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Strategy for Bio-Diversity and Genetic Conservation of Forest Resources in Korea (생물종(生物種) 다양성(多樣性) 및 삼림유전자원(森林遺傳資源) 보존(保存) 전략(戰略))

  • Park, Young Goo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.83 no.2
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    • pp.191-204
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    • 1994
  • Due to its topographic complexities and various climatical condition, Korea exhibits diverse forest types. Dominant tree species in this zone are Quercus spp., Betula spp., Zelkova spp., Fraxinus spp., Pinus densiflora, Pinus koraiensis, and Pinus thunbergii ete. Genetic conservation in forest species in Korea there are three ways ; one is in situ, other is ex situ and third is in-facility conservation. In situ conservation include that are the present status of conservation of rare and endangered flora and ecosystem, the reserved forest, the national and provincial park, and the gene pool of natural forests. Ex situ conservation means to be established the new forest from in situ forest stands, progeny and provenance test populations, seed orchard and clone banks, and gene conservation in-facility. As a tool for low temperature storage, several aspects on in vitro system were studied ; (1) establishment of in vitro cultures from juvenile and/or rejuvenated tissues, (2) induction of multiple shoots from the individual micropropagules, (3) elongation of the proliferated shoots. Studies on cold storage for short-and long-term maintenance of in vitro cultures under $4^{\circ}C$ in the refrigerator were conducted. For the cryopreservation at $-196^{\circ}C$, various factors affecting survivability of the plant materials are being examined. The necessity of gene conservation of forest trees is enlarged not only to increase the adaptability for various environments but also to gain the breeding materials in the future. For effective gene conservation of forest trees, I would like to suggest followings ; 1. Forest stands reserved for other than the gene conservation purposes such as national parks should be investigated by botanical and gene-ecological studies for selecting bio-diversity and gene conservation stands. 2. Reserved forest for gene pool should be extented both economically important tree spp. and non-economical species. 3. Reserved forest for progeny test and clone bank should be systematically investigated for the use of Ex situ forest gene conservation. 4. We have to find out a new methodology of genetic analysis determining the proper and effective size of subpopulation for in situ gene conservation. 5. We should develop a new tree breeding systems for successful gene conservation and utilization of the genetic resources. 6. New method of in-facility gene conservation using advanced genetic engineering should be developed to save time and economic resources. 7. For the conservation of species with short-life span of seed or shortage of knowledge of seed physiology, tissue culture techniques will be played a great role for gene conservation of those species. 8. It is are very useful conservation not only of genes but of genotypes which were selected already by breeding program. 9. Institutional and administrative arrangements including legistlation must be necessarily taken for gene conservation of forest trees. 10. It is national problems for conservation of forest resources which have been rapidly destroyed because of degenerating environmental condition and of inexperienced management system of bio-diversity and gene conservation. 11. In order to international cooperation for exchanging data of bio-diversity and gene conservation, we should connect to international net works as soon as possible.

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A Survey on the Health, Food Perceptions, and Food Habits of Urban Elderly Men -With Special Reference to Elderly Men in the Tap-gol Park- (도시 남자노인의 건강과 식품에 대한 인식 및 식습관 조사 -탑골공원 노인을 대상으로-)

  • Chung, Mi-Sook;Kang, Keum-Jee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.455-463
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    • 1996
  • A survey was conducted to investigate the perceptions of health and foods, and the food habits among the elderly men who came to the Tap-Gol park on a daily basis. A total of 253 subjects were selected for this study. The data was analyzed through the $X^2-test$, Duncan's multiple range test and Pearson Correlation by the use of SAS program. The results were as follows. The majority of the subjects were in their 70's. 56.1% of them lived with their sons' families, 9.1% lived alone, and 27.3% lived with a spouse. 32% of the subjects were living with the expense less than 50,000 won per month. Although some were suffering from such diseases as arthritis, indigestion, and hypertension etc., the subjects were generally in good health. Their dependance on dietary supplements were insignificant. Most of the subject had a common-sensible notion as to health. They put emphasis on the three factors for the maintenance of good health: a balanced diet, a peace of mind and exercising. With regard to the food habits, the majority were fair in general. The subject living with family had more regular meals than the single people did. 41.5% of the subjects responded that they had irregular meals, mainly for lunch due to a poor appetite or a financial problem. The respondents cited protein food, milk, fruit, sea weeds and food cooked with oil as conducive to good health. But what they consumed did not match what they thought was good, particularly milk. The results of this study lead to the suggestion that Korea need to develop such a lunch program for the elderly as is practiced in the U.S., through which dietary motivation can be stimulated and a low-priced and balanced diet offered at least for one meal a day.

