• Title, Summary, Keyword: luminance

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Relationship between Adaptation Luminance and Threshold Zone Luminance for Vehicular Traffic Tunnels (터널 순응휘도와 경계부 휘도의 관계 연구)

  • Cho, Won Bum;Jeong, Jun Hwa
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.85-99
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    • 2014
  • PURPOSES : This study has been performed with the objective to determine threshold zone luminance of adaptation luminance by target safety level in a vehicular traffic tunnel with design speed set at 100km/h. METHODS : The study made a miniature capable of portraying changes in luminance distribution within $2{\times}10^{\circ}$ conical field of view of the driver approaching to the tunnel for the test. Test conditions were set based on justifications for CIE 88-1990's threshold zone luminance used as a reference by domestic tunnel light standards (KS C 3703 : 2010). Luminance contrast of object background and object is 23%, object presentation duration is 0.5 seconds, and size of the object background is $7.3{\times}11.5m^2$ RESULTS : Threshold zone luminance was set within adaptation luminance of $100{\sim}3,000cd/m^2$. Adaptation luminance and threshold zone luminance based on 50%, 75% and 90% target safety level all showed a relatively high linear relationship. According to findings in the study, it is not appropriate to specify the relationship between adaptation luminance and threshold zone luminance as luminance ratio. Rather, direct utilization of the linear relationship gained from the study findings appears to be the better solution. CONCLUSIONS : Findings of this study may be used to determine operation of threshold zone luminance based on target safety level. However, a proper verification and validity of test results are required. Furthermore, a study to determine proper threshold zone luminance level considering target safety level reviewed in this study and various decision-making factors such as economic conditions in Korea and energy-related policies should be carried out in addition. Additional tests on adaptation luminance greater than $3,000cd/m^2$ will be performed, through which application scope of the test findings will be broadened.

Performance Analysis of Laboratory and Field Luminance for Phosphorescent Line Marking and Preliminary Study of Luminance Analysis Using Digital Images (축광노면표시의 실내 및 현장 휘도 성능분석과 디지털이미지를 이용한 휘도분석 사전연구)

  • Kim, Sang Tae;Lee, Yong Mun;Kim, Heung Rae;Choi, Kee Choo
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 2016
  • OBJECTIVES : Visibility at night can be improved by using retroreflection for short distances and phosphorescent line markings for long distances. In this study, we analyzed the characteristics of the phosphorescent line marking through a laboratory luminance test. Field performance analysis was performed through tests conducted on the road. We also examined the luminance measurement methods using the digital image obtained during the phosphorescent visibility evaluation. METHODS : In this study, the laboratory luminance test of the phosphorescent line marking was conducted using seven specimens to characterize the luminance changes according to the type of the glass beads, the thickness of the phosphorescent line marking, and the brightness and irradiation time of the light source. Phosphorescent and general line markings were made at 150 m to investigate the field luminance performance. A preliminary review of the luminance measurement methods was made using a digital image from a digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera. The measured luminance ratio of the general and the phosphorescent line markings was compared with the calculated luminance ratio using luminance analysis. RESULTS : Through the laboratory luminance test, it was seen that the change in luminance, which corresponds to the brightness of the light source, appears large but the influence of the thickness and irradiation time is low. The field performance test of the phosphorescent line marking conducted on the road involved measuring the luminance on the day the marking was made and 7 days after the marking was made. The luminance was found to be $190mcd/m^2$ at 30 min after sunset and approximately $10-12mcd/m^2$ 4h after sunset. The results of the luminance test were captured using a digital image for each time group. The luminance ratio of the phosphorescent line marking, when compared to that of the general line marking, showed a similar trend within a 13% maximum error. Additionally, when this luminance ratio is compared to the direct field measurement, it could be confirmed that the luminance ratio, as captured in the digital image, showed a similar tendency. CONCLUSIONS : 1) The change in luminance corresponding to the brightness of the light source is significant in comparison with that corresponding to the thickness and the irradiation time. In addition, the results of the field test for the phosphorescent line marking satisfied the phosphorescent fire protection standard. 2) We examined the validity of the luminance measurement method using a digital image and we concluded that the change in the luminance ratio shows a similar tendency in both the cases. The results can form the basis for luminance measurement methodology for the construction and maintenance of phosphorescent line markings.

