• Title, Summary, Keyword: low-carbon steel

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Surface Properties of Chromium Nitrided Carbon Steel as Separator for PEMFC (크롬질화처리한 저탄소강의 고분자 전해질 연료전지 분리판으로서의 표면특성)

  • Choi, Chang-Yong;Kang, Nam-Hyun;Nam, Dae-Geun
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.173-178
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    • 2011
  • Separator of stack in polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is high cost and heavy. If we make it low cost and lighter, it will have a great ripple. In this study, low carbon steel is used as base metal of separator because the cost of low carbon steel is very cheaper commercial metal material than stainless steels, which is widely used as separator. Low carbon steel has not a good corrosion resistance. In order to improve the corrosion resistance and electrolytic conductivity, low carbon steel needs to be surface treated. We made Chromium electroplated layer of $5{\mu}m$, $10{\mu}m$ thickness on the surface of low carbon steel and it was nitrided for 2 hours at $1000^{\circ}C$ in a furnace with 100 torr nitrogen gas pressure. Cross-sectional and surface microstructures of surface treated low carbon steel are investigated using SEM. And crystal structures are investigated by XRD. Interfacial contact resistance and corrosion tests were considered to simulate the internal operating conditions of PEMFC stack. The corrosion test was performed in 0.1 N $H_2SO_4$ + 2 ppm $F^-$ solution at $80^{\circ}C$. Throughout this research, we try to know that low carbon steel can be replaced stainless steel in separator of PEMFC.

The electrical and corrosion properties of polyphenylene sulfide/carbon composite coated stainless steel bipolar plate for PEM fuel cell

  • Lee, Yang-Bok;Kim, Kyung-Min;Park, Yu-Chun;Hwang, Eun-Ji;Lim, Dae-Soon
    • 한국신재생에너지학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.89.2-89.2
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    • 2011
  • Stainless steel bipolar plates have many advantage such as high electrical conductivity and mechanical strength and low fabrication cost. However, they need a passivation layer due to low corrosion resistance under PEM fuel cell operation condition. In this study, polyphenyene sulfide(PPS)/carbon composite coated stainless steel bipolar plates were fabricated by compression molding method after PPS/carbon composite sprayed on the stainless steel plate. PPS and carbon were chosen as the binder and conductive filler of passivation layer, respectively. The interfacial contact resistance and corrosion resistance of PPS/carbon composite coated stainless steel bipolar plates were investigated and compared to the stainless steel. The PPS/carbon composite coated stainless steel compared to stainless steel was improved interfacial contact resistance. The results of the potentiodynamic and potentiostatic measurements also showed that the PPS/carbon composite coated stainless steel did not corroded under PEM fuel cell operating conditions.

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Study on the Cold Formability of Drawn Non-heat Treated Steels (신선 가공된 열처리 생략강의 냉간 성형성에 대한 연구)

  • 박경수;박용규;이덕락;이종수
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.307-310
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    • 2003
  • Non-heat treated steels are attractive in the steel-wire industry since the spheroidization and quenching-tempering treatment are not involved during the processing. In this study, three different steels such as dual phase steel, low-Si steel, and ultra low carbon bainitic steel were used to investigate their deformation resistance and forming limit. Deformation resistance was estimated by calculating the deformation energy and the forming limit was evaluated by measuring the critical strain revealing crack initiation at the notch tip of the specimens. The results showed that deformation resistance was the lowest in the low-Si steel, and the forming limit strain was the highest in the ultra low carbon bainitic steel.

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Effect of Coiling Temperature on the Annealed Texture in Cu/Nb Added Ultra Low Carbon Steels

  • Jiang, Yinghua;Park, Young-Koo;Lee, Oh-Yeon
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.65-68
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    • 2008
  • The present work was performed to investigate the effect of coiling temperature on the annealed texture in Cu/Nb-added ultra-low-carbon steels. The ultra-low-carbon steels were coiled at 650 and $720^{\circ}C$, respectively. The result showed that the Cu-added ultra-low-carbon steel at a low coiling temperature produced a desirable annealed texture related to good formability. On the other hand, Nb-added ultra-low-carbon steel at a high coiling temperature also produced a desirable texture. This is attributed to the effect of Nb, which retards recrystallization during the coiling process.

