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Comparison Study of Water Tension and Content Characteristics in Differently Textured Soils under Automatic Drip Irrigation (자동점적관수에 의한 토성별 수분함량 및 장력 변화특성 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Hak-Jin;Ahn, Sung-Wuk;Han, Kyung-Hwa;Choi, Jin-Yong;Chung, Sun-Ok;Roh, Mi-Young;Hur, Seung-Oh
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.341-348
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    • 2013
  • Maintenance of adequate soil tension or content during the period of crop growth is necessary to support optimum plant growth and yields. A better understanding of soil tension and content for precision irrigation would allow optimal soil water condition to crops and minimize the adverse effects of water stress on crop growth and development. This research reports on a comparison of soil water tension and content variations in differently textured soils over time under drip irrigation using two different water management methods, i.e. pulse time and required water irrigation methods. The pulse time-based irrigation was performed by turning the solenoid valve on and off for preset times to allow the wetting front to disperse in root zone before additional water was applied. The required water estimation method was a new water control logic designed by Rural Development Administration that applies the amount of water required based on a conversion of the measured water tension into water content. The use of the pulse time irrigation method under drip irrigation at a high tension of -20 kPa and high temperatures over $30^{\circ}C$ was not successful at maintaining moisture tensions within an appropriate range of 5 kPa because the preset irrigation times used for water control could not compensate for the change in evapotranspiration during day and night. The response time and pattern of water contents for all of the tested soils measured with capacitance-based sensor probes were faster and more direct than those of water tensions measured with porous and ceramic cup-based tensiometers when water was applied, indicating water content would be a better control variable for automatic irrigation. The required water estimation-based irrigation method provided relatively stable control of moisture tension, even though somewhat lower tension values were obtained as compared to the target tension of -20 kPa, indicating that growers could expect to be effective in controlling low tensions ranging from -10 to -20 kPa with the required water estimation system.

Comparative Quality Evaluation of King Oyster Mushroom as Affected by Unit Packaging Method during Simulated Export Shipment (큰느타리버섯의 모의 수출운송과정에서 소포장 적용에 따른 품질변화 비교)

  • Woo, Seong-Min;Park, Youn-Moon;Park, Se Won
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.186-193
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    • 2013
  • Potential of consumer unit packaging was investigated for quality maintenance during export simulation in king oyster mushrooms (Pleurotus eryngii). Mushrooms were harvested in late May, precooled to $4^{\circ}C$ within 6 hours, and then packaged for shipping in two ways: 2 kg bulk packaging in a polyethylene (PE) bag or three types of unit packaging methods such as 400 g in polypropylene film bag (PPB), 200 g on styrofoam tray + PE shrinkage film wrapping (STW), and 200 g in polyethylene terephthalate (PET) containers (PETC). For local distribution of bulk-packaged commodity, mushrooms were sorted again and packaged into 3 consumer units in the same way as for the initial shipping packages. Simulation of refrigerated container shipping was performed in a walk-in type pilot storage at $0.5^{\circ}C$ for 5 weeks, while local marketing simulation was carried out on the shelf at $7^{\circ}C$ for 7 days. During the shipment simulation, creation of modified atmosphere (MA) was substantial in 2 kg bulk packages with low $O_2$ below 2% and high $CO_2$ over 15% whereas, in PPB and PETC unit packages, relatively higher $O_2$ concentrations were observed. On the shelf at $7^{\circ}C$, $CO_2$ concentrations rapidly increased in PPB and PETC packages despite the short marketing period. Overall marketability evaluated by off-flavor, browning, and texture rating was maintained at excellent level when 2 kg bulk packaging in PE or unit packaging in PPB and PETC were used for shipment. In contrast, establishment of MA was very slight in STW packages during shipment and local distribution resulting in poor quality after export simulation. The results suggested that shipment using adequate consumer unit packaging is more practical and economically beneficial than using bulk packaging in the export program consisting of 5-week shipment and 7-day local distribution.