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Early Changes after Death of Plaice, Paralichthys olivaceus Muscle -2. Temperature Dependency on Physicochemical and Rheological Properties- (넙치(Paralichthys olivaceus)육의 사후 조기 변화 -2. 물리 화학적 및 물성적 특성의 온도 의존성-)

  • CHO Young-Je;KIM Yuck-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1993
  • To clarify the effect of storage temperature on the physicochemical and rheological properties of plaice, Paralichthys olivaceus muscle, the changes in IMP accumulation rates, rigor index, breaking strength and K-value of muscle during storage at $0^{\circ},\;5^{\circ}C$ and $10^{\circ}C$ were studied. The maximum speed and content of IMP accumulation were showed in sample stored at $0^{\circ}C$ among the all samples. The content and time reached around the maximum IMP accumulation for each samples were $6.94{\mu}mole/g$ and 30hrs for samples stored at $0^{\circ}C,\;6.30{\mu}mole/g$ and 31.5hrs for $5^{\circ}C$ samples and $5.40{\mu}mole/g$ and 45hrs for $10^{\circ}C$ samples, respectively. Values of breaking strength in sample stored at $5^{\circ}C$ increased rapidly than samples at $0^{\circ}C$ showed maximum values after 10hrs. However, In case of fresh flesh stored at $10^{\circ}C$, there was no increase of breaking strength during storage. The breaking strength was not closely related with rigor index. The times reached around $5\%$ K-value which is representative excellent freshness index of sashimi were 14hrs for samples stored at $0^{\circ}C$, 13hrs for $5^{\circ}C$ samples and 4hrs for $10^{\circ}C$ samples. From the results above, it was suggested that the storage at low temperature($10^{\circ}C{\sim}5^{\circ}C$) was effective in increase the IMP contents and breaking strength, and maintenance the high-freshness of fresh plaice flesh at early periods after death.

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Natural Treatment of Wastewater from Industrial Complex in Rural Area by Subsurface Flow Wetland System (인공습지에 의한 농공단지 폐수처리)

  • Yoon, Chun-Gyeong;Lim, Yoong-Ho;Kim, Hyung-Joong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.170-174
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    • 1997
  • Constructed wetland system was studied to treat wastewater from industrial complex in rural area. Pilot plant at the Baeksuk Nongkong Danzi in Chunahn-City was used for field study. For the DO, the effluent concentration was higher than the influent concentration and it implies that natural reaeration supplies enough oxygen to the system. For the SS, the effluent concentration was consistently lower than the water quality standard even though the influent concentration varied significantly, which showed that SS was removed by the system effectively which is consist of soil and plants. For the BOD and COD, the average removal rate of them were 56% and 43%, respectively, therefore, the effluent concentration could not meet water quality standards when influent concentration was high. The removal rate of BOD and COD can be improved by supplemental treatment in addition to this system if necessary. For the T-N and T-P, the influent concentration of them were lower than the water quality standards than no further treatment was needed. Overall, the result showed that constructed wetland system is a feasible alternative for the treatment of wastewater from industrial complex in rural area. For actual application of this system, further study on design factors including loading rate, removal mechanism, and temperature effects is required to meet water quality standard consistently. Compared to existing systems, this system is quite competitive because it requires low capital cost, almost no energy and maintenance, and therefore, very cost effective.

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Attitudes and Problems of Urban Parks, in Taegu City, Korea (도시공원(都市公園)의 속성(屬性)과 문제점(問題點))

  • Choi, Seok-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean association of regional geographers
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.205-217
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    • 1996
  • Today in the industrial society, the urban park is the place for citizens' health, recreation, exercise, and education. This is a very important place as a fine sight and maintenance of public security. As the results of rapid economic growth during the last thirty years, citizens are in the age of material civilization and are challenged with many serious urban problems such as pollution, noise, traffic congestion, human alienation, etc. Rapid material civilization brought to citizens' mental and physical diseases. To some of the problems, it is necessary that we should have proper leisure and recreation facilities, and that we should have the active, positive posture to them. Especially we need the out door recreational spaces and facilities. But nowadays the urban parks are given little thought in spites of the necessity of parks which should be used as a recreational spaces in the urban areas. So, This study attempt to comprehend the function, quantity and quality of the urban park system in Taegu. It is clear that the quantity is inappropriate. Because of inappropriate disposition and management, its coefficiency of utilization is low. In view of the population and park ratio, Dong Gu, Nam Gu, Suseong Gu and Dalseong Gun have comparative good, environments. However, Dalseo Qu, Seo Gu and Jung Gu have less geographical features. There are some methods to provide expansion of the aggregate of urban parks. We can use the school-grounds and their facilities. which were moved from C.B.D. to the outskirts of Daegu, or some parts of urban redevelopment, or the riverside of Sincheon river. In the urban park-program, users' satisfaction-factors are analyzed. We must reconsider the efficiency. The above problems are improved. Active administration and inhabitants' Positive participation are demanded so that the sound development of cities and daily life-surroundings are promoted.

