• Title, Summary, Keyword: low sodium

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The Effect of Dietary Sodium on Calcium Metabolism in Healthy Young Adult Women (한국 성인 여자에 있어서, 나트륨 섭취 수준이 체내 칼슘대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김양애
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.246-257
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    • 1987
  • The present study was conducted to examine the effect of an increased level of dietary sodium on calcium excretion in 8 health young adult Korean women on a controlled diet. After adaptation period of 2 days, each subject received 2811.8$\pm$68.1 mgNa(day during the initial period of 5 days (low sodium period) and 6417.1$\pm$248.6mgNa(day during the following period of 5 days (high sodium period). Calcium intake was 593.7$\pm$15.7 mg Ca/day during the low sodium period of 596.1$\pm$25.1 Ca/day duing the high sodium period. When the low sodium period is compared with the high soidum period, the results were as following. 1) Mean urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher during the high sodium period (5760.1$\pm$156.5mg0 than during the low sodium period (2272.2$\pm$108.6mg)(P<0.001). Fecal sodium excretion of the high sodium period was also significantly higher than that of the low sodium period(P<0.001). Mean value of sodium balance during the high sodium period was higher than that of the low sodium period . However, the difference was not significant. 2) Mean urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher during the high sodium period than during the low sodium period ; mean value of the low sodium period was 124.7$\pm$11.3mg and that of the high sodium period was 202.6$\pm$17.2mg)P<0.001). Fecal calcium excretion was higher during the high sodium period (284.9$\pm$31.0mg) than during the low sodium period (253.9$\pm$15.3mg0, but there was no significance. Mean value of calcium balance during the high sodium period was significantly lower than that of the low sodium period(P<0.001). The above results show that high sodium intake increases calcium excretion as well as sodium excretion.

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A Study on The Use of Kimchies in Dodium restricted Diet of Hospital Food Service Operation (병원합식의 염분제한식에 있어서의 김치이용에 관한 연구)

  • 이춘자
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.71-77
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    • 1994
  • Although Korean people like Kimchi very much, Kimchi is generally limited in sodium restricted diet of hospital food service operation. The use of Kimchi in sodium restricted diet can improve appetite and nutritional status of patients. In this study, four kinds of Kimchi(Kwail-Nabakji, susan-Nabakji, suk-Gakduki, Oi-Gakduki) were Prepared and analyzed for their Sodium contents. the preference of Kwail-Nabakji and susan-Nabakji was compared with low sodium Juciy kimchi provided in the hospital in 25 patients who were restricted in sodium intake. The result were as follows: 1. In 2 kinds of low sodium juicy Kimchi that salt not added sodium contents of kwail-Nabakji(fruti-juicy Kimchi) and susan-nabakji(ginseng-Kimchi) were 17.8 mg/100g a 11.0 mg/100g, respectively. 2. The otehr 2 kimchies were prepared by adding dilute salted shrimp broth. suk-Gakd uki(boild radish-Kimchi) and Oi-Gakduki(cumcuber-Kimchi) had 89.8 mg/100g and 111.6 mg/100g sodium, respectively. 3. Na/k ratios of 4 kinds of low sodium kimchi were in the range of 0.34-0.62 which were lower than that of general Kimchies. 4. The patients preferred kwil-nabakji and susan-nabakji to low sodium juicy Kimchi provided in the hospital, and most liked Kwai-Nabakju. Therefore low sodium Kimchies can be recommended in sodium restricted diet because they have lower sodium contents then general Kimchies.

