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A Survey on the Pesticide Residues and Risk Assessment for Agricultural Products on the Markets in Incheon Area from 2010 to 2012 (인천광역시 유통 농산물의 최근 3년간의 잔류농약 실태 및 안전성 조사)

  • Kim, Hye-Young;Lee, Soo-Yeon;Kim, Cheol-Gi;Choi, Eun-Jeong;Lee, Eun-Ju;Jo, Nam-Gyu;Lee, Jea-Man;Kim, Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: This survey was done to investigate the pesticide residues and to assess their risk on agricultural products on the Markets in Incheon from 2010 to 2012. METHODS AND RESULTS: The total number of samples were 16,025 for agricultural products and these were analyzed by multi-residue method using GC-ECD/NPD, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS and HPLC-PDA/FLD. The violation rates of the samples over maximum residue limits(MRLs) of pesticide residues established by Korean Food and Drug Administration in the survey of 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Of the total violated samples, more than 75% of the rates were recorded from the samples of leafy vegetables. Most commonly encountered agricultural commodities over MRLs were Chwinamul, perilla leaves and crown daisy. The pesticides detected yearly over MRLs during three years were endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, lufenuron, chlorothalonil, flutolanil, procymidone, ethoprophos. Estimated daily intakes compared to acceptable daily intakes, except radish and Welsh onion, is estimated less harm on human in 10 kinds of pesticides which frequently occurred violation.

Monitoring of Pesticide Residues and Risk Assessment for Fruits in Market (국내 유통 과실류의 잔류농약 모니터링 및 위해성 평가)

  • Ahn, Ji-Woon;Jeon, Young-Hwan;Hwang, Jeong-In;Kim, Jeong-Min;Seok, Da-Rong;Lee, Eun-Hyang;Lee, Seong-Eun;Chung, Duck-Hwa;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.142-147
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to monitor residual pesticides in domestic agricultural products and to assess their risk to human health. METHODS AND RESULTS: 123 samples containing both general and environment-friendly certified agricultural products were purchased from traditional domestic markets and supermarkets in six provinces of Korea. Multiresidue analyses of one hundred twenty-two pesticides except for herbicides were performed with gas chromatography-electron capture detector, gas chromatography-nitrogen/phosphorus detector, and high-performance liquid chromatography. Sixteen pesticides were detected in 45 agricultural product samples, which were 38 general, 6 low pesticide and 1 of GAP agricultural product samples and the detection rate was 33.6%. Pesticides detected in agricultural product samples were cypermethrin, lufenuron, fenvalerate, bifenthrin, chlorfenapyr and iprodione. Residual concentration of 18 samples were exceeded the recommended maximum residue limit set by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety and two kinds of unregistered pesticides in korea were also detected in two samples. CONCLUSION(S): In order to do risk assessment by agricultural products consumption, estimated daily intake of residual pesticides were determined and compared to acceptable daily intake, referring to %ADI values. The range of %ADI values was from 0.038% to 2.748%. Taken together, it demonstrates the pesticides found in agricultural products samples were below the safety margin, indicating no effect on human health.

Herbicidal and Insecticidal Potentials of 5-Aminolevulinic acid, a Biodegradable Substance (생분해성 생리활성물질 5-aminolevulinic acid의 제초 및 살충활성)

  • Chon, Sang-Uk
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.52-58
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    • 2007
  • ALA (5-aminolevulinic acid) has been proposed as a tetrapyrrole-dependent photodynamic herbicide and insecticide by the action of the protoporphyrinogen IX oxidase (Protox IX). The present study was conducted to determine growth responses of plant and insects to ALA, biodegradable biopesticidal substance. In the paddy condition experiment, plant height and shoot fresh weight of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) was more reduced by ALA than rice plants, even though both plant species show great phytotoxicity. Hairy crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis), a monocot weed, was more sensitive to ALA at 5mM under upland condition when ALA applied on the foliage, compared with soybean (Glycine max) as a dicot crop. ALA solutions were tested for their insecticidal and larvicidal activities against Spodaptera exigua (Hubner) and Tetranychus urticae Koch. by foliar application and leaf-dipping method. The result showed higher insecticidal activity of ALA at 10mM and its mixture with insecticide luferon against S. exigua. Strongest insecticidal activity against T. urticae was observed from the ALA solution at 10mM 72 days after application. This results show that ALA solution had potent herbicidal and insecticidal activities against agricultural pests even though their activities were lower than those of synthetic pesticides.