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A study on the Physical, Mental and Social Factors Influencing the Health Status of Aged Women in Korea (여성노인의 건강상태와 신체적.심리적.사회적 요소들과의 관계연구)

  • Ro, Seung-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.53-67
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    • 1996
  • A total health state evaluation of Korean female elderlies was made by using the questionary scheme measuring the physical, mental and social functions of the elderlies, in order to investigate the critical factors for the health maintenance of female elderlies and to develop their preventive nursing program. A total of 280 subjects over 65 years old living in Seoul and the suburban area were selected and interviewed during the period of September and October in 1995. The materials collected were analyzed statistically by using SAS data processing program, and the results and recommendations are summarized as follows. 1. The physical health state of Korean elderly women was evaluated to be satisfactory by showing an average score of 3.722 in 5.0 full-score scale. But this score was lower than those evaluated for the elderlies combined both sexes(4.054). The mental health state of the subjects was also evaluated as high scoring 3.484, possibly due to the fact that 78% of the subjects lived together with their children's family. On the other hand, the social health state of the subjects was relatively low scoring 2.585, mainly due to that 80% of them was widows which was resulted by the 6-7 years longer life-expectancy of Korean women. 2. A significant differences in the physical health state scores between different age groups was observed, indicating the rapid ageing process occurring in this age group. The family structure was appeared to be an important factor influencing the physical health state of the female elderlies ; the physical health score of the women with her husband only was higher than that of those living with children's families, and the lowest score was obtained from those living alone. 3. The age was the most important factor determining the mental health state of the subjects, while the religion, educational status, marriage state and family structure did not significantly influenced the mental health state of the aged women. 4. The social health state of the subject was deeply influenced by the marriage state and family structure, showing significantly lower scores with widowers compared to the married couples. Those living with their married spouse only obtained the highest social health score, while those living along showed the lowest score. The parent and grandparentship of those living with their children and the religion, especially Catholic and Protestant, had positive influence on the social health state of the aged women. 5. The mental health state of aged women showed significant correlation with the factors determining the physical health, except for digestive system related ability and sexual ability and the highest extra home ability. 6. The mental health state of aged women showed significant correlation with the factors determining social health, especially with the parent and grandparentship and the family relative's role. From these results, the following recommendations are made. 1. Since the physical, mental and social health states of aged people are deeply influenced by the sex and the average values of the both sex can create misleading figures, the health evaluation of the elderlies should be made separately by sex. 2. Since the health state of aged women is highly influenced by their family structure, the spouse's role and living with married couple only should be emphasized in respect of preventive health care. 3. The social activity programs and grandparentship teaching programs should be prepared in the nursing care program for aged people.

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The pH Reduction of the Recycled Aggregate Originated from the Waste Concrete by the scCO2 Treatment (초임계 이산화탄소를 이용한 폐콘크리트 순환골재의 중성화)

