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A Study on the Growth Diagnosis and Management Prescription for Population of Retusa Fringe Trees in Pyeongji-ri, Jinan(Natural Monument No. 214) (진안 평지리 이팝나무군(천연기념물 제214호)의 생육진단 및 관리방안)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Oh, Hyun-Kyung;Han, Sang-Yub;Choi, Yung-Hyun;Son, Hee-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.115-127
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    • 2018
  • This study was attempted to find out the value of cultural assets through the clear diagnosis and prescription of the dead and weakness factors of the Population of Retusa Fringe Trees in Pyeongji-ri, Jinan(Natural Monument No. 214), The results are as follows. First, Since the designation of 13 natural monuments in 1968, since 1973, many years have passed since then. In particular, despite the removal of some of the buried soil during the maintenance process, such as retreating from the fence of the primary school after 2010, Second, The first and third surviving tree of the designated trees also have many branches that are dead, the leaves are dull, and the amount of leaves is small. vitality of tree is 'extremely bad', and the first branch has already been faded by a large number of branches, and the amount of leaves is considerably low this year, so that only two flowers are bloomed. The second is also in a 'bad'state, with small leaves, low leaf density, and deformed water. The largest number 1 in the world is added to the concern that the s coverd oil is assumed to be paddy soils. Third, It is found that the composition ratio of silt is high because it is known as '[silty loam(SiL)]'. In addition, the pH of the northern soil at pH 1 was 6.6, which was significantly different from that of the other soil. In addition, the organic matter content was higher than the appropriate range, which is considered to reflect the result of continuous application for protection management. Fourth, It is considered that the root cause of failure and growth of Jinan pyeongji-ri Population of Retusa Fringe Trees group is chronic syndrome of serious menstrual deterioration due to covered soil. This can also be attributed to the newly planted succession and to some of the deaths. Fifthly, It is urgent to gradually remove the subsoil part, which is estimated to be the cause of the initial damage. Above all, it is almost impossible to remove the coverd soil after grasping the details of the soil, such as clayey soil, which is buried in the rootstock. After removal of the coverd soil, a pestle is installed to improve the respiration of the roots and the ground with Masato. And the dead 4th dead wood and the 5th and 6th dead wood are the best, and the lower layer vegetation is mown. The viable neck should be removed from the upper surface, and the bark defect should undergo surgery and induce the development of blindness by vestibule below the growth point. Sixth, The underground roots should be identified to prepare a method to improve the decompression of the root and the respiration of the soil. It is induced by the shortening of rotten roots by tracing the first half of the rootstock to induce the generation of new roots. Seventh, We try mulching to suppress weed occurrence, trampling pressure, and soil moisturizing effect. In addition, consideration should be given to the fertilization of the foliar fertilizer, the injection of the nutrients, and the soil management of the inorganic fertilizer for the continuous nutrition supply. Future monitoring and forecasting plans should be developed to check for changes continuously.

