• Title, Summary, Keyword: low temperature

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Evaluation of Low Temperature Properties in 18Cr Ferritic Stainless Steel Welds (18Cr 페라이트계 스테인리스강의 용접부 저온 특성 평가)

  • Lee, Won-Bae;U, In-Su;Eom, Sang-Ho;Lee, Jong-Bong
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.138-140
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    • 2007
  • This study aimed to evaluate the low temperature properties of the 18Cr ferritic stainless steel weld. Applied welding methods were LB(Laser Beam) and GTA(Gas Tungsten Arc) welding to compare the different low temperature properties of the welds. Low temperature properties were evaluated by the Charpy impact, Erichsen and Expansion test at low temperature. LB weld showed superior low temperature properties in the cases of the Charpy impact test and expansion test at low temperature, while GTA weld showed a superior low temperature property in the case of Erichsen test at low temperature. The different low temperature properties with test methods are still under analysis and may be due to different crack path depending on the microstructure, test speed and stress concentration during test.

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Storage Characteristics of Low Temperature Grain Warehouse using Ambient Cold Air in Winter

  • Ning, Xiao Feng;Li, He;Kang, Tae-Hwan;Han, Chung-Su
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.184-191
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to investigate the storage and quality characteristics of brown rice under the low temperature warehouse conditions using ambient cold air in the winter. Methods: This new technique maintains rough rice warehouse temperature below $15^{\circ}C$ without cooling operation until the end of May. Four hundred tons of rough rice were stored in the low temperature grain warehouse, and were aerated from the top to the bottom using ambient cold air in February. The quality of rough rice was evaluated from February through October. Results: The results were as followings. Moisture contents of rough rice in the low temperature storage had decreased less than the ordinary temperature storage. Cracked rate of brown rice in the ordinary temperature storage and low temperature storage increased by 4~10.8% and 1.6~7.2%, respectively. The germination rate of rough rice under the ordinary and the low temperature warehouse decreased by 15.0~25.0% and 1.7~8.0%, respectively. The acid value of brown rice under the ordinary and the low temperature warehouse increased by 3.67~6.72 KOH mg/100g and 3.08~4.08 KOH mg/100g, respectively. Conclusions: The result indicates that low temperature storage using ambient winter air showed better maintaining germination of rice, less change of physiological activities and cracked kernel, and better maintaining of rice quality, comparing the ordinary temperature storage.

Changes in Water Content Affect the Post-Milling Quality of Paddy Rice Stored at Low Temperature

  • Kim, Young-Keun;Hong, Seong-Gi;Lee, Sun-Ho;Park, Jong-Ryul;Choe, Jung-Seob
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.336-344
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: In this study, the effect of milling on paddy rice stored at low temperature, the changes in grain temperature of bulk storage bags exposed at room temperature, the post-milling water content of paddy rice, the whiteness of rice, and the rate of pest incidence were investigated and data were analyzed. Methods: Changes in temperature inside the bulk storage bags kept at low temperature and grain temperature after exposure to room temperature were measured. Experiments were conducted for identifying the reasons of post-milling quality changes in paddy rice stored at low temperature. Results: It was determined that a short-term increase of water content in paddy rice was directly related to surface condensation, and that rice should be milled at least 72 h after removal from low-temperature storage, in order to completely eliminate surface condensation of paddy rice kept in bulk storage bags. It was observed that post-milling quality of rice changed, but water content was maintained at high levels for more than 18 d in rice that was milled when condensation occurred, regardless of paper or vinyl packaging. Rice whiteness rapidly decreased in rice that was milled when condensation occurred, regardless of packaging, while rice that was milled 72 h or more after removal from low temperature storage did not show any significant changes in whiteness. No pest incidence was observed up to 12 d after removal from low temperature storage, regardless of packaging. Starting at 18 d, after removal from low temperature storage, rice that was milled when condensation occurred, was affected by pests, while 24 d after removal from low temperature storage, all portions of rice were affected by pests. Conclusions: Our results suggest that changes in post-milling quality of rice could be significantly reduced by exposing paddy rice to room temperature for at least 72 h before milling, in order to allow the increase of grain temperature and prevent surface condensation.

