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Pesticide residues in chili pepper seeds and their transfer into the seed oil (고추씨 중 농약 잔류와 고추씨 기름으로 농약의 이행)

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung;Kim, Jong Seong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.4
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    • pp.317-322
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    • 2016
  • A pesticide mix solution containing difenoconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and lufenuron was applied 3 times on field grown chili pepper at a fivefold overdose dilution concentration of the spray solution at a pre-harvest interval of 7 day. Difenoconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and lufenuron were detected at 4.43, 0.334, and 1.56 mg/kg, respectively, in raw chili pepper. Washing with water reduced the residue levels to 91.4, 94.3, and 85.3%, respectively. In dried chili pepper, the residues of difenoconazole, lambda-cyhalothrin, and lufenuron were 22.2 mg/kg (processing factor, Pf =5.01), 1.65 mg/kg (Pf =4.94), and 6.54 mg/kg (Pf =4.19). In the seeds, difenoconazole and lambda-cyhalothrin were not detected, and lufenuron was detected at 0.0075 mg/kg (n=1) and <0.005 mg/kg (n=2). Thus the pesticide residues in the seeds was negligible. In the seed oil, difenoconazole and lufenuron residues were 0.0263 and 0.0295 mg/kg, respectively (concentration factors=5.26 and 4.72). These concentration factors supported the theoretical concentration factor of 6.8, assuming that all of compound present in the seed are transferred into the oil.

Residual Pattern of Chlorothalonil, Indoxacarb, Lufenuron, Metalaxyl and Methomyl during the Cultivation Periods in Chinese Cabbage (얼갈이배추의 재배기간 중 Chlorothalonil, Indoxacarb, Lufenuron, Metalaxyl 및 Methomyl의 잔류량 변화)

  • Ko, Kwang-Yong;Kim, Sung-Hun;Jang, Young-Hee;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2008
  • In order to know the residual pattern of some pesticides and predict to the degradation period until below MRL, we experimented chlorothalonil, indoxacarb, lufenuron, metalaxyl and methomyl for Chinese cabbage. They were frequently detected pesticides in Chinese cabbage by NAQS (National Agricultural product Quality management Service) monitoring survey. In this experiment, we sprayed those pesticides 10days before harvest and analyzed 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10 day samples to establish logical equation and to calculate $DT_{50}0$. During the cultivating period, the residue amount of chlorothalonil was changed from $55.58\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $20.08\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), $DT_{50}$ was 7.45 days, indoxacarb was $7.85\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $1.46\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), and 4.2 days, lufenuron was $1.57\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $0.49\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), and 5.85 days, metalaxyl was $8.12\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $0.10\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), and 175 days, and methomyl was $11.51\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (0 day) to $0.80\;mg\;kg^{-1}$ (10 day), and 2.42 days at single dose application, respectively. The $DT_{50}$ of double amount in those pesticides were 9.05 days in chlorothatonil, 7.09 days in indoxacarb, 8.82 days in lufenuron, 3.32 days in metalaxyl, and 2.72 days in methomyl, respectively.

Effect of Bagging Technique on the Residue Patterns of Thiacloprid and Lufenuron in Grape fruit (Vitis labrusca L.) (포도 중 Thiacloprid와 Lufenuron의 유/무대 차이에 따른 잔류량 비교)

  • Jin, Yong-duk;Lim, Sung-Jin;Kim, Sang-Su;Choi, Geun-Hyoung;Lee, Hak-won;Jeong, Du-yun;Moon, Byung-Cheol;Ro, Jin-ho
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to compare the effect of bagging technique on the presence of pesticide residues in various parts of grape fruit (whole fruit, pulp and peel). The tested pesticides were diluted at 2,000 times and sprayed three times onto the crops at an interval of seven days and then they were collected at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after final application. Later, bagging/non-bagging samples were pre-treated with fruit, pulp and peel samples, respectively. Thiacloprid and lufenuron were not detected in any of the bagging samples. The thiacloprid residues of non-bagging samples in whole, peel and pulp samples were 0.47-1.09, 0.18-0.33 and 1.24-1.67 mg/kg, respectively. The lufenuron residues of non-bagging samples in whole fruit, peel and pulp samples were 0.16-0.62, < LOD-0.08 and 0.85-1.48 mg/kg, respectively. The biological half-lives of thiacloprid and lufenuron in whole fruit, peel and pulp of non-bagging samples were 5.7, 15.1 and 7.8 days and 4.0, 9.4 and 2.6 days, respectively. While the unbagged samples showed a sequential decrease in pesticide residues, this study concludes that bagging would be an effective method to protect the presence of thiacloprid and lufenuron residues in grape fruits.