Empirical Analysis on Bitcoin Price Change by Consumer, Industry and Macro-Economy Variables (비트코인 가격 변화에 관한 실증분석: 소비자, 산업, 그리고 거시변수를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Junsik;Kim, Keon-Woo;Park, Do-Hyung
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.195-220
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we conducted an empirical analysis of the factors that affect the change of Bitcoin Closing Price. Previous studies have focused on the security of the block chain system, the economic ripple effects caused by the cryptocurrency, legal implications and the acceptance to consumer about cryptocurrency. In various area, cryptocurrency was studied and many researcher and people including government, regardless of country, try to utilize cryptocurrency and applicate to its technology. Despite of rapid and dramatic change of cryptocurrencies' price and growth of its effects, empirical study of the factors affecting the price change of cryptocurrency was lack. There were only a few limited studies, business reports and short working paper. Therefore, it is necessary to determine what factors effect on the change of closing Bitcoin price. For analysis, hypotheses were constructed from three dimensions of consumer, industry, and macroeconomics for analysis, and time series data were collected for variables of each dimension. Consumer variables consist of search traffic of Bitcoin, search traffic of bitcoin ban, search traffic of ransomware and search traffic of war. Industry variables were composed GPU vendors' stock price and memory vendors' stock price. Macro-economy variables were contemplated such as U.S. dollar index futures, FOMC policy interest rates, WTI crude oil price. Using above variables, we did times series regression analysis to find relationship between those variables and change of Bitcoin Closing Price. Before the regression analysis to confirm the relationship between change of Bitcoin Closing Price and the other variables, we performed the Unit-root test to verifying the stationary of time series data to avoid spurious regression. Then, using a stationary data, we did the regression analysis. As a result of the analysis, we found that the change of Bitcoin Closing Price has negative effects with search traffic of 'Bitcoin Ban' and US dollar index futures, while change of GPU vendors' stock price and change of WTI crude oil price showed positive effects. In case of 'Bitcoin Ban', it is directly determining the maintenance or abolition of Bitcoin trade, that's why consumer reacted sensitively and effected on change of Bitcoin Closing Price. GPU is raw material of Bitcoin mining. Generally, increasing of companies' stock price means the growth of the sales of those companies' products and services. GPU's demands increases are indirectly reflected to the GPU vendors' stock price. Making an interpretation, a rise in prices of GPU has put a crimp on the mining of Bitcoin. Consequently, GPU vendors' stock price effects on change of Bitcoin Closing Price. And we confirmed U.S. dollar index futures moved in the opposite direction with change of Bitcoin Closing Price. It moved like Gold. Gold was considered as a safe asset to consumers and it means consumer think that Bitcoin is a safe asset. On the other hand, WTI oil price went Bitcoin Closing Price's way. It implies that Bitcoin are regarded to investment asset like raw materials market's product. The variables that were not significant in the analysis were search traffic of bitcoin, search traffic of ransomware, search traffic of war, memory vendor's stock price, FOMC policy interest rates. In search traffic of bitcoin, we judged that interest in Bitcoin did not lead to purchase of Bitcoin. It means search traffic of Bitcoin didn't reflect all of Bitcoin's demand. So, it implies there are some factors that regulate and mediate the Bitcoin purchase. In search traffic of ransomware, it is hard to say concern of ransomware determined the whole Bitcoin demand. Because only a few people damaged by ransomware and the percentage of hackers requiring Bitcoins was low. Also, its information security problem is events not continuous issues. Search traffic of war was not significant. Like stock market, generally it has negative in relation to war, but exceptional case like Gulf war, it moves stakeholders' profits and environment. We think that this is the same case. In memory vendor stock price, this is because memory vendors' flagship products were not VRAM which is essential for Bitcoin supply. In FOMC policy interest rates, when the interest rate is low, the surplus capital is invested in securities such as stocks. But Bitcoin' price fluctuation was large so it is not recognized as an attractive commodity to the consumers. In addition, unlike the stock market, Bitcoin doesn't have any safety policy such as Circuit breakers and Sidecar. Through this study, we verified what factors effect on change of Bitcoin Closing Price, and interpreted why such change happened. In addition, establishing the characteristics of Bitcoin as a safe asset and investment asset, we provide a guide how consumer, financial institution and government organization approach to the cryptocurrency. Moreover, corroborating the factors affecting change of Bitcoin Closing Price, researcher will get some clue and qualification which factors have to be considered in hereafter cryptocurrency study.

A Study of Intangible Cultural Heritage Communities through a Social Network Analysis - Focused on the Item of Jeongseon Arirang - (소셜 네트워크 분석을 통한 무형문화유산 공동체 지식연결망 연구 - 정선아리랑을 중심으로 -)