Assessment of Site Environmental Factors on the Structure of Forest Vegetation in Naejang-san National Park Using Canonical Correlation Analysis (정준상관분석을 통한 내장산국립공원 산림식생구조의 입지환경 평가)

  • Kim, Tae-Geun;Cho, Young-Hwan;Oh, Jang-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.46 no.4
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    • pp.561-569
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    • 2013
  • This study examines locational environment factors that may affect the vegetation structure in the forests of Naejang National Park. To that end, we selected LAI (Leaf Area Index), diameter at breast height, and tree height as structural variables as well as altitude above sea level, gradient, slope direction, soil moisture, topographic location, and amount of solar radiation as locational environment factors, using the method of canonical correlation analysis in order to find out correlation between them. As to the simple correlation between the locational environment factors and structural variables, the correlation coefficient was relatively low (0.6). The values of LAI, measured along the ridge with higher altitudes, decreased as the soil moisture and solar radiation increased. However, LAI increased as the gradient increased and the slope direction faced the north (farther from the east). In respect of the diameter at breast height, the diameter decreased as the altitude and gradient increased. But the diameter increased as the moisture and solar radiation increased. The tree height decreased as the moisture increased and the site was closer to the ridge. These various correlations show a variety of locational environment factors in the national park, implying that the structural variables are affected by complex locational environment factors. This study conducted a canonical correlation analysis on locational environment factors which may affect the vegetation structure, and the result showed that LAI increased and tree height & diameter at breast height decreased as the solar radiation & moisture decreased and altitude increased. Although more factors that may affect vegetation structure (e.g. climate) should be taken into account, this study is significant in that the vegetation structure, which can adapt to more unfavorable conditions in terms of solar radiation, moisture, and higher altitudes, could be inferred in a statistical way. The results of this study, especially the locational environment factors based on DEM, can be used for assessing diversity of vegetation structure in a forest and for monitoring the structure in a national park on a regular basis so as to establish more effective maintenance plans of a park.

Dieticians' Perceived Performance Level and Obstructive Factors of HACCP System among Elementary School Food Services in Gyeongbuk Province (경북지역 초등학교 영양(교)사의 학교급식 HACCP 시스템 수행 수준 및 장애요인 인식)

  • Yang, Ji Hye;Sung, Bo Mi;Kim, Mi Hwa;Jung, Hyun Sook;Cha, Myeong Hwa;Ryu, Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.11
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    • pp.1774-1784
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to determine obstructive factors and performance level of the HACCP system among elementary schools in Gyeongbuk province. E-mail survey targeted 320 dieticians, and recovery rate was 74.1%. Consequently, 227 responses were analyzed. The questionnaire was composed of 58 items under four sections (general characteristics, dieticians' perceived HACCP performance level, dieticians' perceived CCP performance level, and obstructive factors of HACCP system implementation). The item with the highest rate of HACCP performance level was 'HACCP training for foodservice employees in schools ($4.02{\pm}0.70$)' while the lowest counterpart was 'implementation of HACCP team meeting, reporting, and maintenance ($2.74{\pm}0.99$)'. The performance level of the item 'HACCP training for foodservice employees in schools' was perceived as highest when the number of students eating school meals was greater than 1,101 (P<0.05). Moreover, CCP 4 ($4.44{\pm}0.53$) and CP 5 ($4.44{\pm}0.51$) showed the best performance, whereas CCP 1 showed the lowest performance level ($3.90{\pm}0.60$). Therefore, reinforcement of hygiene instruction in menu planning is perceived as necessary. CCP 1, CCP 6 (P<0.05), and CCP 3 (P<0.001) showed significant differences in performance based on the number of students eating school meals. Further, according to results regarding obstructive factors of HACCP system execution, 'general factor' was the most severe obstructive factor in the application of HACCP ($3.46{\pm}0.62$). Among the 'factors pertaining to dieticians', the item 'hardship of proper monitoring and micro-management due to overwhelming workload' was most influential ($3.46{\pm}0.96$). Furthermore, the item 'low budget allocation by educational offices ($3.90{\pm}0.88$)' was influential among the 'factors pertaining to school administrations'. In conclusion, the results of this research can help solve obstructive factors of elementary school food services and provide knowledge that is essential for the proper implementation of HACCP.