Processing Factors and Removal Ratios of Select Pesticides in Hot Pepper Leaves by a Successive Process of Washing, Blanching, and Drying

  • Lee, Mi-Gyung;Jung, Da-I
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.1076-1082
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    • 2009
  • Six pesticides were determined in hot pepper leaves after successive processing steps of washing, blanching, and drying. The tested pesticides included dichlofluanid, flusilazole, folpet, iprodione, ${\lambda}$-cyhalothrin, and lufenuron. Each pesticide was singly applied to the leaves of the pepper plants, which were being cultivated in a greenhouse. The processing factors were dependent on the type of pesticide, and were in the following ranges: 0.09-0.73 by washing, <0.00-0.48 after blanching, and <0.00-3.30 after drying. Only lufenuron showed a processing factor of more than 1, at 3.30 in dried leaves, while the processing factors of the other pesticides were less than 1. The removal ratios of the tested pesticides by washing ranged from 27 to 90%. The blanching step increased their removals by 10-25%. However, drying did not have an effect on residue reduction. Finally, after proceeding to the drying step, removal ratios ranged from 85 to 100%, with the exception of lufenuron at 47%.

Residual Analysis of Insecticides (Lambda-cyhalothrin, Lufenuron, Thiamethoxam and Clothianidin) in Pomegranate Using GC-μECD or HPLC-UVD

  • Hem, Lina;Park, Jong-Hyouk;Shim, Jae-Han
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.257-265
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the residual levels of four insecticidal compounds (lambda-cyhalothrin, lufenuron, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin) were monitored in the pomegranate, in order to assess the risk to consumers posed by the presence of such residues. The insecticides were applied at the recommended dose rates onto pomegranate trees. The samples were then collected at harvesting time after several treatments (two, three, and four treatments). After sample preparation progressed through the clean-up procedure, lufenuron, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin residues were analyzed via a HPCL-UVD, and the lambda-cyhalothrin residue was analyzed via a GC-${\mu}ECD$. The versatility of this method was evidenced by its excellent linearity (>0.9998 to 1) at broad concentration ranges. The mean recoveries evaluated from the untreated sample spiked with two different fortification levels ranged from 72.45 to 113.90%, and the repeatability (as a relative standard deviation) resulted from triplicate recovery tests was in a range from 0.80 to 11.75%. The residues of all insecticides determined from treated pomegranate samples and their LOD levels (lunfenuron, 0.01; lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.005; thiamethoxam, 0.01; clothianidin, 0.02 mg/kg) were much lower than their MRLs (0.5 mg/kg).

Distribution Characteristics of Pesticide Residues in the Portions of Lettuce Leaves (상추 잎의 부위별 잔류농약 분포 특성)

  • Kwon, Sun-Mok;Choi, Ok-Kyung;Kim, Ki-Cheol;Kim, Jung-Beom;Kang, Heung-Gyu;Cho, Yun-Sik;Ha, Jin-Ok;Jang, Jin-Ho;Lee, Byoung-Hun;Lee, Sung-Nam;Lee, Sun-Young;Kang, Suk-Ho;Lee, Jong-Bok
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the changes of the residual amount in the leafstalk (end) and the fore-end (upper) portion of lettuce leaves during cultivation period to 14 days, 12 times in total (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 12, 13 and 14 days) after spraying with boscalid and lufenuron. In the case of boscalid, the initial concentrations at 3 hours (0 day) of the leafstalk and the fore-end portion of lettuce leaves were 18.26 mg/kg and 84.97 mg/kg, respectively and the residual amounts were rapidly decreased to 0.31 mg/kg and 0.37 mg/kg at 14 days after chemical application. In the case of lufenuron, the initial concentrations at 3 hours (0 day) of the leafstalk and the fore-end portion of lettuce leaves were 0.91 mg/kg and 5.21 mg/kg, respectively and the residual amounts were rapidly decreased to 0.06 mg/kg and 0.09 mg/kg at 13 days after chemical application. The variations of the residual concentrations analyzing 12 times after spraying showed that the residual amounts of the leafstalk portion of lettuce leaves were less than its fore-end portion in boscalid and lufenuron. In additon, 9 kinds of pesticide including boscalid in 16 lettuce leaf (found to contain pesticide in 2013) showed that the residual amounts of the leafstalk portion of lettuce leaves were less than its fore-end portion as well.

Establishment of National Quality Control System for Analytical Laboratory of Pesticide Products by Proficiency Testing (농약 이화학시험 분석기관의 숙련도시험을 통한 정도관리체계 확립 연구)

  • Chang, Hee-Ra;Park, Hyo-Kyung;Lim, Youngjoo;Kim, Kwang-Ho;Kim, Chan Sub;Kim, Kyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.350-356
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    • 2012
  • Performance of proficiency testing and the validation of analytical method was included a scheme of quality assurance in analytical chemistry laboratory to monitor a laboratory's performance abilities and produce consistently reliable data. This study was assessed the applicability of proficiency testing scheme proposed for analytical laboratories of pesticide product in domestic. The validation of analytical methods, stability and homogeneity for formulated pesticide products (emulsifiable concentrate) of emamectin benzoate and lufenuron was confirmed for the proficiency testing. The z-score of 33 participation laboratories for emamectin benzoate were that the numbers of outlier were 2 laboratories (6.0%), z-score outside the range from -3 to 3 designated "unaccptable" were 2 laboratories and z-score in the ranges -2 to -3 and 2 to 3 designated "questionable" were 3 laboratories (9.0%). Three laboratories (9.0%) showed the z-score designated "questionable" for lufenuron. The additional proficiency testing for various product types will be needed to establish the scheme of quality control.

