Injeolmi(16.0%), Backsulgi(15.4%), Yaksik(9.3%) and Galaetteok(9.0%).

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Dietary Patterns of University Female Students in Kongju City : Comparisons among Subgroups Devided by Residence Type (거주형태에 따른 공주지역 여대생의 식생활양상 비교)

  • 김선효
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.7
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    • pp.653-674
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    • 1995
  • This study was aimed at comparing the dietary patterns of university female students according to their residence type. As for subjects, one hundred and twenty students of Kongju national university were chosen as a total. They were devided into three groups ; those who live in family home, or university dormitory, or self-boarding house. In this study, intakes of food and nutrient and dietary behaviors of each group were investigated through two-day food records and questionnaire. The result was that mean daily intakes of calcium and iron were lower than RDAs in all groups. According to residence type, subjects of family home and self-boarding seemed to have more serious problem in the nutrients mentioned above considering the proportions of less than 2/3 of RDAs. Especially, iron status was poorer than any other nutrients in the aspects of this proportion and food source. Iron was taken largely from vegetable foods which were recognized as a source of low bioavailability of iron. The average distribution ratios of breakfast, lunch, dinner and snack to total calorie intake was 22, 29, 30 and 19. Thus, it proved that breakfast tended to be more negligent than any other meals, and that snack was an important means to give nutrients for subjects. This meal pattern might be one of the factor for the decrease of the dietary quality. Processed foods were founded to be an important source for providing nutrients. Percentages of calorie, carbohydrate and fat consumed by processed foods to total nutrients. Percentages of calorie, carbohydrate and fat consumed by processed foods to total nutrients intake were 30.6, 29.5 and 46.2. However, other nutrient intakes from processed foods such as vitamin and mineral were small. And processed foods which give nutrients were mainly cereal products like ra myon, bread, and milk and milk products. Consequently, processed foods seemed to be selected as a combinient substitute food which supply calorie to fill their hunger. According to the living type, dormitory students had them more frequently than any other groups. Food habit score was within the category of poor or fair. Particularly, the score of self-boarding students was the lowest of groups(p<0.05). The major dietary problems were small or overating, missing meal and irregular eating. The degree of these problems was a little different among groups(P<0.01). Nineteen kinds of food were consumed per day, and family home and self-boarding students had foods less variously than dormitory students(P<0.05). Proportions of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner were 20.8, 12.5 and 8.3%. Accordingly, breakfast was missed more often than any other meals. And self-boarding students missed breakfast more often than any other groups. As a conclusion, subjects should take more calcium and iron, and eat diverse foods to improve their nutritional status. And it is also necessary that breakfast should be regarded more importantly, and that processed foods should be taken considering nutritional balance. In view of residence type, subjects of family home or self-boarding had more dietary problems than dormitory subjects. Thus, these results suggest that university female students might have low ability of meal management, and dietary patterns were different by their residence type. Therefore, nutrition education for them should be carried out with respect to dewelling environment.

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