Activation Analysis of Dual-purpose Metal Cask After the End of Design Lifetime for Decommission (설계수명 이후 해체를 위한 금속 겸용용기의 방사화 특성 평가)

  • Kim, Tae-Man;Ku, Ji-Young;Dho, Ho-Seog;Cho, Chun-Hyung;Ko, Jae-Hun
    • Journal of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology(JNFCWT)
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.343-356
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    • 2016
  • The Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) has developed a dual-purpose metal cask for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel that has been generated by domestic light-water reactors. The metal cask was designed in compliance with international and domestic technology standards, and safety was the most important consideration in developing the design. It was designed to maintain its integrity for 50 years in terms of major safety factors. The metal cask ensures the minimization of waste generated by maintenance activities during the storage period as well as the safe management of the waste. An activation evaluation of the main body, which includes internal and external components of metal casks whose design lifetime has expired, provides quantitative data on their radioactive inventory. The radioactive inventory of the main body and the components of the metal cask were calculated by applying the MCNP5 ORIGEN-2 evaluation system and by considering each component's chemical composition, neutron flux distribution, and reaction rate, as well as the duration of neutron irradiation during the storage period. The evaluation results revealed that 10 years after the end of the cask's design life, $^{60}Co$ had greater radioactivity than other nuclides among the metal materials. In the case of the neutron shield, nuclides that emit high-energy gamma rays such as $^{28}Al$ and $^{24}Na$ had greater radioactivity immediately after the design lifetime. However, their radioactivity level became negligible after six months due to their short half-life. The surface exposure dose rates of the canister and the main body of the metal cask from which the spent nuclear fuel had been removed with expiration of the design lifetime were determined to be at very low levels, and the radiation exposure doses to which radiation workers were subjected during the decommissioning process appeared to be at insignificant levels. The evaluations of this study strongly suggest that the nuclide inventory of a spent nuclear fuel metal cask can be utilized as basic data when decommissioning of a metal cask is planned, for example, for the development of a decommissioning plan, the determination of a decommissioning method, the estimation of radiation exposure to workers engaged in decommissioning operations, the management/reuse of radioactive wastes, etc.

Study on Importance-Performance Analysis Regarding Selection Attributes of Rice-Convenience Foods (쌀을 이용한 편의식품의 선택속성에 관한 중요도-수행도 분석(IPA))

  • Park, Hyojin;Oh, Narae;Jang, Jin-A;Yoon, Hei Ryeo;Cho, Mi Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.4
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    • pp.593-601
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to establish an effective marketing strategy based on Importance-Performance Analysis (IPA) of rice-convenience foods. IPA is one of the most efficient and simple methods to evaluate product quality. Data were collected from 652 people (320 males and 332 females) and analyzed by SPSS 19.0. Subjects consumed rice-convenience foods as a snack substitute (19.3%), breakfast (20.7%), lunch (37.4%), dinner (15.2%), and late-night meal (7.4%). The purpose for consumption of rice-convenience foods were as follows: light meal (34.8%), lack of time to prepare meal (42.2%), favorite restaurant is not nearby (2.3%), save money (3.4%), and outdoor activities (9.7%). All attributes about rice-convenience foods were categorized into intrinsic property and extrinsic property. As a result of factor analysis, health, sensibility, and diversity factors were extracted from intrinsic property. In addition, dependence and appearance factors were drawn from extrinsic property. In analyzing the differences between importance and performance, there were significant differences; 16 items in the intrinsic property (P<0.01), and 10 items in the extrinsic property (P<0.001). The IPA matrix is composed of four quadrants, and each represents different strategies; the first, 'keep up the good work', the second, 'possible overkill', the third, 'low priority for management', and the fourth, 'concentrate management'. As a result, factors of rice-convenience foods positioned in the fourth quadrant were 'safety (from food additives, etc.)' and 'price' in the intrinsic property and 'nutrition label' and 'safety of packaging material' in the extrinsic property. They need to be improved immediately. In this study, rice-convenience food factors for continuous maintenance and concentrative improvement were compared by IPA. Based upon the results of this study, it is necessary to develop methods to make efficient use of limited resources and practical marketing strategies.