  • Oh, Jung-shim
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.172-187
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    • 2019
  • Knowledge of intangible cultural heritage is usually disseminated through word-of-mouth and actions rather than written records. Thus, people assemble to teach others about it and form communities. Accordingly, to understand and spread information about intangible cultural heritage properly, it is necessary to understand not only their attributes but also a community's relational characteristics. Community members include specialized transmitters who work under the auspices of institutions, and general transmitters who enjoy intangible cultural heritage in their daily lives. They converse about intangible cultural heritage in close relationships. However, to date, research has focused only on professionals. Thus, this study focused on the roles of general transmitters of intangible cultural heritage information by investigating intangible cultural heritage communities centering around Jeongseon Arirang; a social network analysis was performed. Regarding the research objectives presented in the introduction, the main findings of the study are summarized as follows. First, there were 197 links between 74 members of the Jeongseon Arirang Transmission Community. One individual had connections with 2.7 persons on average, and all were connected through two steps in the community. However, the density and the clustering coefficient were low, 0.036 and 0.32, respectively; therefore, the cohesiveness of this community was low, and the relationships between the members were not strong. Second, 'Young-ran Yu', 'Nam-gi Kim' and 'Gil-ja Kim' were found to be the prominent figures of the Jeongseon Arirang Transmission Community, and the central structure of the network was concentrated around these three individuals. Being located in the central structure of the network indicates that a person is popular and ranked high. Also, it means that a person has an advantage in terms of the speed and quantity of the acquisition of information and resources, and is in a relatively superior position in terms of bargaining power. Third, to understand the replaceability of the roles of Young-ran Yu, Nam-gi Kim, and Gil-ja Kim, who were found to be the major figures through an analysis of the central structure, structural equivalence was profiled. The results of the analysis showed that the positions and roles of Young-ran Yu, Nam-gi Kim, and Gil-ja Kim were unrivaled and irreplaceable in the Jeongseon Arirang Transmission Community. However, considering that these three members were in their 60s and 70s, it seemed that it would be necessary to prepare measures for the smooth maintenance and operation of the community. Fourth, to examine the subgroup hidden in the network of the Jeongseon Arirang Transmission Community, an analysis of communities was conducted. A community refers to a subgroup clearly differentiated based on modularity. The results of the analysis identified the existence of four communities. Furthermore, the results of an analysis of the central structure showed that the communities were formed and centered around Young-ran Yu, Hyung-jo Kim, Nam-gi Kim, and Gil-ja Kim. Most of the transmission TAs recommended by those members, students who completed a course, transmission scholarship holders, and the general members taught in the transmission classes of the Jeongseon Arirang Preservation Society were included as members of the communities. Through these findings, it was discovered that it is possible to maintain the transmission genealogy, making an exchange with the general members by employing the present method for the transmission of Jeongseon Arirang, the joint transmission method. It is worth paying attention to the joint transmission method as it overcomes the demerits of the existing closed one-on-one apprentice method and provides members with an opportunity to learn their masters' various singing styles. This study is significant for the following reasons: First, by collecting and examining data using a social network analysis method, this study analyzed phenomena that had been difficult to investigate using existing statistical analyses. Second, by adopting a different approach to the previous method in which the genealogy was understood, looking at oral data, this study analyzed the structures of the transmitters' relationships with objective and quantitative data. Third, this study visualized and presented the abstract structures of the relationships among the transmitters of intangible cultural heritage information on a 2D spring map. The results of this study can be utilized as a baseline for the development of community-centered policies for the protection of intangible cultural heritage specified in the UNESCO Convention for the Safeguarding of Intangible Cultural Heritage. To achieve this, it would be necessary to supplement this study through case studies and follow-up studies on more aspects in the future.

Management Guidelines and the Structure of Vegetation in Natural Monuments Koelreuteria Paniculata Community (천연기념물 모감주나무군락의 식생구조와 관리제언)

  • Shin, Byung Chul;Lee, Won Ho;Kim, Hyo Jeong;Hong, Jeum Kyu
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.100-117
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    • 2010
  • This study analyzed vegetation structure of natural monuments Koelreuteria paniculata community in search of a conservation and management plan. Plant sociological analysis of Koelreuteria paniculata community indicates that it can be classified into Achyranthes japonica subcommunity and Rhodotypos scandens subcommunity and Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermedium subcommunity. While Koelreuteria paniculata community of Ahnmyeondo is composed of sub tree layer and herb layer, those of Pohang and Wando are composed of tree layer, Sub tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer. The results of tree vitality analysis showed that those in Ahnmyeondo appeared to be relatively low when compared to those in Pohang and Wando-gun. This can be understood in two different aspects: disease and insects vulnerability due to a relatively simple structure and lack of competitive species, and decreased vitality / natural branch losses due to crown competition arising from high density. The result of soil characteristics analysis showed that soil texture, soil pH, organic matter, $p_2O_5$, exchange positive ion were sufficient for tree growth while total nitrogen was not, so that discretion would be needed for fertilizer application. As there were damages of disease and inscet, but only for 10~15% of the entire area; it still requires consistent preconsideration. The study suggests the management methods for preservation of Koelreuteria paniculata community. First, securing designated areas is necessary in order to minimize environment deterioration due to surrounding development. Especially, for sections with decreased areas, expansion of designated areas through land purchase should also be considered. Second, artificial interference may affect the livestock. Therefore, monitoring of artificial interference is necessary, based on which protection projects must be conducted. Third, from analysis of young plants which influence the maintenance mechanisms of Koelreuteria paniculata community, a decrease compared to the prior year was observed; investigation is needed. Therefore, an active management policy through status examination of livestock such as germination and young plants is necessary.

