• Title, Summary, Keyword: lung cancer

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Study on Theoretical Models of Regional Humanity Lung Cancer Hazards Assessment

  • Zhang, Chuan;Gao, Xing
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.1759-1764
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To establish the concept of lung cancer hazard assessment theoretical models, evaluating the degree of lung cancer risk of Beijing for regional population lung cancer hazard assessment to provide a basis for technical support. Materials and Methods: ISO standards were used to classify stratified analysis for the entire population, life cycle, processes and socioeconomic management. Associated risk factors were evaluated as lung cancer hazard risk assessment first class indicators. Study design: Using the above materials, indicators were given the weight coefficients, building lung cancer risk assessment theoretical models. Regional data for Beijing were entered into the theoretical model to calculate the parameters of each indicator and evaluate the degree of local lung cancer risk. Results: Adopting the concept of lung cancer hazard assessment and theoretical models for regional populations, we established a lung cancer hazard risk assessment system, including 2 first indicators, 8 secondary indicators and 18 third indicators. All indicators were given weight coefficients and used as information sources. Score of hazard for lung cancer was 84.4 in Beijing. Conclusions: Comprehensively and systematically building a lung cancer risk assessment theoretical model for regional populations in conceivable, evaluating the degree of lung cancer risk of Beijing, providing technical support and scientific basis for interventions for prevention.

Epidemiology of Lung Cancer in Korea: Recent Trends

  • Park, Ji Young;Jang, Seung Hun
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.79 no.2
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    • pp.58-69
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    • 2016
  • Lung cancer causes the most cancer deaths in Korea. Although the smoking rate has begun to decrease, the prevalence of lung cancer is still increasing. We reviewed the national lung cancer registry data and the data published about lung cancer in Korea. In 2012, the crude incidence rate of lung cancer was 43.9 per 100,000. The age-standardized mortality rate of lung cancer was 19.8 per 100,000. The 5-year relative survival rate for lung cancer was 11.3% from 1993 to 1995 and increased to 21.9% in the period from 2008 to 2012. Lung cancer occurring in never-smokers was estimated to increase in Korea. Adenocarcinoma is steadily increasing in both women and men and has replaced squamous cell carcinoma as the most common type of lung cancer in Korea. In patients with adenocarcinoma, the frequency of EGFR mutations was 43% (range, 20%-56%), while that of the EMK4-ALK gene was less than 5%.

PREVENTION OF CIGARETTE SMOKE INDUCED LUNG CANCER BY LOW LET IONIZING RADIATION

  • Sanders, Charles L.
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.40 no.7
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    • pp.539-550
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    • 2008
  • Lung cancer is the most prevalent global cancer, ${\sim}90%$ of which is caused by cigarette smoking. The LNT hypothesis has been inappropriately applied to estimate lung cancer risk due to ionizing radiation. A threshold of ${\sim}1\;Gy$ for lung cancer has been observed in never smokers. Lung cancer risk among nuclear workers, radiologists and diagnostically exposed patients was typically reduced by ${\sim}40%$ following exposure to <100 mSv low LET radiation. The consistency and magnitude of reduced lung cancer in nuclear workers and occurrence of reduced lung cancer in exposed non-worker populations could not be explained by the HWE. Ecologic studies of indoor radon showed highly significant reductions in lung cancer risk. A similar reduction in lung cancer was seen in a recent well designed case-control study of indoor radon, indicating that exposure to radon at the EPA action level is associated with a decrease of ${\sim}60%$ in lung cancer. A cumulative whole-body dose of ${\sim}1\;Gy$ gamma rays is associated with a marked decrease in smoking-induced lung cancer in plutonium workers. Low dose, low LET radiation appears to increase apoptosis mediated removal of $\alpha$-particle and cigarette smoke transformed pulmonary cells before they can develop into lung cancer.

MiRNA Molecular Profiles in Human Medical Conditions: Connecting Lung Cancer and Lung Development Phenomena

  • Aghanoori, Mohamad-Reza;Mirzaei, Behnaz;Tavallaei, Mahmood
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9557-9565
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    • 2014
  • MiRNAs are endogenous, single stranded ~22-nucleotide non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) which are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and mediate negative post-transcriptional gene regulation through binding to 3'untranslated regions (UTR), possibly open reading frames (ORFs) or 5'UTRs of target mRNAs. MiRNAs are involved in the normal physiology of eukaryotic cells, so dysregulation may be associated with diseases like cancer, and neurodegenerative, heart and other disorders. Among all cancers, lung cancer, with high incidence and mortality worldwide, is classified into two main groups: non-small cell lung cancer and small cell lung cancer. Recent promising studies suggest that gene expression profiles and miRNA signatures could be a useful step in a noninvasive, low-cost and repeatable screening process of lung cancer. Similarly, every stage of lung development during fetal life is associated with specific miRNAs. Since lung development and lung cancer phenomena share the same physiological, biological and molecular processes like cell proliferation, development and shared mRNA or expression regulation pathways, and according to data adopted from various studies, they may have partially shared miRNA signature. Thus, focusing on lung cancer in relation to lung development in miRNA studies might provide clues for lung cancer diagnosis and prognosis.