Toxicity of Pesticides to Minute Pirate Bug, Orius strigicollis Poppius (Hemiptera: Anthocoridae), a Predator of Thrips (총채벌레의 천적인 으뜸애꽃노린재에 대한 농약 독성)

  • Ahn Ki-Su;Lee Ki-Yeol;Kang Hyu-Jung;Park Sung-Kyu;Kim Gil-Hah
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.257-262
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    • 2004
  • Toxicities of 51 pesticides (25 insecticides, 11, acaricides, 11 fungicides and 4 adjuvants) commonly used to control greenhouse insect, mite, and disease pests were evaluated to minute pirate bug, Orius strigicollis nymphs and adults at the recommended concentration. Among 25 insecticides tested, fipronil, lufenuron, acetamiprid+fipronil, $\alpha$-cypermethrin+flufenoxuron and buprofezin + amitraz showed low toxicity to O. strigicollis. Among acaricides, acequinocyl, bifenazate, chlorfenapyr, etoxazole, fenpyroximate, flufenoxuron, milbemectin, spirodiclofen and tebufenpyrad showed low toxicity to O. strigicollis. All fungicides and adjuvants tested were very low toxicity. It may be suggested from these results that five insecticides, nine acaricides, eleven fungicides and four adjuvants could be incorporated into the integrated thrips management system with O. strigicollis in greenhouses.

Insecticide Susceptibility in the Different Larva of Tobacco Cutworm, Spodoptera litural Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Collected in the Soybean Fields of Milyang, Korea (밀양산 콩포장 담배거세미나방 유충의 약제에 대한 감수성)

  • 배순도;최병렬;송유한;김현주
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2003
  • The susceptibility of the different larval stages of Spodoptera litura to nine insecticides was evaluated using the perilla leaf-dipping method. Median lethal concentration ($LC_{50}$) was increased with larval development in the range of 0.5 ppm to 5.6 ppm, 9.9 ppm to 27.9 ppm, 9.6 ppm to 125.1 ppm and 24.3 ppm to 546.6 ppm in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th instar, respectively. The tolerance ratio (TR), which is the TR of 90 percent lethal concentration (LC/ sub 90/) to the recommended concentration, was 0.04 to 0.8 in the 1 st, 0.2 to 7.5 in the 2nd, 0.7 to 115.3 in the 3rd and 1.2 to 485.4 in the 4th instars. Lower D$LC_{50}$ and DTR, which is the difference between the $LC_{50}$ and the TR of 4th and other instars, respectively, were observed in chlorfenapyr, chlorpyrifos and EPN while higher ones were lufenuron, chlorfluazuron and teflubenzuron. These results mean that insecticides with lower D$LC_{50}$ and DTR are effective in controlling larva of S. litura collected in Milyang, Korea.

A Survey on the Pesticide Residues and Risk Assessment for Agricultural Products on the Markets in Incheon Area from 2010 to 2012 (인천광역시 유통 농산물의 최근 3년간의 잔류농약 실태 및 안전성 조사)

  • Kim, Hye-Young;Lee, Soo-Yeon;Kim, Cheol-Gi;Choi, Eun-Jeong;Lee, Eun-Ju;Jo, Nam-Gyu;Lee, Jea-Man;Kim, Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2013
  • BACKGROUND: This survey was done to investigate the pesticide residues and to assess their risk on agricultural products on the Markets in Incheon from 2010 to 2012. METHODS AND RESULTS: The total number of samples were 16,025 for agricultural products and these were analyzed by multi-residue method using GC-ECD/NPD, GC-MS, LC-MS/MS and HPLC-PDA/FLD. The violation rates of the samples over maximum residue limits(MRLs) of pesticide residues established by Korean Food and Drug Administration in the survey of 2010, 2011 and 2012 were 1.2%, 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Of the total violated samples, more than 75% of the rates were recorded from the samples of leafy vegetables. Most commonly encountered agricultural commodities over MRLs were Chwinamul, perilla leaves and crown daisy. The pesticides detected yearly over MRLs during three years were endosulfan, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, lufenuron, chlorothalonil, flutolanil, procymidone, ethoprophos. Estimated daily intakes compared to acceptable daily intakes, except radish and Welsh onion, is estimated less harm on human in 10 kinds of pesticides which frequently occurred violation.