Effect of Luminance Contrast Ratio of Character on Readability and Visual Fatigue during Long-term Reading Using Tablet PC in Low Luminance Environment (저휘도 환경에서 태블릿 PC를 이용한 장시간 독서시 문자대비가 가독성과 피로감에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, Hanui;Akita, Takeshi
    • Journal of the Architectural Institute of Korea Structure & Construction
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.191-202
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    • 2019
  • This study examines the effect of luminance contrast ratio of character on readability and visual fatigue during an hour-long reading session while using a tablet PC in ambient environments having low luminance limited to $25cd/m^2$. Experiments were conducted with four patterns of the tablet's luminance contrast ratio of characters, namely 1:2.5, 1:4.5, 1:6.5, and 1:8.5, in low ambient luminance of $9cd/m^2$ and $25cd/m^2$. The obtained results show that the characters can be easily read at the luminance contrast ratio of character of 1:8.5 under surface luminance of $25cd/m^2$. Visual fatigue was evaluated through a subjective survey of symptoms. Physical, psychological, and visual fatigue were observed at a surface luminance of $9cd/m^2$, whereas solely visual fatigue was felt at a surface luminance of $25cd/m^2$. By assessing the physical fatigue using the value, it has been found that smaller the luminance contrast ratio of character, greater is the CFF variation rate. Furthermore, readability is poor and visual fatigue can be observed when the surface luminance is lower than the ambient luminance. However, readability can be improved by increasing the luminance contrast ratio of character to a value of 1:8.5. Thus, in low luminance environments, luminance contrast ratio of characters can affect readability and fatigue. Consider providing the full form of "CFF" so that the acronym can be used unambiguously throughout the manuscript.

Effect of Luminance Difference on Discomfort Glare from a Large Glare Source with Non-uniform Luminance (대광원의 상하부 휘도차가 불쾌글레어 평가에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Wonwoo;Kim, Jeong Tai
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.29-34
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    • 2007
  • Discomfort glare from windows is an important issue in window and daylighting design. This study aims to investigate the effect of luminance difference between the lower and the upper part of a large glare source. Experiments were conducted using a luminous body divided into two parts, the upper part and the lower part. The degree of discomfort glare from the luminous body was examined. The result shows that the part with lower luminance is perceived as a glare source when the part has higher luminance then the background luminance. The degree of discomfort glare was estimated for the experimental conditions, and compared to the observations. The estimation was made using two methods: one summed the glare sensation for each section, and the other used the average luminance of the whole luminous body. The result of the comparison shows that the method using the average luminance has approximate values to the observations. Consequently, the use of the average luminance was proposed for evaluation of discomfort glare from non-uniform large glare sources.

Measurement and Analysis of Adaptation Luminance in the Threshold Zone of the Road Tunnel (도로터널의 경계부 순응휘도 측정 및 분석)

  • Han, Jong-Sung;Lee, Min-Wook;Kim, Hoon
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Illuminating and Electrical Installation Engineers
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2012
  • As the standard lighting required in the threshold zone of a road tunnel is determined by the enough contrast. Lighting design, therefore, must be determined by the calculation method of threshold luminance based on the adaptation luminance of the driver approaching the tunnel. The veiling luminance and the luminance in the access zone were measured at different time and in different weather using the veiling luminance method, a kind of perceived contrast methods, and the L20 method when the range of vision was 20 degrees. On the basis of the measured data each threshold luminance was calculated and its results were analyzed.

A Study of HDR Software Reliability for the Luminance Map Creation (휘도맵의 작성을 위한 HDRI 생성 도구의 신뢰도에 관한 연구)

  • Hong, Sung-De
    • Journal of The Korean Digital Architecture Interior Association
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.81-89
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    • 2012
  • Luminance is the most important quantity in lighting design and illuminating engineering. There are three methods for measuring luminance; using a conventional luminance meter, through the illuminance measurement and subsequent calculations and using digital imaging photometer. Recently, HDRI(High Dynamic Range Imaging) technique introduces a new method of capturing luminance values in a lighting environment. The radiance maps from HDRI are commonly used as visual environment maps for lighting analysis applications. For the HDRI, HDR software is needed to create HDR image. Currently, there is number of HDR software available. The purpose of this paper is to investigate whether a luminance map can be accurately captured by the various types of HDR software which include HDR Shop and Photoshop. To accomplish this goal a set of experiments was conducted. In order to assess the luminance values of the HDR image from HDR software, the values had to be compared to the ones obtained with conventional methods of luminance measurement.