The Development of the Korean Lung Cancer Registry (KALC-R)

  • Kim, Young-Chul;Won, Young-Joo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.82 no.2
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    • pp.91-93
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    • 2019
  • Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Globally, there were an estimated 1.8 million new cases and 1.59 million deaths in 2012. In Korea, the incidence of lung cancer is increasing and 24,267 (47.6/100,000) patients with lung cancer were registered at the Korea Central Cancer Registry in 2015. Previous nationwide surveys of lung cancer were performed in 1998 by the Korean Academy of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases and in 2007 by the Korean Association for Lung Cancer (KALC), but the studies faced difficulties in maintaining lung cancer registry because of limitations regarding the Private Information Protection Act. To produce unbiased and reliable epidemiological data, the KALC and Korean Central Cancer Registry developed a detailed lung cancer registry (KALC-R) data structure. Following a pilot survey of 489 lung cancer cases in 2013, about 10% of the sampled lung cancer cases from the Korean Central Cancer Registry are surveyed each year. With the analysis of detailed data from the KALC-R, an important epidemiological background for scientific research or policy development is expected to be generated.

Aberrant Expression of E-cadherin in Lung Tissues of Patients with Probable Lung Cancer

  • Yuan, Yu-Lin;Wang, Yu-Ming;Liu, Hua;Qin, Gui-Fang;Tang, Ai-Guo;Duan, Yong
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.13 no.10
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    • pp.5149-5153
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    • 2012
  • Introduction: This study assessed the relationship of E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression with the diagnosis of lung cancer with the aim of providing an auxiliary diagnostic method. Methods: Semi-quantitative nested RT-PCR and western blotting were applied to detect E-cadherin mRNA transcripts and protein, respectively, in 30 cases of diagnostic lung cancer, 30 cases of clinically suspected patients with lung cancer and 30 cases of other disease. Immunohistochemical staining was also used to detect E-cadherin. Results: Remarkably decreased levels of relative E-cadherin mRNA value and increased E-cadherin protein negativity were observed in probable lung cancer, when compared with possible lung cancer and others. With a threshold of 1.45, relative E-cadherin mRNA value showed a sensitivity of 90% and a specifity of 83% for the diagnosis of lung cancer. The combination of decreased relative E-cadherin mRNA value and negative E-cadherin protein increased the specificity and sensitivity. Conclusion: These data suggest that Chinese patients with diagnostic lung cancer have similar decreased levels of relative E-cadherin mRNA and E-cadherin protein value in the lung cancer tissues as in lung cancer patients in other countries. Measurement of relative E-cadherin mRNA and protein values in lung cancer tissues has potential for lung cancer diagnosis.

Factors Affecting Early Cancer Screening for Lung Cancer: Focusing on Lung Cancer Screening Subjects (폐암의 조기 암검진 여부에 미치는 요인: 폐암 검진 사업대상자를 중심으로)

  • Kim, Seok Hwan
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.53-65
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine the current status of cancer screening among subjects in the lung cancer screening cycle and to analyze the factors affecting the cancer screening of subjects in the lung cancer screening cycle. Methods: This study used the 'National Health and Nutrition Survey 7th Year (2017)' surveyed nationwide as the main data. The subjects are lung cancer screening projects, the dependent variable is early cancer screening, the independent variables are gender, age, marital status, household income level, education level, national health insurance type, private health insurance, The number of chronic diseases, general health examination, smoking status, drinking status, moderate intensity physical activity, stress perception rate, and weight control efforts were determined. Results: The results of this study showed that factors affecting early cancer screening of lung cancer screening subjects were gender, age, marital status, education level, national health insurance, smoking status, drinking status, moderate physical activity, and weight. Irrespective of the control effort, it was found that the private medical insurance, the number of chronic diseases, the medical examination, and the stress perception rate were affected. Conclusion: If the lung cancer screening subjects recognize the importance of early cancer screening themselves and create a social environment to increase their participation rate, lung cancer screening patients and their families will help them to live a healthy life.

Incorporating Erlotinib or Irinotecan Plus Cisplatin into Chemoradiotherapy for Stage III Non-small Cell Lung Cancer According to EGFR Mutation Status

  • Lee, Youngjoo;Han, Ji-Youn;Moon, Sung Ho;Nam, Byung-Ho;Lim, Kun Young;Lee, Geon Kook;Kim, Heung Tae;Yun, Tak;An, Hye Jin;Lee, Jin Soo
    • Cancer Research and Treatment
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.981-989
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    • 2017
  • Purpose Concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) is the standard care for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; however, a more effective regimen is needed to improve the outcome by better controlling occult metastases. We conducted two parallel randomized phase II studies to incorporate erlotinib or irinotecan-cisplatin (IP) into CCRT for stage III NSCLC depending on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation status. Materials and Methods Patients with EGFR-mutant tumors were randomized to receive three cycles of erlotinib first and then either CCRT with erlotinib followed by erlotinib (arm A) or CCRT with IP only (arm B). Patients with EGFR unknown or wild-type tumors were randomized to receive either three cycles of IP before (arm C) or after CCRT with IP (arm D). Results Seventy-three patients were screened and the study was closed early because of slow accrual after 59 patients were randomized. Overall, there were seven patients in arm A, five in arm B, 22 in arm C, and 25 in arm D. The response rate was 71.4% and 80.0% for arm A and B, and 70.0% and 73.9% for arm C and D. The median overall survival (OS) was 39.3 months versus 31.2 months for arm A and B (p=0.442), and 16.3 months versus 25.3 months for arm C and D (p=0.050). Patients with sensitive EGFR mutations had significantly longer OS than EGFR-wild patients (74.8 months vs. 25.3 months, p=0.034). There were no unexpected toxicities. Conclusion Combined-modality treatment by molecular diagnostics is feasible in stage III NSCLC. EGFR-mutant patients appear to be a distinct subset with longer survival.