  • Chung, Chul-woo;Lee, Minhee;Kim, Seon-ok;Kim, Jihyun
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.50 no.4
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    • pp.257-266
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    • 2017
  • Batch experiments were performed to develop the method for the pH reduction of recycled aggregate by using $scCO_2$ (supercritical $CO_2$), maintaining the pH of extraction water below 9.8. Three different aggregate types from a domestic company were used for the $scCO_2$-water-recycled aggregate reaction to investigate the low pH maintenance of aggregate during the reaction. Thirty five gram of recycled aggregate sample was mixed with 70 mL of distilled water in a Teflon beaker, which was fixed in a high pressurized stainless steel cell (150 mL of capacity). The inside of the cell was pressurized to 100 bar and each cell was located in an oven at $50^{\circ}C$ for 50 days and the pH and ion concentrations of water in the cell were measured at a different reaction time interval. The XRD and SEM-EDS analyses for the aggregate before and after the reaction were performed to identify the mineralogical change during the reaction. The extraction experiment for the aggregate was also conducted to investigate the pH change of extracted water by the $scCO_2$ treatment. The pH of the recycled aggregate without the $scCO_2$ treatment maintained over 12, but its pH dramatically decreased to below 7 after 1 hour reaction and maintained below 8 for 50 day reaction. Concentration of $Ca^{2+}$, $Si^{4+}$, $Mg^{2+}$ and $Na^+$ increased in water due to the $scCO_2$-water-recycled aggregate reaction and lots of secondary precipitates such as calcite, amorphous silicate, and hydroxide minerals were found by XRD and SEM-EDS analyses. The pH of extracted water from the recycled aggregates without the $scCO_2$ treatment maintained over 12, but the pH of extracted water with the $scCO_2$ treatment kept below 9 of pH for both of 50 day and 1 day treatment, suggesting that the recycled aggregate with the $scCO_2$ treatment can be reused in real construction sites.

The Understanding of Elementary Pre-Service Teachers' on Legal Units (초등 예비교사들의 법정계량단위에 대한 이해)

  • Kim, Sung-Kyu;Kong, Young-Tae
    • Journal of Science Education
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.111-121
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this research is to survey elementary pre-service teachers' in understand the legal Units, focusing on seven basic unit such a 'm', 'm2', 'L', 'kg', 'K', 'cd', 's'. This study specifically investigates whether the students understand the legal units. The subjects were 1096 students from the University of Education in Jinju, Gyeongnam. Data was collected through a questionnaire which was designed by this research and checked by authority, and the frequency and percentage of responses to each question were obtained and analysed. The survey was the legal units on interesting, using the experience of confusing and understanding of elementary pre-service teachers. The Korea Government is regulating using traditional measures such as 'pyeong' or 'don' in commercial transactions change to adopt the metric system for as a subsidiary the first of July, 2007. The interesting of the legal units dose not exceed a positive answer to the question 52.1%. Their were answered that the experience of the confused of 60.1% in the life. How to do efforts for the settle down of the legal units that answered broadcasting>in class>a campaign>study and training by an academic year in oder. Findings show regardless of academic year, gender and from the department of liberal arts or the science department all the students knew very well that 'm' '$m^2$', 'L', 'kg' are included in the legal units, compared to the others low percentage of 'K', 'cd' and 's' the legal units. In case of time(s), women has correct answered 2.7 times than man. In case of academic year, except for the third-year students was not to exceed 50%. In case of from the department of liberal arts or the science department contrary to one's expectations increase of 50% or more correct answer while half the students scored in science. The elementary pre-service teachers are seems to thinking separate the legal units with their in university life. Also elementary pre-service teachers are the lack of interest on society. Their should be for settle down of the legal units through learning to class in university, newspapers, strengthen publicity activities of broadcast media's further more by maintenance efforts of the government.

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Development of Agent-based Platform for Coordinated Scheduling in Global Supply Chain (글로벌 공급사슬에서 경쟁협력 스케줄링을 위한 에이전트 기반 플랫폼 구축)