Animal Experiments on an Antithrombogenic Small-Caliber Vascular Prostheses and Vascualr Patch : Observation in Canine Models (항혈전성 소구경 인조 혈관 및 봉합편에 대한 동물 실험)

  • 김수철;김원곤;유세영
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2003
  • Although a variety of synthetic vascular grafts are available in modern vascular surgery, no ideal prosthesis ha,4 yet been developed. Small-caliber vascular grafts with low flow, as used in the lower extremity, continue to become thrombosed at unacceptable rates. We have developed and evaluated the new antithrombogenic blood contacting surfaces in canine model. Material and Method: Two now antithrombogenic blood contacting surfaces(Polyvinylalcohol -Polyurethane(PVA-PU) blend and natural Graphite-polyurethane(G-PU) blend) have been developed and evaluated in canine model, using vascular grafts and patches. The luminal surfaces of the test vascular grafts(5 mm ID) were fabricated by dipping a glass rod in PVA-PU blend solution(50 % PVA) using phase separation method. Mongrel dogs of either sex weighing 18-22 kg were anesthetized by endotracheal intubation using halothane and their lungs were ventilated with a volume-cycled ventilator, Maintenance anesthesia with 0.5-1.0% halothane and supplemental oxygen was used. Two pairs were used for comparison in the bilateral femoral arteries for both vascular grafts(PVA-PU vs. PU) and vascular patches(G-PU vs. PU). Bilateral groin incisions were made and the arteries were exposed and clamped. After an excision of 1 cm of the artery between clamps, a grail of 2.5 cm in length was implanted end-to-end using 6-0 polypropylene suture. The vascular patch was implanted as a form of on-lay patch. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 16 weeks for vascular grafts and 1, 2. 4 and 6 weeks for vascular patches. Result The vascular grafts of PVA-PU blends showed patent lumina in the 2 and 16 weeks animals, while those of PU showed a patent lumen in 2 weeks animal. PVA-PU graft of 16 weeks showed a fairly clean luminal surface. A light microscopic finding of this graft demonstrated good tissue infiltration through porosity, The animals with vascular patches showed patent arteries in both groups except 2 weeks animal. Scanning electron microscopy of the luminal surfaces of G-PU patches in 4 and 6 weeks animals showed endothelial cell covering with microvilli. PU patches showed qualitatively less endothelial cell covering. Conclusion: In conclusion, PVA-PU and G-PU blends can be a promising blood contacting surfaces for application in a synthetic vascualr graft. However, further animal study is needed to determine the real long-term effects of these methods of surface modifications.

Physicochemical and Biological Properties of Constructed Small-scale Ponds for Ecological Improvement in Paddy Fields (논 생태 증진을 위해 설치된 둠벙의 물리.화학적 및 생물학적 특성)

  • Kim, Jae-Ok;Shin, Hyun-Sang;Yoo, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Heon;Jang, Kyu-Sang;Kim, Bom-Chul
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.253-263
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to gain preliminary data for restoration and management of constructed small-scale ponds in paddy fields through analysis of their physicochemical and biological properties. A field survey was performed at 13 small-scale ponds located in paddy fields from August 2009 to October 2010. Structural properties, water quality, soil characteristics and fish fauna were measured. Results showed that small-scale ponds without frames might lose their function over time because of crumbling walls. Therefore, it is necessary for these ponds to have frames for soil protection and sustainable maintenance. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) concentration were higher than the water quality standard for agricultural water in small-scale ponds. In particular, TN concentration was 8.03 mg $L^{-1}$ and over 8 times the water quality standard because of the presence of livestock such as cows and pigs in the study areas. Sand, organic matter and available phosphorus contents of soil in small-scale ponds was 53.4${\pm}$16.6%, 21.8${\pm}$9.74 g $kg^{-1}$ and 12.8${\pm}$7.59 mg $kg^{-1}$, respectively indicating that sand and available phosphorus contents were suitable for plants in small-scale ponds, but organic matter contents was somewhat low in newly constructed small-scale ponds, and would take some time to stabilize for plant growing. Fish fauna was not diverse with only 4 species at all sites surveyed. Collected fishes share a common feature that they all inhabit paddy fields or canals with shallow water depth. In this study, all ponds were not linked to the streams and canals around them. It appears that connection to adjacent streams was the major factor controlling fish fauna in small-scale ponds. The results of statistical analysis were classified into three groups. Factor 1 was 26.3%, which shows a structural properties such as area and depth of small-scale pond. As for factor 2, it appears on 20.1%, showing water quality like a TP, suspended solids (SS) and COD. Small-scale ponds were classified into three groups by factor scores. Group I consisted of 6 small-scale ponds, which were larger than the others. Group III had higher water quality than the others. We conclude that the most important points to be considered for restoration and management of small-scale ponds is connection with adjacent streams or ditches and depth and size of the small-scale pond.