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The Amount of Sodium in the Processed Foods, the Use of Sodium Information on the Nutrition Label and the Acceptance of Sodium Reduced Ramen in the Female College Students (가공식품의 나트륨함량과 일부 여대생의 나트륨 영양표시 이용 및 저염 라면에 대한 수용도)

  • Chang, Soon-Ok
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.585-591
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    • 2006
  • The amount of sodium in the processed foods was evaluated by the information on the nutrition label. One-meal type foods as Ramen, Woodong, Naengmyon provide the most sodium reaching 30 - 70% DV per serving size. In Ramen not much difference was observed for the sodium content by food companies though each company provides various amount of sodium reducing as much as 25% DV. The proportion of female college students who read the nutrition information reached 62% but it remained 32% on the sodium information. They purchase low sodium foods rarely however their intention to buy low sodium foods increased up to 40% in condition that sodium information is given on the food label. Nevertheless 50% of them would not buy low sodium food if the taste is undesirable. Low sodium ramen cooked with 80% soup-base was acceptable by the subjects. Majority of them responded the soup was rather salty indicating the reduction of sodium in ramyeon is possible.

Status of Recognition, Effort, and Satisfaction of Customers on Low-Sodium Diet in Industry Foodservice (산업체 급식 피급식자들의 저나트륨식 인식 및 실천현황과 만족도)

  • Yoon, Sang Jin;Kang, Kun Og
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.168-175
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    • 2017
  • This study surveyed the status of recognition, effort, and satisfaction of customers on a low-sodium diet in industry foodservice. For recognition related to sodium intake, 34.6% answered 'sure' for awareness of WHO's recommended daily sodium intake. Recognition of healthiness of low-sodium diet scored an average of $3.77{\pm}0.8$. The most frequent dietary effort related to low-sodium diet was 'I leave the broth of soup/stew (23.7%)', and the most common reason for not making an effort related to low-sodium diet was 'I often eat out (25.2%)'. Recognition of saltiness of foodservice meals was $2.84{\pm}0.69$, and the saltiest food was 'kimchi (30.4%)', followed by 'side dish (17.9%)', 'soup/stew (16.8%)', and 'sauce (8.3%)'. Satisfaction of low-sodium foodservice meal was $3.04{\pm}0.71$. Reasons for recognition of saltiness of foodservice meal were mostly 'appropriate' or 'prefer less salty (86%)'. In the analysis of satisfaction of low-sodium foodservice meal according to occupation, satisfaction of 'level of saltiness ($F=5.046^{**}$)' scored an average of $3.18{\pm}0.72$, with the highest satisfaction from 'professionals'. Satisfaction of 'dietary behaviors related to sodium ($F=3.534^{**}$)' scored an average of $3.95{\pm}0.59$, with the highest satisfaction from 'government employees (p<0.01)'. These study results show that despite recognition of the healthiness of a low-sodium diet, efforts toward practicing the diet were less than adequate. Further, 25% felt that foodservice meal was a blend, whereas satisfaction of low-sodium diet was only 19%. Therefore, continuous education and advertisements are necessary in order to raise awareness as well as developing more concrete methods during preparation of meals, such as using a salt meter.

Awareness, Practice, and Obstruction of Sodium Reduction by Middle School Dietitians in Busan Area (부산지역 중학교 영양(교)사의 나트륨 저감화에 대한 인식, 실천 및 방해요인 조사)

  • Ha, In-Hae;Lyu, Eun-Soon
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.225-232
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    • 2015
  • The objective of this study was to expand sodium reduction practices by analyzing the awareness, practice, and obstruction of sodium reduction by middle school dietitians. Questionnaires were administered to 146 dietitians in the Busan area. The average score for the dietitians' awareness of low-sodium diets was 4.21/5.00, and dietitians in their 30s and over 40 reported significantly (p<0.05) higher awareness than those in their 20s The average practice scores for low-sodium diets was 3.74/5.00, 3.80/5.00 for cooking, 3.77/5.00 for food choice, and 3.60/5.00 for action. The average scores of obstruction for low-sodium diets was 3.58/5.00, 3.93/5.00 for low-sodium products, 3.88/5.00 for students, 3.71/5.00 for dietitians, 3.12/5.00 for facilities, 2.86/5.00 for cooks. Dietitians over 40 and those with graduate school degrees had significantly (p<0.05) higher scores for low-sodium products. Regarding practice and obstruction for low-sodium diets, dietitians with high awareness scores had significantly (p<0.01) higher scores for practice and lower scores for obstruction of low-sodium diets. These findings suggest that it is critical to develop diverse low-sodium products and recipes, and that dietitians should educate students about the necessity and the practice of reduced sodium diets.