A CMOS-based Temperature Sensor with Subthreshold Operation for Low-voltage and Low-power On-chip Thermal Monitoring

  • Na, Jun-Seok;Shin, Woosul;Kwak, Bong-Choon;Hong, Seong-Kwan;Kwon, Oh-Kyong
    • JSTS:Journal of Semiconductor Technology and Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2017
  • A CMOS-based temperature sensor is proposed for low-voltage and low-power on-chip thermal monitoring applications. The proposed temperature sensor converts a proportional to absolute temperature (PTAT) current to a PTAT frequency using an integrator and hysteresis comparator. In addition, it operates in the subthreshold region, allowing reduced power consumption. The proposed temperature sensor was fabricated in a standard 90 nm CMOS technology. Measurement results of the proposed temperature sensor show a temperature error of between -0.81 and $+0.94^{\circ}C$ in the temperature range of 0 to $70^{\circ}C$ after one-point calibration at $30^{\circ}C$, with a temperature coefficient of $218Hz/^{\circ}C$. Moreover, the measured energy of the proposed temperature sensor is 36 pJ per conversion, the lowest compared to prior works.

Fatigue Crack Propagation Characteristics in SA 516-70 Steel for Pressure Vessels at Low Temperature (SA 516-70 압력용기용강의 저온피로 크랙전파 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Park, K.D.;Cha, S.S.
    • Journal of the Korea Society For Power System Engineering
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.51-56
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    • 1999
  • Fatigue crack propagation rates and characteristics of the SA516-70 steel which is used for the low temperature pressure vessels, were studied in the room temperature of $10^{\circ}C$ and low temperature ranges of $-10^{\circ}C,\;-30^{\circ}C,\;-50^{\circ}C,\;and\;-70^{\circ}C$ with stress ratio of R=0.05. The obtained experimental results are as follows; 1) In the logarithmic relationship between the fatigue crack propagation rate(da/dN) and stress intensity factor K, the linear relationship was obtained up to da/dN > $8{\times}10^3$ mm/cycle in the same of room temperature, but in low temperature case, the relationship was extended to the range of low crack propagation rate. 2) The lower limit stress intensity factor of SA516-70 ${\Delta}K_{th}\;was\;23MPa\sqrt{m}$ and in the case of low temperature $-50^{\circ}C\;and\;-70^{\circ}C$, the crack propagation rate da/dN which showed a linear relation, reached rapidly to the ${\Delta}K_{th}$. As the results, the crack propagation rates of $-50^{\circ}C\;and\;-70^{\circ}C$ were lower than that of room temperature and according to the testing temperature the rates were decreased rapidly to the ${\Delta}K_{th}$. 3) On the relationship between the stress intensity factor ${\Delta}K$ and the track propagation cycle, the stress intensity factors of low cycle region was rapidly increased at low temperature, but ${\Delta}K$ was increased rapidly at room temperature of high cycle. 4) On the relationship between the fatigue crack propagation rate and cycle, the fatigue crack propagation rate showed higher gradient in the room temperature than the low temperature due to the increment in ductility at low temperature.

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Seasonal Variation of the Soya Warm Current Observed by HF Ocean Radars

  • Ebuchi Naoto;Fukamachi Yasushi;Ohshima Kay I;Shirasawa Kunio;Ishikawa Masao;Takatsuka Tom;Dailbo Takaharu;Wakatsuchi Masaaki
    • Proceedings of the KSRS Conference
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    • pp.184-187
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    • 2004
  • Three HF ocean radar stations were installed at the Soya Strait in the Sea of Okhotsk in order to monitor the Soya Warm Current. Frequency of the HF radar is 13.9 MHz, and range and azimuth resolutions are 3 km and 5 deg., respectively. Surface current velocity observed by the radars shows good agreement with drifting buoy and shipboard ADCP observations. The velocity of Soya Warm Current reaches its maximum, which is about 1 m/s, in summer, and becomes weak in winter. The surface transport across the strait shows a significant correlation with the sea level difference along the strait.