Luminance Assessment of Outdoor Lighting for Advertisements at Night (옥외광고용 발광조명의 야간휘도분포 분석)

  • Shin, Hwa Young;Lee, Jong Soo;Kim, Jeong Tai
    • KIEAE Journal
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2009
  • Lighting for outdoor advertising is very common feature of building facades as they provide the information and commercial identification. As the interest of improving street beautification more widely, application of various lighting technologies has been develop for advertisement such as electric sign board and signage. Furthermore, the installation of higher sign luminance than needed has many negative consequences, including higher energy consumption and light pollution. There are now no standard for outdoor advertisements in terms of luminance, and installation of indiscreet outdoor advertisement without luminance consideration is becoming more commonplace. This study was to evaluate the luminous characteristics of outdoor advertising as a function of sign and building facade luminance, luminance ratio. Data were collected on 8 electric sign boards, 20 internally illuminated, externally illuminated, neon, and channel letter signs and 4 commercial areas. Photometric measurements were taken by CS-100(Minolta) and ProMetric-1400(Radiant Imaging) for various sign modes and sign design. Also luminance of building facades were analyzed according with CIE standard of maximum obtrusive light permitted for exterior lighting installations. The findings are as follows; (1) There were excessive luminance of electric sign boards that could affect adjacent building facade and night sky luminance. (2) Sings that are externally illuminated providing an inappropriate amount of light on to the outer surface of the sign caused higher building facade luminance and potential of unnecessary glare.

A Luminance Compensation Method Using Optical Sensors with Optimized Memory Size for High Image Quality AMOLED Displays

  • Oh, Kyonghwan;Hong, Seong-Kwan;Kwon, Oh-Kyong
    • Journal of the Optical Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.586-592
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    • 2016
  • This paper proposes a luminance compensation method using optical sensors to achieve high luminance uniformity of active matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) displays. The proposed method compensates for the non-uniformity of luminance by capturing the luminance of entire pixels and extracting the characteristic parameters. Data modulation using the extracted characteristic parameters is performed to improve luminance uniformity. In addition, memory size is optimized by selecting an optimal bit depth of the extracted characteristic parameters according to the trade-off between the required memory size and luminance uniformity. To verify the proposed compensation method with the optimized memory size, a 40-inch 1920×1080 AMOLED display with a target maximum luminance of 350 cd/m2 is used. The proposed compensation method considering a 4σ range of luminance reduces luminance error from ± 38.64%, ± 36.32%, and ± 43.12% to ± 2.68%, ± 2.64%, and ± 2.76% for red, green, and blue colors, respectively. The optimal bit depth of each characteristic parameter is 6-bit and the total required memory size to achieve high luminance uniformity is 74.6 Mbits.

A Study on the Image-Based Luminance Measurement System Using the Measuring Position (측정 위치를 고려한 영상기반 휘도측정시스템에 관한 연구)

  • Sun, Eun-Hey;Kim, Yong-Tae
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.424-429
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, an image-based luminance measurement system(LMS) is proposed to measure the luminance of outdoor signboards. We design the LMS that can improve disadvantages of efficiency of the point-luminance meter and portability of face-luminance meter using the image of DSLR camera and print out the luminance value by using the proposed luminance analysis algorithm in real time. Outdoor signboards have various size and shape, and are also installed on the various place. Luminance of the signboard is influenced by measurement location, angle, color, etc. Therefore, we measure the change of luminance value in accordance with measurement location for accurate luminance measurement and then consider the luminance value according to the measurement distance. We obtain a numerical relation between luminance value and measurement location. The proposed LMS is verified through comparative experiment with point-luminance meter.

A study on the ergonomic aspects of the proper luminance level of displays

  • Lee, Eunjung;Kim, Sangho;Park, HyeRyoung;Bae, Jaewoo;Lee, Seungbae;Kim, Haksun
    • Journal of Information Display
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2012
  • In this paper, a display's emotional image quality can be primarily determined by designing the proper luminance level. Though displays with high luminance are preferred, too much light emission from a display may cause glare or visual fatigue to viewers. To find out the proper luminance level based on various video contents, this study was conducted with an OLED display with a real-black level and a wide color gamut, and with an LCD display with a high luminance level, to set the glare threshold under various conditions. The optimum luminance levels according to the display's loading ratio were found, and the maximum luminance that did not cause a glare in the test is proposed.