Sodium Reduction Practice and Importance-Performance Analysis of Sodium Reduction Methods in School Foodservice in Daegu (대구지역 학교급식 나트륨 저감화 실태 및 나트륨 저감화 방법에 대한 중요도-수행도 분석)

  • Kim, Su-Hyeon;Shin, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.386-395
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    • 2020
  • Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate sodium reduction practices in school foodservice in Daegu. Methods: The survey included 199 nutrition teachers and dietitians working at elementary, middle and high schools in Daegu. The survey topics included the following: the frequency of salinity measurement, workers in charge of the measurement, average salinity of the soup and stew served, frequency and difficulties of offering low-sodium meals, Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) of sodium reduction methods in school foodservice and the need for political support in encouraging sodium reduction. Results: The mean salinity of the soup and stew was higher in high school foodservice than in elementary and middle school foodservice. Middle and high schools have difficulties in offering low-sodium meals due to concerns of decreasing satisfaction for the meals. The results of the IPA of programs to reduce sodium in school meals showed that most of the items in the cooking and serving stages were in the 2nd quadrant (Keep up the good work), and all purchasing and menu planning stages occupied the 3rd quadrant (Low priority). To reduce sodium in school meals, government support is required in developing low-sodium recipes for school foodservice, encouraging education on sodium reduction for school foodservice officials and developing low-sodium food for institutional foodservice. Conclusions: To encourage sodium reduction in school meals, the priority is to make low-sodium recipes available. Also, it is necessary to develop a program that calculates the sodium content in menus and processed foods through National Education Information System and to establish standards for sodium levels in school foodservice.

Fermentation Characteristics of Low-sodium Kimchi by Kimchi Lactic Acid Bacteria Starters (김치 유산균 Starter를 이용한 저염김치의 발효 특성)

  • Huang, Ying;Lee, Yoona;Lee, Bora;Kim, Mi Young
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.29 no.5
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    • pp.801-807
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    • 2016
  • In Western countries, kimchi, the Korean traditional fermented cabbage, is considered to be a healthy. However, it is one of the main sources of the high sodium content of the Korean diet. In order to decrease the sodium content, we manufactured a low-sodium kimchi (LK, salinity 1.0%) and 4 additional low-sodium kimchi starters in which each of 4 lactic acid bacteria (Lb. sakei 1, Lb. sakei 2, Lb. palntarum and W. koreensis) were added. The LKL1 to LKL4 samples were prepared by adding 4 single LAB starters, each with an inoculum size of $10^6CFU/g$, when the cabbage was mixed with kimchi sauce. The kimchi starters were fermented at $10^{\circ}C$ until reaching 0.5% acidity, and then stored at $-1.5^{\circ}C$ until reaching 0.75% acidity. The pH and acidity of the starter kimchi changed more rapidly in the early phase of fermentation (up to 0.75% acidity) than control low-sodium kimchi. After the acidity of the kimchi starters reached 0.75% it remained constant. As the fermentation progressed, the total aerobic and lactic acid bacteria concentrations in the kimchi starter with added Lb. sakei 1 were the same as in the control low-sodium kimchi. The low-sodium kimchi fermentation of the kimchi starter with added Lb. palntarum progressed differently due to a difference in acid resistance. The kimchi starter with added Lb. sakei 2 had an overall liking score that was slightly higher than that of the control low-sodium kimchi due to a lower off-flavor.