The Development of Vulnerable Elements and Assessment of Vulnerability of Maeul-soop Ecosystem in Korea (한국 마을숲 생태계 취약요소 발굴 및 취약성 평가)

  • Lim, Jeong-Cheol;Ryu, Tae-Bok;Ahn, Kyeong-Hwan;Choi, Byoung-Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2016
  • Maeul-soop(Village forest) is a key element of Korean traditional village landscape historically and culturally. However, a number of Maeul-soops have been lost or declined due to various influences since the modern age. For this Maeul-soop that has a variety of conservation values including historical, cultural and ecological ones, attention and efforts for a systematic conservation and restoration of Maeul-soop are needed. The purpose of the present study is to provide information on ecological restoration and sustainable use and management of Maeul-soops based on component plant species, habitat and location characteristics of 499 Maeul-soops spread throughout Korea. Major six categories of threat factors to Maeul-soop ecosystem were identified and the influence of each factor was evaluated. For the evaluation of weight by threat factors for the influence on the vulnerability of Maeul-soop ecosystem, more three-dimensional analysis was conducted using Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) analysis method. In the results of evaluation using AHP analysis method, reduction of area, among six categories, was spotted as the biggest threat to existence of Maeul-soops. Next, changes in topography and soil environment were considered as a threat factor of qualitative changes in Maeul-soop ecosystem. Influence of vegetation structure and its qualitative changes on the loss or decline of Masul-soop was evaluated to be lower than that of changes in habitat. Based on weight of each factor, the figures were converted with 100 points being the highest score and the evaluation of vulnerability of Maeul-soop was conducted with the converted figures. In the result of evaluation of vulnerability of Maeul-soops, grade III showed the highest frequency and a normal distribution was formed from low grade to high grade. 38 Maeul-soops were evaluated as grade I which showed high naturality and 10 Maeul-soops were evaluated as grade V as their maintenance was threatened. Also in the results of evaluation of vulnerability of each Maeul-soop, restoration of Maeul-soop's own area was found as top priority to guarantee the sustainability of Maeul-soops. It was confirmed that there was a need to prepare a national level ecological response strategy for each vulnerability factor of Maeul-soop, which was important national ecological resources.

Selection and Application of Evaluation Factors for Urban Regeneration Project (도시재생사업의 평가요인 선정 및 적용)

  • Jang, Cheol-Kyu
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.53-66
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to suggest indicator-based selection and improvement plans for evaluating urban regeneration projects. First, we selected the indicators by conducting expert surveys and analysis of the responses received. Additionally, using the selected indicators, we analyzed the residents' opinions in Wongogae Village, where urban regeneration projects were in progress. Based on these, we suggested a plan to improve Wongogae Village. According to the study, we classified the urban regeneration evaluation indicators into 'Physical environment', 'Social environment' and 'Economic environment' according to their characteristics. We selected urban regeneration evaluation factors through the first expert survey and MCB analysis. As a result, we selected six factors for the 'Physical environment' category: 'Traffic and pedestrian environment', 'Residential (housing) environment', 'Safety and security environment', 'Greenspace', 'Landscape improvement' and 'Public space', In the 'Social environment' category, four factors were chosen: 'Resident participation', 'Community activation', 'Role of the local government and support centers' and 'Resident education' while for the 'Economic environment' category three factors were selected: 'Local economic revitalization', 'Creating an economy-based environment', 'Job creation'. Next, we conducted a second expert survey and carried out an AHP analysis using the selected evaluation factors to derive the overall weight for each. Among the evaluation factors for urban regeneration, the 'Residential (housing) environment' has the highest weighted value of 0.108, followed by 'Local economic revitalization' and 'Resident participation'. Lastly, the analysis of the residents' opinions of Wongogae Village using the urban regeneration evaluation factors, Parking environment', 'Maintenance of old houses and living environment', 'Environment for founding town and social enterprises', 'Improve commercial and business environment', 'Maintain and activate existing business' and 'Vitalizing small regional economies such as domestic handicrafts and side-job' had high overall importance, but low satisfaction, which means that it is necessary to improve the focus. Therefore, in order to improve the urban regeneration project in villages, it is necessary to improve the parking environment by expanding public parking lots, eliminate close houses, and idle lands, or open a school playground in the village for the residents. In addition, it is essential to encourage economic activities, such as fostering village enterprises and social enterprises in connection with cooperatives and allow for the selling of the products through resident activities, such as neighboring markets.