Study on the Cold Formability of Drawn Non-heat Treated Steels (신선 가공된 열처리 생략강의 냉간 성형성에 대한 연구)

  • 박경수;박용규;이덕락;이종수
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.364-369
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    • 2003
  • Non-heat treated steels are attractive in the steel-wire industry since the spheroidization and quenching-tempering treatment are not involved during the processing. However, non-heat treated steels should satisfy high strength and good formability without performing heat treatment. Therefore, it is important to investigate optimum materials showing a good combination of strength and formability after the drawing process. In this study, three different steels such as dual phase steel, low-Si steel, and ultra low carbon bainitic steel were used to study their mechanical properties and the cold formability. The cold formability of three steels was investigated by estimating the deformation resistance and the forming limit. The deformation resistance was estimated by calculating the deformation energy, and the forming limit was evaluated by measuring the critical strain revealing crack initiation at the notch tip of the specimens. The results showed that deformation resistance was the lowest in the low-Si steel, and the forming limit strains of ultra low carbon bainitic steel and low-Si steel were higher than that of commercial SWRCH45F steel.

Effects of Corrosion Resistance Characteristics of Opponent Materials in relative Motion on Sliding Wear Behavior of Mild Carbon Steel (상대재 내식성이 철강재료의 미끄럼마모 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Han-Young
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 2019
  • This study investigates the effects of corrosion resistance characteristics of opponent materials in relative motion on the sliding wear behavior of mild carbon steel. Pin specimens made of mild carbon steel are tested at several sliding speeds against mating discs made of two types of alloyed steels, such as type D2 tool steel (STD11) and type 420 stainless steel (STS420J2), with different corrosion resistance characteristics in a pin-on-disc type sliding wear test machine. The results clearly show that the sliding wear behavior of mild carbon steel is influenced by the corrosion resistance characteristics of the mating disc materials at low sliding speeds. However, the sliding wear behavior at high sliding speeds is irrelevant to the characteristics because of the rising temperature. During the steady state wear period, the sliding wear rate of mild carbon steel against the type 420 stainless steel at a sliding speed of 0.5 m/s increases considerably unlike against the type D2 tool steel. This may be because the better corrosion resistance characteristics achieve a worse tribochemical reactivity. However, during the running-in wear period at low sliding speeds, the wear behavior of mild carbon steel is influenced by the microstructure after heat treatment of the mating disc materials rather than by their corrosion resistance characteristics.

The effect of carbon content on hot cracking of low carbon steel weld (저탄소성 용접금속의 응고균열에 미치는 탄소함량의 영향)

  • ;;Masumoto, I.
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.16-26
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    • 1988
  • The effect of carbon content on hot cracking of welded carbon steel was investigated Eight steel plates whose carbon content range from 0.02 to 0.23 percent were welded by autogeous gas tungsten are process. Constant strain was applied to the hot crack test specimen under the strain rate of 0.15 mm per second during welding. The hot cracking susceptibility ws high in the rnage of 0.02-0.05 and 0.12-0.23 percent carbon contents. The critical carbon content immune to hot cracking is in the range from 0.07 to 0.12 percent carbon. By electron probe microanalyser, amanganese segregation was not seen significantly in the whole carbon range. But segregation of silicon was higher in the region of low carbon contents. However, sulphur was segregated remarkably in the region betwen 0.18 and 0.23 percent carbon by peritectic reaction. Very smal lamount of dnedritic structure was observed in the region from 0.02 to 0.05 percent carbon by peritectic reaction. Very small amount of dendritic structure was observed in the region from 0.02 to 0.05 percent carbon but the predominant solidification structure was smooth by cellular growth. The higher the carbon content is, the more the columnar dendritic structure was observed.

