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Quality of Low Fat Chicken Nuggets: Effect of Sodium Chloride Replacement and Added Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) Hull Flour

  • Verma, Arun K.;Banerjee, Rituparna;Sharma, B.D.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.291-298
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    • 2012
  • While attempting to develop low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets, the effect of partial (40%) common salt substitution and incorporation of chickpea hull flour (CHF) at three different levels viz., 5, 7.5 and 10% (Treatments) in pre-standardized low fat chicken nuggets (Control) were observed. Common salt replacement with salt substitute blend led to a significant decrease in pH, emulsion stability, moisture, ash, hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess and chewiness values while incorporation of CHF in low salt, low fat products resulted in decreased emulsion stability, cooking yield, moisture, protein, ash, color values, however dietary fibre and textural properties were increased (p<0.01). Lipid profile revealed a decrease in total cholesterol and glycolipid contents with the incorporation of CHF (p<0.01). All the sensory attributes except appearance and flavor, remained unaffected with salt replacement, while addition of CHF resulted in lower sensory scores (p<0.01). Among low salt, low fat chicken nuggets with CHF, incorporation CHF at 5% level was found optimum having sensory ratings close to very good. Thus most acceptable low salt, low fat and high fibre chicken nuggets could be developed by a salt replacement blend and addition of 5% CHF.

Knowledge, Attitude, Practice and Related Factors about Low Salt Diet in University Students (대학생의 저염식이에 대한 지식, 태도, 행위와 관련요인)

  • Woo, Sang Jun;Cho, Yoo Hyang;Chung, Younghae;Park, Young Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.89-100
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: This study was carried out to measure knowledge, attitude, and practice and related factors of low-salt diet among university students. Methods: Data from a convenience sample of 251 nursing and engineering students of two universities in south-western part of Korea were collected during March 16~20, 2015 using a self-reporting questionaire and urine test. The instruments developed by Lee and Song(1999) were used to measure knowledge and practice, and Ahn(2013) for attitude toward low-salt diet. A spot urine salt stick($SaltSinal^{(R)}$) was also used to evaluate practice of low-salt diet. Data were analyzed using SPSS 21.0, and t-tests, ANOVA, Pearson correlation, and Scheffe test were used. The study was IRB approved. Results: Knowledge, attitude, and practice of low-salt diet was low and spot urine salt level was high among university students. Knowledge and attitude were higher and spot urine salt level was lower among nursing students. Knowledge and attitude were related to gender and drinking. Living arrangement, monthly allowance, smoking, frequency of eating-out, frequency of breakfast were shown not to be related to knowledge and attitude. None of the variable investigated were significantly related to practice of low-salt diet. However, spot urine salt was related with gender, living arrangement, and smoking. Conclusions: A rigorous health education is necessary in order to lower dietary salt among university students. Considering frequent eating-out among university students, it is also very important to lower salt amount in foods sold on- and off-campus.

Effects of Sodium Intakes on Blood Pressure and Blood Parameters in Korean Normal Adult Women (나트륨 섭취수준이 정상 성인 여성의 혈압과 혈액성상에 미치는 영향)

  • 이영근;승정자;최미경;이윤신
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.35 no.7
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    • pp.754-762
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    • 2002
  • This study was performed to investigate the effect of sodium intake on blood pressure and blood parameters. 20 young adult women were fed the diets containing 290.5 mEq (high-Na diet) and 51.3 mEq (low-Na diet) Na for 6 days, respectively. BMI, DBP, and MBP were significantly lower in low-Na diet than those in high-Na diet. 20 subjects were divided into 3 groups according to the salt-sensitivity. In salt-sensitive group, decreases in SBP, DBP, and MBP by low-Na diet were shown. And there were not significant difference in blood pressure of salt-resistant group between high- and low-Na diet. In count-reactive group, MBP in low-Na diet was significantly higher than that in high-Na diet. Hemoglobin, creatinine, uric acid, and haptoglobin levels in serum were significantly higher in low-Na diet than those in high-Na diet. Among groups with different salt-sensitivity, increments of haptoglobin by low-Na diet were shown in salt-sensitive and counter-reactive groups. Actually, low sodium diet affects not only the blood pressure, but other biochemical parameters which in turn affect an individual overall health. Also salt-sensitivity should be considered as an important determinant. Therefore, for the patients who need restricted Na diet, it would be suggested that various biochemical changes and individual salt-sensitivity should be carefully considered along with dietary Na manipulation.