Monitoring and Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Red Pepper Powder Focused on Red Pepper's Major Production Area in Korea (2015-2016) (고추 주산지 중심으로 고춧가루의 잔류농약 모니터링 및 위해도 평가(2015-2016))

  • Gye, Hyeonjin;Lee, Donghun;Jeong, Minhong;Byun, Jieun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.285-293
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    • 2020
  • This study was conducted to monitor the residual pesticides on red pepper powder produced in five regions, which are the major producers of red pepper in Korea, such as Ham-pyeong, An-dong, Yeong-yang, Yeong-gwang, and Cheongyang from 2015 to 2016. Residual pesticides were detected on all samples. Among the 286 pesticides tested, 58 pesticides were detected, with the most frequently detected being chlorfenapyr (93.7%). Twelve types of pesticides (chlorfenapyr, cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, pyraclostrobin, cyhalothrin, tebuconazole, bifenthrin, deltamethrin, fenvalerate, lufenuron, azoxystrobin, and indoxacarb) were detected in all regions, and 14 types of pesticides were used only in certain regions. An analysis of the residual pesticides showed that none of the pesticides detected exceeded the MRL (Maximum Residue Limits). The Positive List System (PLS) requirements were applied to eight pesticides that had no set MRLs. 0.01 mg/kg (PLS requirements) was exceeded in 12 cases. A comparison of the estimated daily intake (EDI) of pesticides with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) to access their risk revealed %ADI values of 0.001-0.756. Carbofuran showed the highest (0.756%), but most pesticides were below 1%. The results show that residual pesticides in red pepper powder are at safe levels.

A Safety Survey on Pesticide Residues in Dried Agricultural Products (건조농산물의 잔류농약 안전성 조사)

  • Lee, Hyo-Kyung;Oh, Moon-Seog;Jeong, Jin-A;Kim, Ki-Yu;Lee, Seong-Bong;Kim, Han-Taek;Kang, Hyang-Ri;Son, Ji-Hee;Lee, Yun-Mi;Lee, Mi-Kyoung;Lee, Byoung-Hoon;Kim, Ji-Won;Park, Yong-Bae
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.340-347
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    • 2019
  • We performed a safety survey on residual pesticides in dried agricultural products. A total of 110 samples of dried agricultural products distributed in Gyeonggi-do were analyzed for 263 pesticides according to multi class pesiticide multiresidue method. Ten types of pesticides were detected in 10 samples. Chlorpyrifos was detected in Ricinus communis leaves, chlorpyrifos, hexaconazole, pyridalyl in Chwinamul (wild aster), diniconazole, isoprothiolane, lufenuron in radish leaves, hexaconazole in Cirsium setidens (Korean thistle), bifenthrin, and chlorothalonil, boscalid, and pyraclostrobin in pepper leaves. The detection rate of pesticides was 9.1%, and among these samples, one was detected over Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). In the validation study, the values of limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantitation (LOQ), coefficient of determination ($R^2$) and recovery were in the range of 0.002~0.027 mg/kg, 0.006~0.083 mg/kg, 0.9964~1.0000 and 74.8~118.9%, respectively. The Positive List System (PLS) was newly introduced as part of the safety management of residual pesticide in agricultural products in Korea in 2019. With the application of the PLS, if the MRL is not established, 0.01 mg/kg limit is applied uniformly. In spite, these of strengthened residue limits, the MRLs of dried agricultural products are still insufficient. Therefore, this study could be utilized as basic data for the setting of proper MRLs.

Monitoring of Residual Pesticides in Commercial Agricultural Products in Korea (국내 유통 농산물의 농약 잔류실태 모니터링)

  • Kim, Hee-Yeon;Park, Hyoung-Joon;Lee, Jin-Ha;Gwak, In-Shin;Moon, Hyung-Sil;Song, Mi-Hye;Jang, Young-Mi;Lee, Myoung-Sook;Park, Jong-Seok;Lee, Kwang-Ho;Yoon, Sang-Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.237-245
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    • 2007
  • We tested for residual pesticide levels in agricultural products purchased from 5 provinces within the middle region of Korea during 2006. A Total of 488 samples of 23 different types of agricultural products were analyzed by GC/MS, GC-NPD, and LC/MS/MS. We used multi-analysis methods to analyze for 231 different pesticide types; a single residual pesticides were detected in 92 samples (18.9%), of which 9 samples (1.9%) exceeded the Korea Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs). we detected pesticide residue in more than 50% of the pepper leaf and welsh onion samples. For the welsh onions, 16 among the 30 analyzed samples contained pesticide residue, and 4 samples exceeded the Korea MRLs. Among the 234 kinds of pesticides we tested for, 42 were detected, and 21 of them were detected more than twice. Six pesticide residue types, including cypermethrin, iprodione, fludioxonil, ethoprophos, flutolanil, and lufenuron, exceeded the MRLs. No residual pesticides were detected in 396 of the samples (81.1%), and the residual pesticide levels in 83 samples (17.0%) were lower than the Korea MRLs, indicating that 98.1% of the samples were relatively safe.