The Shelf-Life Extension of Low-Salted Myungran-jeot. 2. The Effects of Commercial Preservatives on the Shel-Life of Low-Salted myungran-jeot (저염 명란젓의 Shelf-Life 연장 방안 2. 보존제 첨가에 의한 연장 효과)

  • 김상무;이근태
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.456-461
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    • 1997
  • Sodium lactateand sodium citrate, traditional food preservatives, were added to extend the shelf-life of the loow-salted Myungran-jeot, and various chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out with Muungran-jeot, and various chemical and microbiological analyses were carried out with Myungran-jeot femented at 1$0^{\circ}C$. pH was decreased in the beginning stage of fermentation and then increased, whereas the content of lactic acid was increased during fermentation. But, lactic acid production of the low-salted Myungran-jeot with preservative were lower than control. The NH$_2$-N content of the low-salted Myungran-jot with sodium citrate was increased in the beginning of fermentation and then decreased. Sodium citrate inhibited the productions of VBN and TMA during the fermentation of Myungran-jeot, whereas sodium lactate inhibited the productions of VBN and TBA. Sodium lactate inhibited the growths of proteolytic bacteris and fungi. The estimated shelf-lives of the Myungran-jeot with control, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate were about 11, 13, and 13 days, respectively.

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Development of Nutrition Education Program for Consumers to Reduce Sodium Intake Applying the Social Cognitive Theory - Based on Focus Group Interviews - (사회인지론 모델을 적용한 나트륨 섭취 줄이기 소비자 영양교육 프로그램 개발 - 포커스그룹 인터뷰에 기초하여-)

  • Ahn, So-Hyun;Kim, Hye-Kyeong;Kim, Kyung Min;Yoon, Jin-Sook;Kwon, Jong Sook
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.342-360
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    • 2014
  • Objectives: This study aimed to develop nutrition education program for consumers to reduce sodium intake based on social cognitive theory (SCT). Methods: The main factors of SCT related to low sodium diet were investigated by using focus group interview (FGI) with 30 women who participated in consumer organizations. Results: The main target groups for the education program were housewives (H), parents (P), and the office workers (OW), for which we considered their influences on other people and the surroundings. According to the results of FGI, in carrying out low sodium diet, 'positive outcome expectation' were prevention of chronic disease and healthy dietary habit, and 'negative outcome expectation' were low palatability of foods, difficulty in cooking meals, and limited choice of foods. The contents of the program and education materials were individualized by each group to raise self-efficacy and behavioral capability, which reflected the results of the FGI. The program included 'salt intake and health' to raise positive outcome expectation. For improving the ability to practice low-sodium diet, the program contained the contents that focused on 'cooking' and 'food purchasing' for H, on 'purchasing and selection of low-sodium food with the children' for P, and on 'way of selecting restaurant menu' for OW. Also the program included 'way of choosing the low-sodium foods when eating out' with suggestions on sodium content of the dishes and snacks. Further, 'dietary guidelines to reduce sodium intake' was also suggested to help self-regulation. Conclusions: This nutrition education program and education materials could be utilized for the community education and provide the basis for further consumer targeted education program for reducing sodium intake.

Survey on Nutrition Knowledge, Food Behaviors, and Food Frequency of Sodium Intake in Korean University Students (대학생의 나트륨 관련 영양지식과 식행동 및 나트륨 급원식품 섭취빈도 조사)

  • Pak, Hee-Ok;Hong, Myung-Sun;Sohn, Chun-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.12-19
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed for the purpose of establishing proper dietary behaviors and improving sodium intake status by investigating nutrition knowledge, dietary behaviors, and food intake frequency related to sodium in 398 university students living in Gyeonggi-do and Incheon. Female students showed a higher rate of eating out more than five times a week as well as daily snack intake than male students. Female students showed a higher score for sodium-related nutrition knowledge than male students, whereas male students showed higher sodium intake than female students. Subjects who showed a higher frequency of eating out and snack intake also showed a higher salt intake ratio and sodium-related nutrition knowledge. Subjects with higher scores related to sodium-related nutrition knowledge showed a higher low salt intake ratio and incidence of low sodium food intake. From this research, depending on the level of nutrition knowledge related to sodium university students showed differences in dietary behavior related to sodium intake. This result would be helpful to develop lower sodium training materials specific to low sodium food selection tips, reading nutrition labels, and so on.