Management Guidelines and the Structure of Vegetation in Natural Monuments Koelreuteria Paniculata Community (천연기념물 모감주나무군락의 식생구조와 관리제언)

  • Shin, Byung Chul;Lee, Won Ho;Kim, Hyo Jeong;Hong, Jeum Kyu
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.100-117
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    • 2010
  • This study analyzed vegetation structure of natural monuments Koelreuteria paniculata community in search of a conservation and management plan. Plant sociological analysis of Koelreuteria paniculata community indicates that it can be classified into Achyranthes japonica subcommunity and Rhodotypos scandens subcommunity and Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermedium subcommunity. While Koelreuteria paniculata community of Ahnmyeondo is composed of sub tree layer and herb layer, those of Pohang and Wando are composed of tree layer, Sub tree layer, shrub layer, herb layer. The results of tree vitality analysis showed that those in Ahnmyeondo appeared to be relatively low when compared to those in Pohang and Wando-gun. This can be understood in two different aspects: disease and insects vulnerability due to a relatively simple structure and lack of competitive species, and decreased vitality / natural branch losses due to crown competition arising from high density. The result of soil characteristics analysis showed that soil texture, soil pH, organic matter, $p_2O_5$, exchange positive ion were sufficient for tree growth while total nitrogen was not, so that discretion would be needed for fertilizer application. As there were damages of disease and inscet, but only for 10~15% of the entire area; it still requires consistent preconsideration. The study suggests the management methods for preservation of Koelreuteria paniculata community. First, securing designated areas is necessary in order to minimize environment deterioration due to surrounding development. Especially, for sections with decreased areas, expansion of designated areas through land purchase should also be considered. Second, artificial interference may affect the livestock. Therefore, monitoring of artificial interference is necessary, based on which protection projects must be conducted. Third, from analysis of young plants which influence the maintenance mechanisms of Koelreuteria paniculata community, a decrease compared to the prior year was observed; investigation is needed. Therefore, an active management policy through status examination of livestock such as germination and young plants is necessary.

A Study on the Plant Planning in Landscape Space Considering the Characteristics of the Gender Determination of Pine Tree (소나무 성 결정 요인의 특성을 고려한 조경공간 식재계획)

  • Lee, Chang-Hun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2020
  • This study analyzed the components contained in the pine needles of first and second-year-olds to analyze the factors that the in vivo content of inorganic elements affects the sex determination of pine trees. In response, the plan for pine tree plant and maintenance was intended to be presented in consideration of the reproductive environment and physiological characteristics. The results are as follows. First, last year, when there were many encyclopedias, the analyzed N(%) content was found to be high. The nitrogen content of the previous year's soil was found to affect the production of the spheres the following year. This is believed to be possible to reduce the rate of Pine pollen produced in the new plant in the following year through a dispute over quality consumption in the spring of the previous year. Second, the weapons elements involved in the Pine cones and the generation of the Pine pollen in the new plant appeared to be P(%), K(%), Ca(%), and Fe(%). However, the nutrients from the previous year's leaves of Ca(%) and Fe(%) were found to have a low influence on the sex determination of first-year pine trees. Because Ca(%) and Fe(%) are not able to move nutrients accumulated in aging organs due to the nature of the components, feeding nutrients in the fall when the growth of the previous year's branches is reduced is expected to affect oral generation. Third, pine trees are extremely positive and Pine pollen is related to the time of the northeast wind. Therefore, it is believed that it would be good to be located in the northern direction, where the sunlight is good, in an outdoor space. In addition, it is important to use vaginal consumer products in spring and carry out a quarrel involving Mg and Fe during fall to reduce the effect of the Pine pollen, which is an outdoor plant. This is an important part of maintaining and managing pine trees in outdoor spaces as well as the sex determination of pine trees. This study suggested that plant planning, which derives the correlation between pine inorganic element content on sexual determination and takes into account the physiological characteristics of pine trees, is an important issue in the creation of outdoor space. Follow-up research on other factors affecting pine tree sex determination is expected.