Evaluation of Acute and Residual Toxicity of Insecticides Registered on Strawberry against Honeybee (Apis mellifera) (딸기에 등록된 살충제의 꿀벌에 대한 급성 및 엽상잔류독성)

  • Ahn, Ki-Su;Yoon, Changmann;Kim, Ki-Hyun;Nam, Sang-Young;Oh, Man-Gyun;Kim, Gil-Hah
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.185-192
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    • 2013
  • This study was performed to evaluate the spray toxicity and leaf residual toxicity of 52 kinds of insecticides registered for strawberry against adult honeybee Apis mellifera. According to the IOBC standard, the acute toxicity by spraying showed below 30% was classified as non-toxic. Among tested insecticides, 32 insecticides (flonicamid, lufenuron, novaluron, three kinds of acetamiprid, thiacloprid, milbemectin, acequinocyl, TBI-1, two kinds of chlorfenapyr, chlorfluazuron, cyenopyrafen, cyfumetofen, etoxazole, fenpyroximate, flubendiamide, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, metaflumizone, two kinds of methoxyfenozide, DBB-2032, pyridalyl, spiromesifen, tebufenpyrad, teflubenzuron, acetamiprid + methoxyfenozide, acrinathrin + spiromesifen, bifenazate + spiromesifen, cyenopyrafen + flufenoxuron) did not show any toxic effect, it is thought to be safe. And the others (20 insecticides) showed higher toxicity to honeybee. Insecticides which showed acute toxicity higher than 90% was selected and tested the residual toxicity. All insecticides except emamectin benzoate EC, and indoxacarb SC showed 100% mortality at one day after treatment (DAT). However, the toxicities of emamectin benzoate, indoxacarb SC, and abamectin did not show until 3, 7, 14 DAT, respectively. Nine insecticides such as indoxacarb WP, thiamethoxam WG, abamectin + chlorantraniliprole SC, acetamiprid + etofenprox WP, acetamiprid + indoxacarb WP, bifenthrin + clothianidin SC, bifenthrin + imidacloprid WP, bifenazate + pyridaben SC, chlorfenapyr + clothianidin SC showed over 90% residual toxicity until 31 Day. In pouring treatment, thiamethoxam WG showed 76.9% mortality at 28 DAT and 50.0% mortality at 31 DAT. After 35 days, thiamethoxam WG showed no effect to honeybee. Bifenthrin + clothianidin SC and tefluthrin + thiamethoxam GR showed 57.1 and 80.0% mortality at 24 DAT, respectively. In spraying treatment, thiamethoxam WG and bifenthrin+clothianidin SC showed very high residual toxicity with 100% mortality in thirty-five DAT. After spraying treatment with thiamethoxam WG, bifenthrin+clothianidin SC, bifenthrin + imidacloprid WP, thiamethoxam WG showed 100% residual toxicity until 21 DAT and there was no activity after 28 DAT. Bifenthrin+clothianidin SC and bifenthrin+imidacloprid WP showed very high residual toxicity until 49 DAT.

Establishment of 22 Pesticide MRLs in Agricultural Products based on Risk Assessment (위해성평가에 근거한 농산물 중 22종 농약의 잔류허용기준설정)

  • Chung, Hyung-Wook;Ha, Yong-Geun;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Shin, Ji-Eun;Do, Jung-Ah;Oh, Jae-Ho;Cho, Jae-Ho;Kwon, Ki-Sung;Park, Sun-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: Food Sanitary Act establishes Maximum Residue Limits (MRLs) of pesticides in food that are newly registered and used per each quarter, as stipulated by Agro-chemical Control Act. Current Food Code contains the MRLs for a total of 418 pesticides in 184 food types. METHODS AND RESULTS: National MRLs for pesticides have been established by based on scientific data of good agricultural practice, acceptable daily intake (ADI), food intake, average body weight and others. MRLs for pesticides are generally set under the principle that theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) are always below ADI. As results, 27 MRLs in agricultural products were newly proposed for 22 pesticides (fungicide: azoxystrobin, fludioxonil, fluquinconazole, flusilazole, iprovalicarb, kresoxim-methyl, mandipropamid, metconazole, pyraclostrobin, tebuconazole, triflumizole, etc., Insecticide: dinotefuran, flubendiamide, indoxacarb, cyhalothrin, spinetoram, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, metaflumizone, etc., Acaricide(miticide): cyenopyrafen, lufenuron) in 2010. CONCLUSION(s): There is no intake concerns for establishment of pesticide MRLs on foods in this time. Because the ratio of theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) are set below that of ADI.

A Survey on Pesticide Residues of Commercial Flowering Teas (국내 유통중인 식용꽃차의 잔류농약 실태조사)

  • Park, Jungwook;Lee, Hyanghee;Oh, Musul;Kim, Jongpil;Jang, Taekwan;You, Youna;Ha, Dongryong;Kim, Eunsun;Seo, Kyewon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.1-5
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to the amount of pesticide residue in 21 different kinds of 100 commercial flowering teas. Multi-residue analyses of 203 pesticides was performed using the GC-ECD, GC-NPD, GC-MSD, and LC-MS/MS. Pesticide residues were detected in 4 samples (4%) of which 4 samples (4%) violated the maximum residue limits. 4 samples violating the limit were all imported teas. Pesticides detected were chlorpyrifos, flufenoxuron, lufenuron, pyrimethanil and methoxyfenozide. These results indicate the need of continuous monitoring of pesticide residue needs for safety of flowering teas.