Quality Characteristics of Low-Salt Gochujang Added with Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Brassica juncea

  • Lee, So-Young;Park, So-Lim;Yi, Sung-Hun;Nam, Young-Do;Lim, Seong-Il
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.348-356
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    • 2011
  • The effects of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Brassica juncea on the quality and palatability of low-salt gochujang were investigated in terms of the microbial characteristics, enzyme activities, pH, acidity, amino nitrogen and sensory evaluation during 40 days of fermentation. The proliferation of fungi in low-salt gochujang with added G. uralensis and B. juncea were inhibited, while the numbers of total viable bacteria and lactic acid bacteria were not affected. In terms of ${\alpha}$-amylase and ${\beta}$-amylase activity, no significant difference was observed by the salt concentration or additives. However, lowering the salt concentration increased protease activity. The amount of amino-nitrogen in low-salt gochujang at 20 days was similar to that in the control gochujang at 40 days. In the sensory test, low-salt gochujang was preferred compared to control gochujang (8.5% salt). Particularly, the 4.3% salt gochujang with additives was the most preferred.

Processing Conditions of Low-Salt Fermented Squid and Its Flavor Components 2. Effects of Temperature, Salinity and pH on the Growth of Bacteria from Isolated Low Salt Fermented Squid (저염 오징어젓갈 제조 방법 및 향미 성분 2. 온도, 염도 및 pH가 저염 오징어젓갈 숙성 세균의 발육에 미치는 영향)

  • 김영만;이원재;정윤미;허성호;최성희
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.631-635
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    • 1995
  • In order to develop effective manufacturing method and to improve quality of low-salt fermented squid(10% of table salt), we investigated the effects of temperature, salinity and pH on the growth of Staphylococcus xylosus, Micrococcus varians, Pseudomonas diminuta and Pseudomonas D2 isolated from of low-salt fermented squid and the growth characteristics of these bacteria during fermentation were elucidated. All bacteria showed good growth during the process of low-salt fermented squid(pH 6~7 ; concentration of NaCl, 7~10% ; temperature, 7~1$0^{\circ}C$) and their cell numbers increased as fermentation proceeded under the same fermentation condition.

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Physicochemical, Textural, and Sensory Properties of Low-fat/reduced-salt Sausages as Affected by Salt Levels and Different Type and Level of Milk Proteins

  • Lee, Hong-Chul;Chin, Koo-Bok
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.36-42
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to develop low-fat/reduced-salt sausages (LFRSS; <3% fat and <1.5% salt) containing milk protein (whey protein concentrate, WPC, or sodium caseinate, SC) that showed the similar cooking yield and textural characteristics to those of regular-fat/salt sausage control (RFC; 20% fat and 1.5% salt) or low-fat sausage control (LFC; <3% fat and 1.5% salt). Low-fat sausages (LFS) were formulated with a 2.5% fat replacer (konjac flour:carrageenan:soy protein isolate=1:1:3) and various salt levels (0.75, 1.0, 1.25, and 1.5%). LFS had differences in color and expressible moisture (EM, %) values as compared to those of RFC. A minimum salt level of 1% and addition of nonmeat proteins were required to manufacture LFRSS that have similar characteristics to those of RFC. However, LFS with 2% milk proteins reduced the hardness and gumminess as compared to LFC. These results indicated that 1% milk protein in combined with 1% salt was a proper level for manufacturing of LFRSS.

Impacts of Irradiation Sources on Quality Attributes of Low-salt Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

  • Song, Dong-Heon;Kim, Hyun-Wook;Hwang, Ko-Eun;Kim, Yong-Jae;Ham, Youn-Kyung;Choi, Yun-Sang;Shin, Dong-Jin;Kim, Tae-Kyung;Lee, Jae Hoon;Kim, Cheon-Jei;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.698-707
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    • 2017
  • This study was performed to investigate the impacts of irradiation sources on quality attributes of low-salt sausage during refrigerated storage. Control sausage was prepared with 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl), whereas low-salt sausage was formulated with 0.75% NaCl (a 50% reduction; L-control). Sausage samples were vacuum-packaged, and low-sausages were irradiated with gamma-ray, electron-beam and X-ray at 5 kGy, respectively. The samples were stored at $4^{\circ}C$ for 28 d to determine changes in quality attributes. The pH of low-salt sausages was unaffected by irradiation at 5 kGy (p>0.05). Higher redness values were found at irradiated low-salt sausages compared to control (p<0.05). The hardness, gumminess and chewiness of control sausage were higher than those of low-salt sausages (p<0.05). However, there were no significant differences in the textural parameters between low-salt sausage treatments. The overall sensory acceptability score of irradiated/low-salt sausages were lower than L-control due to decreased scores for cooked meat flavor but increased radiolytic off-flavor (p<0.05). The initial 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values of irradiated/low-salt sausages were higher than control and L-control (p<0.05). However, the TBARS values of irradiated treatments were significantly lower than control at the end of storage. Irradiation could effectively inhibit the microorganism growth (total aerobic bacteria, coliforms, Enterobacteriaceae, and Pseudomonas spp.) in low-salt sausages (p<0.05). Therefore, our findings show that irradiation could be to improve microbial safety of low-salt sausages, and suggest that further studies should be necessary to reducing radiolytic off-flavor of irradiated/low-salt sausages.