Assessment of Site Environmental Factors on the Structure of Forest Vegetation in Naejang-san National Park Using Canonical Correlation Analysis (정준상관분석을 통한 내장산국립공원 산림식생구조의 입지환경 평가)

  • Kim, Tae-Geun;Cho, Young-Hwan;Oh, Jang-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.561-569
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    • 2013
  • This study examines locational environment factors that may affect the vegetation structure in the forests of Naejang National Park. To that end, we selected LAI (Leaf Area Index), diameter at breast height, and tree height as structural variables as well as altitude above sea level, gradient, slope direction, soil moisture, topographic location, and amount of solar radiation as locational environment factors, using the method of canonical correlation analysis in order to find out correlation between them. As to the simple correlation between the locational environment factors and structural variables, the correlation coefficient was relatively low (0.6). The values of LAI, measured along the ridge with higher altitudes, decreased as the soil moisture and solar radiation increased. However, LAI increased as the gradient increased and the slope direction faced the north (farther from the east). In respect of the diameter at breast height, the diameter decreased as the altitude and gradient increased. But the diameter increased as the moisture and solar radiation increased. The tree height decreased as the moisture increased and the site was closer to the ridge. These various correlations show a variety of locational environment factors in the national park, implying that the structural variables are affected by complex locational environment factors. This study conducted a canonical correlation analysis on locational environment factors which may affect the vegetation structure, and the result showed that LAI increased and tree height & diameter at breast height decreased as the solar radiation & moisture decreased and altitude increased. Although more factors that may affect vegetation structure (e.g. climate) should be taken into account, this study is significant in that the vegetation structure, which can adapt to more unfavorable conditions in terms of solar radiation, moisture, and higher altitudes, could be inferred in a statistical way. The results of this study, especially the locational environment factors based on DEM, can be used for assessing diversity of vegetation structure in a forest and for monitoring the structure in a national park on a regular basis so as to establish more effective maintenance plans of a park.

Management Planning and Change for Nineteen Years(1993~2011) of Plant Community of the Pinus densiflora S. et Z. Forest in Namhan Mountain Fortress, Korea (남한산성 소나무림의 19년간(1993~2011년) 식생구조 변화와 관리방안)

  • Lee, Kyong-Jae;Han, Bong-Ho;Lee, Hak-Gi;Noh, Tai-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.559-575
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    • 2012
  • This study, targeting Namhan Mountain Fortress which was designated as a No. 57 national historic site and placed on the World Heritage Tentative List in 2010, was intended to identify the change of vegetation structures by reviewing past references, pictures, research data and additionally conducting a site survey. Also, it was designed to draw up measures for restoring vegetation suitable for historically and culturally valuable Namhan Mountain Fortress. According to the biotope mapping of study site, Quercus spp. forest distributed a greatest part of area with 40.8% of $2,611,823m^2$. Pinus densiflora forest, highly likely to go through ecological succession, was dispersed in the whole region of Cheongryangsan, the area from West Gate to North Gate and the ranges between South Gate to Cheongryangsan with taking 16.5%. Pinus densiflora forest with a low probability of succession amounted to 4.7% and was dispersed mainly in the forest behind Namhansan elementary school. Pinus densiflora going on the ecological succession is distributed a portion of 2.9%. And the currently dying out Pinus densiflora forest amounted to 2.1%. As a result of analysis of the vegetation structure for 19 years, the succession from Pinus densiflora forest to Pinus densiflora and succession from Quercus spp. mixed forest to Quercus spp. forest to Carpinus laxiflora forest were predicted. Additionally, Quercus spp. expanded its dominance over time. According to the characteristics of each classified zone, the site was categorized into $553,508m^2$ area of Pinus densiflora forest area for the landscape maintenance, $114,293m^2$ area of Pinus densiflora forest area for the landscape restoration, $205,306m^2$ area of Pinus densiflora forest area for the disclimax, and $1,169,973m^2$ area of Pinus densiflora forest area for inducing ecological succession.