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Climate Change and Health - A Systemic Review of Low and High Temperature Effects on Mortality (기후변화와 건강 - 저온과 고온이 사망에 미치는 영향에 관한 체계적 고찰)

  • Lim, Youn-Hee;Kim, Ho
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.397-405
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    • 2011
  • Objectives: The impact of climate change on the health has been of increasing concern due to a recent temperature increase and weather abnormality, and the research results of the impact varied depending on regions. We synthesized risk estimates of the overall health effects of low and high temperature taking account of the heterogeneity. Methods: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PUBMED to identify journal articles of low and/or high temperature effects on mortality. The search was limited to the English language and epidemiological studies using time-series analysis and/or case-crossover design. Random-effect models in meta analysis were used to estimate the percent increase in mortality with $1^{\circ}C$ temperature decrease or increase with 95% confidence intervals (CI) in cold or hot days. Results: Twenty three studies were presented in two tables: 1) low temperature effects; 2) high temperature effects on mortality. The combined effects of low and high temperatures on total mortality were 2% (95% CI, 1-4%) per $1^{\circ}C$ decrease and 4% (95% CI, 2-5%) per $1^{\circ}C$ increase of temperature, respectively. Conclusions: This meta analysis found that both low and high temperatures affected mortality, and the magnitude of high temperature appeared to be stronger than that of low temperature.

Phenotyping of Low-Temperature Stressed Pepper Seedlings Using Infrared Thermography

  • Park, Eunsoo;Hong, Suk-Ju;Lee, Ah-Yeong;Park, Jongmin;Cho, Byoung-Kwan;Kim, Ghiseok
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.163-169
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    • 2017
  • Purpose: This study was performed to evaluate the feasibility of using an infrared thermography technique for phenotype analysis of pepper seedlings exposed to a low-temperature environment. Methods: We employed an active thermography technique to evaluate the thermal response of pepper seedlings exposed to low-temperature stress. The temperatures of pepper leaves grown in low-temperature conditions ($5^{\circ}C$, relative humidity [RH] 50%) for four periods (6, 12, 24, and 48 h) were measured in the experimental setting ($23^{\circ}C$, RH 70%) as soon as pepper seedling samples were taken out from the low-temperature environment. We also assessed the visible images of pepper seedling samples that were exposed to low-temperature stress to estimate appearance changes. Results: The greatest appearance change was observed for the low-temperature stressed pepper seedlings that were exposed for 12 h, and the temperature from these pepper seedling leaves was the highest among all samples. In addition, the thermal image of low-temperature stressed pepper seedlings for 6 h exhibited the lowest temperature. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the leaf withering owing to the water deficiency that occurred under low-temperature conditions could induce an increase in temperature in plant leaves using the infrared thermography technique. These results suggested that the time-resolved and averaged thermal signals or temperatures of plants could be significantly associated with the physiological or biochemical characteristics of plants exposed to low-temperature stress.

Low Temperature Flip Chip Bonding Process

  • Kim, Young-Ho
    • Proceedings of the International Microelectronics And Packaging Society Conference
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    • pp.253-257
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    • 2003
  • The low temperature flip chip technique is applied to the package of the temperature-sensitive devices for LCD systems and image sensors since the high temperature process degrades the polymer materials in their devices. We will introduce the various low temperature flip chip bonding techniques; a conventional flip chip technique using eutectic Bi-Sn (mp: $138^{\circ}C$) or eutectic In-Ag (mp: $141^{\circ}C$) solders, a direct bump-to-bump bonding technique using solder bumps, and a low temperature bonding technique using low temperature solder pads.

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On Cutting Characteristics Change of Low Temperature Cooling Tool -Cutting Characteristics of Cage Motor Rotor- (저온냉각공구의 절삭특성 변화 -모타 회전자의절삭특성-)

  • 김순채
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers Conference
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 1995
  • The cutting process of cage motor rotor require high precision and good roughness, the surface roughness fo cutting face is very important factor with effect on the magnetic flux density of cage motor rotor. The paper describes a cause of decrease in the cutting force and roughness on low temperature cooling tool by means of analysis on the mechanism of force system at cutting condition and experimental findings. The main results as compared with the room temperature cutting are as follow : 1) The cutting resistance decreased due to low temperature cooling tool. 2) The surface roughness decreased due to low temperature cooling tool. 3) The low temperature cooling tool effected machinability of the cutting direction in machined surface. 4) The low temperature cooling decreased burr of corner in feed direction.

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