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Effect of Initial Texture on the Development of Goss Orientation of Asymmetrically Rolled Steel Sheets (비대칭 압연한 강판의 GOSS 방위 발달에 미치는 초기 집합조직의 영향)

  • Lee, C.W.;Jeong, H.T.;Lee, D.N.;Kim, I.
    • Transactions of Materials Processing
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2020
  • The Goss texture component of {110}<001> is well known as one of the best texture components to improve the magnetic properties of electrical steel sheets. The small amount of the Goss texture component is obtained at the surface of the steel sheet by shear deformation due to friction between the steel sheet and the roll during conventional symmetric rolling. This study aims to identify a method to obtain high intensity of the Goss texture component not only at the surface but in the whole layer of the steel sheet by shear deformation of asymmetric rolling. Low carbon steel sheets, which have different initial texture, were asymmetrically rolled by about 50%, 70%, and 80%. The pole figures of the top, center, and bottom layers of the initial and asymmetrically rolled low carbon steel sheets were measured by an X-ray diffractometer. Based on the measured pole figures of these samples, the intensities of the main texture components were analyzed for the initial and asymmetrically rolled low carbon steel sheets. As a result, the initial low carbon steel sheet with the γ-fiber component showed a higher intensity of the Goss texture component in the whole layer than the steel sheet with other texture components after asymmetric rolling.

Effects of Manganese and Carbon on the HAZ Microstructural Evolution in Titanium Oxide Steel (티타늄 산화물강 열영향부 조직변태에 미치는 망간 및 탄소의 영향)

  • 방국수
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.78-84
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    • 2004
  • Effects of manganese and carbon on the HAZ microstructural evolution in 500㎫ grade titanium oxide steels were investigated. Microstructural evolution primarily depends on supercooling. When cooled at 3$^{\circ}C$/s in 0.15%C-1.5%Mn steel, grain boundary and Widmanst tten ferrite formed at 640 and 62$0^{\circ}C$, respectively, followed by competitive formation of acicular ferrite and upper bainite inside of grain at 58$0^{\circ}C$. With an increase of manganese, degree of supercooling increased while critical cooling rate for the formation of gain boundary ferrite decreased. Consequently, the amount of acicular ferrite in HAZ was decreased in 2.0%Mn after initial increase in 1.0 and 1.5%Mn. Therefore, optimum supercooling should be maintained to accelerate acicular ferrite formation in titanium oxide steels. Low carbon steel, 0.11%C-1.5%Mn, showed larger amount of acicular ferrite than higher carbon steel because of effectiveness of diffusionless transformation in low carbon steel.

DEPENDENCY OF SINGLE-PHASE FAC OF CARBON AND LOW-ALLOY STEELS FOR NPP SYSTEM PIPING ON PH, ORIFICE DISTANCE AND MATERIAL

  • Moon, Jeong-Ho;Chung, Hung-Ho;Sung, Ki-Woung;Kim, Uh-Chul;Rho, Jae-Seong
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.375-384
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    • 2005
  • To investigate the flow-accelerated corrosion (FAC) dependency of carbon steel (A106 Gr. B) and low-alloy steels (1Cr-1/2Mo, 21/4Cr-1Mo) on pH, orifice distance, and material, experiments were carried out. These experiments were performed using a flow velocity of 4 m/sec (partly 9 m/sec) at pH $8.0\~10.0$ in an oxygen-free aqueous solution re-circulated in an Erosion-Corrosion Test Loop at $130^{\circ}\;{\ldots}$ for 500 hours. The weight loss of the carbon steel specimens appeared to be positively dependent on the flow velocity. That of the carbon and low-alloy steel specimens also showed to be distinguishably dependent on the pH. At pH levels of $8.0\~9.5$ it decreased, but increased from 9.5 to 10.0. Utility water chemistry personnel should carefully consider this kind of pH dependency to control the water system pH to mitigate FAC of the piping system material. The weight loss of the specimens located further from the orifice in the distance range of $6.8\~27.2$ mm was shown to be greater, except for 21/4Cr-1Mo, which showed no orifice distance dependency. Low alloy steel specimens exhibited a factor of two times better resistance to FAC than that of the carbon steel. Based on this kind of FAC dependency of the carbon and low-alloy steels on the orifice distance and material, we conclude that it is necessary to alternate the composition of the secondary piping system material of NPPs, using low-alloy steels, such as 21/4Cr-1Mo, particularly when the system piping has to be replaced.