  • Lee, Jung-Seung;Choi, Seong-Woo
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.213-226
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    • 2011
  • In global supply chain, the scheduling problems of large products such as ships, airplanes, space shuttles, assembled constructions, and/or automobiles are complicated by nature. New scheduling systems are often developed in order to reduce inherent computational complexity. As a result, a problem can be decomposed into small sub-problems, problems that contain independently small scheduling systems integrating into the initial problem. As one of the authors experienced, DAS (Daewoo Shipbuilding Scheduling System) has adopted a two-layered hierarchical architecture. In the hierarchical architecture, individual scheduling systems composed of a high-level dock scheduler, DAS-ERECT and low-level assembly plant schedulers, DAS-PBS, DAS-3DS, DAS-NPS, and DAS-A7 try to search the best schedules under their own constraints. Moreover, the steep growth of communication technology and logistics enables it to introduce distributed multi-nation production plants by which different parts are produced by designated plants. Therefore vertical and lateral coordination among decomposed scheduling systems is necessary. No standard coordination mechanism of multiple scheduling systems exists, even though there are various scheduling systems existing in the area of scheduling research. Previous research regarding the coordination mechanism has mainly focused on external conversation without capacity model. Prior research has heavily focuses on agent-based coordination in the area of agent research. Yet, no scheduling domain has been developed. Previous research regarding the agent-based scheduling has paid its ample attention to internal coordination of scheduling process, a process that has not been efficient. In this study, we suggest a general framework for agent-based coordination of multiple scheduling systems in global supply chain. The purpose of this study was to design a standard coordination mechanism. To do so, we first define an individual scheduling agent responsible for their own plants and a meta-level coordination agent involved with each individual scheduling agent. We then suggest variables and values describing the individual scheduling agent and meta-level coordination agent. These variables and values are represented by Backus-Naur Form. Second, we suggest scheduling agent communication protocols for each scheduling agent topology classified into the system architectures, existence or nonexistence of coordinator, and directions of coordination. If there was a coordinating agent, an individual scheduling agent could communicate with another individual agent indirectly through the coordinator. On the other hand, if there was not any coordinating agent existing, an individual scheduling agent should communicate with another individual agent directly. To apply agent communication language specifically to the scheduling coordination domain, we had to additionally define an inner language, a language that suitably expresses scheduling coordination. A scheduling agent communication language is devised for the communication among agents independent of domain. We adopt three message layers which are ACL layer, scheduling coordination layer, and industry-specific layer. The ACL layer is a domain independent outer language layer. The scheduling coordination layer has terms necessary for scheduling coordination. The industry-specific layer expresses the industry specification. Third, in order to improve the efficiency of communication among scheduling agents and avoid possible infinite loops, we suggest a look-ahead load balancing model which supports to monitor participating agents and to analyze the status of the agents. To build the look-ahead load balancing model, the status of participating agents should be monitored. Most of all, the amount of sharing information should be considered. If complete information is collected, updating and maintenance cost of sharing information will be increasing although the frequency of communication will be decreasing. Therefore the level of detail and updating period of sharing information should be decided contingently. By means of this standard coordination mechanism, we can easily model coordination processes of multiple scheduling systems into supply chain. Finally, we apply this mechanism to shipbuilding domain and develop a prototype system which consists of a dock-scheduling agent, four assembly- plant-scheduling agents, and a meta-level coordination agent. A series of experiments using the real world data are used to empirically examine this mechanism. The results of this study show that the effect of agent-based platform on coordinated scheduling is evident in terms of the number of tardy jobs, tardiness, and makespan.

Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Constructed Small-scale Ponds for Ecological Improvement in Paddy Fields (논 생태 증진을 위해 설치된 둠벙의 물리.화학적 및 생물학적 특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Ok;Shin, Hyun-Sang;Yoo, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Heon;Jang, Kyu-Sang;Kim, Bom-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.253-263
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to gain preliminary data for restoration and management of constructed small-scale ponds in paddy fields through analysis of their physicochemical and biological properties. A field survey was performed at 13 small-scale ponds located in paddy fields from August 2009 to October 2010. Structural properties, water quality, soil characteristics and fish fauna were measured. Results showed that small-scale ponds without frames might lose their function over time because of crumbling walls. Therefore, it is necessary for these ponds to have frames for soil protection and sustainable maintenance. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentration were higher than the water quality standard for agricultural water in small-scale ponds. In particular, TN concentration was 8.03 mg $L^{-1}$ and over 8 times the water quality standard because of the presence of livestock such as cows and pigs in the study areas. Sand, organic matter and available phosphorus contents of soil in small-scale ponds was 53.4${\pm}$16.6%, 21.8${\pm}$9.74 g $kg^{-1}$ and 12.8${\pm}$7.59 mg $kg^{-1}$, respectively indicating that sand and available phosphorus contents were suitable for plants in small-scale ponds, but organic matter contents was somewhat low in newly constructed small-scale ponds, and would take some time to stabilize for plant growing. Fish fauna was not diverse with only 4 species at all sites surveyed. Collected fishes share a common feature that they all inhabit paddy fields or canals with shallow water depth. In this study, all ponds were not linked to the streams and canals around them. It appears that connection to adjacent streams was the major factor controlling fish fauna in small-scale ponds. The results of statistical analysis were classified into three groups. Factor 1 was 26.3%, which shows a structural properties such as area and depth of small-scale pond. As for factor 2, it appears on 20.1%, showing water quality like a TP, suspended solids (SS) and COD. Small-scale ponds were classified into three groups by factor scores. Group I consisted of 6 small-scale ponds, which were larger than the others. Group III had higher water quality than the others. We conclude that the most important points to be considered for restoration and management of small-scale ponds is connection with adjacent streams or ditches and depth and size of the small-scale pond.