THE EFFECT OF BONE MORPHOGENETIC PROTEIN 2(BMP2) ON THE GROWTH OF CRANIAL BONE AND EARLY MORPHOGENESIS OF THE CRANIAL SUTURE (Bone Morphogenetic Protein 2 가 두개골 성장 및 두개봉합부의 초기형태발생에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Hae-Kyung;Park, Mi-Hyun;Ryoo, Hyun-Mo;Nam, Soon-Hyeun;Kim, Young-Jin;Kim, Hyun-Jung
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.217-228
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    • 2003
  • Co-ordinate growth of the brain and skull is achieved through a series of tissue interactions between the developing brain, the growing bones of the skull and the sutures that unite the bones. Craniosynostosis, the premature fusion of cranial sutures, presumably involves disturbance of these interactions. Bmp2, one of bone morphogenetic proteins (Bmps), is involved in the regulation of the shapes of individual bones and the relative proportions of the skeleton. Mutations in the homeobox gene Msx2, known as a downstream gene of Bmp, cause Boston-type human craniosynostosis. The phenotype of Dlx5 homozygote mutant mouse presents craniofacial abnormalities including a delayed ossification of calvarial bone. These facts suggest important roles of Bmp2, Msx2 and Dlx5 genes in the cranial bone growth and suture morphogenesis. To elucidate the function of these molecules in the early morphogenesis of mouse cranial sutures, we first analyzed by in situ hybridization the expression of Bmp2(E15-18), Msx2 and Dlx5 genes in the developing sagittal suture of calvaria during the embryonic stage. Bmp2 mRNA was intensely expressed in the osteogenic fronts and also at the low level in the periosteum of parietal bones during embryonic stage, Msx2 mRNA was intensely expressed in the sutural mesenchyme and mildly expressed in the dura mater during the embryonic stage. Dlx5 mRNA was intensely expressed osteogenic fronts and parietal bones. To further examine the role of Bmp signaling in cranial suture, we did in vitro experiments in E15.5 mouse calvarial explants. Interestingly, implantation of Bmp2-soaked beads onto the osteogenic fronts after 48 hours organ culture resulted in the increase of the tissue thickness and cell number around Bmp2 beads, compared to BSA control beads. In addition Bmp2 induced etopic expressions of Msx2 and Dlx5 genes. On the other hand, overexpression of FGF2 did not induce the expression of Msx2 and Dlx5. Taken together, these data indicate that Bmp2 signaling molecule has a important role in regulating the cranial bone growth and early morphogenesis of cranial suture. We also suggest that Bmp signaling is involved in all the stages of osteogenesis of cranial bones and the maintenance of cranial suture by regulating Msx2 and Dlx5 genes, and that Msx2 and Dlx5 genes are specific transcription factors of Bmp signaling pathway.

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Fertilizer demand estimated in aspect of crop nutrition (작물영양면(作物營養面)에서 본 비료(肥料)의 수요전망(需要展望))

  • Park, Hoon;Park, Young Sun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.165-181
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    • 1976
  • Fertilizer(N,P,K) demand for crop production in 1980, 1990 and 2000 was estimated according to the two proposed models, one of which is fertilizer use efficiency model expressed in $Fn=(Y/E){\cdot}(1-Cs)Eu$, where Fn:fertilizer demand, Y:Crop production estimated, E:nutrient efficiency, Cs:fraction of natural resource nutrient in plant, Eu:fertilizer use efficiency and the other fertilization efficiency model expressed in Fn=Y(1-Cys)/Fe, where Cys:fraction of yield without fertilizer, Fe:fertilization efficiency. Total crop uptake of nutrient and its noncycling portion were estimated as criteria for fertilizer demand and nutrient maintenance. Total crop uptake of N,P,K was 600,000 M/T in 1965 700,000 M/T in 1974 and estimated to 880,000 M/T in 1980, 1,170,000 M/T in 1990 and 1,410,000 M/T in 2000. Fertilizer demand appeares to be about 90% of total crop uptake according to fertilizer use efficiency model and about 87% according to fertilization efficiency model. The noncycling nutrient was about 29% of total crop uptake. Fertilizer demand was almost same to the uptake amount in nitrogen, 1.5 times of uptake in phosphorus and half of uptake in potassium. Varietal development, improvement of soil fertility and cultivation method and development of fertilizer forms appears to decrease fertilizer demand by increasing efficiency term in two models while environmental stress such as low temperature appears to give reverse effect resulting in higher fertilizer demand. Fertilizer consumption in 1974 seemed to be unreasonably high especially in nitrogen and phosphorus and thus the effective use of fertilizer appeared as an urgent problem considering that large fields are still remained in lower fertility.

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