Application of Microbial Transglutaminase and Functional Ingredients for the Healthier Low-Fat/Salt Meat Products: A Review (건강지향의 저지방/저염 식육가공품을 위한 Microbial Transglutaminase와 기능성 소재 이용 기술)

  • Lee, Hong-Chul;Chin, Koo-Bok
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.886-895
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    • 2010
  • The level of fat and salt can affect the product quality and storage stability of processed meats. Additionally, consumers' demands require dietary guidelines for developing low-fat/salt functional foods. Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase), which enhances textural properties by catalyzing protein-protein cross-linkages, was introduced to develop healthier lowfat/salt meat products. The potential possibilities of low-fat/salt processed meats were reviewed under optimal conditions for functional ingredients from several previous studies. The addition of non-meat protein (e.g. sodium caseinate and soy protein isolates), hydrocolloids (e. g. konjac flour, carrageenan, and alginates), and MTGase alone or in combination with other functional ingredients improved textural and sensory properties similar to those of regularly processed meats. When MTGase was combined with hydrocolloids (konjac flour or sodium alginate) or other functional ingredients, gelling properties of meat protein were improved even at a low salt level. Based on these reviews, functional ingredients combined with new processing technologies could be incorporated into processed meats to improve the functionality of various low-fat/salt meat products.

Study on the Relationship between the Eating Out Behavior of Family and a Low-Salt Management by Housewives in Jeonju Area (전주지역 가족의 외식행태와 주부의 저염식관리와의 관계연구)

  • Song, Hyungeun;Lee, Soyoung;Rho, Jeongok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.95-103
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    • 2018
  • This study examined the relationship between the eating out behavior of families and a low-salt management by housewives in Jeonju area. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 420 housewives. Descriptive statistical analyses was completed using SPSS v. 19.0 and Stata 13.0. The frequency of eating out and delivered food of housewives in their 20s was significantly higher than that of the older housewives (p<0.001). The high order frequency delivered foods were chicken menu and Chinese food. The determinants of the eating out menu were children's preference and meal time. The average scores of 'interest on low-salt diet', 'attitude toward a low-salt purchasing', and 'praxis a low-salt diet' were $2.70{\pm}0.95$, $3.06{\pm}1.13$, and $3.26{\pm}0.91$, respectively. The level of a low-salt management housewives in their 20s was higher than that of the older housewives (p<0.001). Regression analysis showed that various factors (e.g. age, number of children, education level, and frequency of the eating out) correlated with the low-salt diet of subjects. For the adequate eating out behavior of families and low-salt management of housewives, information and consumer education to take family-related situations into consideration are necessary.

The Changes of Titrable Acidity and Free Amino Acids in Low Salt Fermented Squid Affected by Adding to Squid Ink (오징어 먹즙 첨가에 따른 저염 오징어 젓갈의 적정산도 및 유리아미노산의 변화)

  • Oh, Sung-Cheon
    • Journal of the Korean Applied Science and Technology
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.517-525
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    • 2011
  • Squid ink was added to the low salt fermented squid by 4% of concentration and ripened at $10^{\circ}C$ for 6 weeks and at $20^{\circ}C$ for 28 days. The effect of the squid ink on the titrable acidity and free amino acids of low salt fermented squid were investigated. The results are as follows; The titrable acidity in the salt fermented squid without addition of the squid ink was continuously decreased except for the salt fermented squid with 9% salt content till the latter stage of the ripening, had larger decreasing range than treatment groups. Seeing the composition of free amino acid, the major amino acids are proline, arginine, glutamic acid. leucine and glycine.