• Title, Summary, Keyword: mRNA. Bcl-2

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Effect of Modulation of hnRNP L Levels on the Decay of bcl-2 mRNA in MCF-7 Cells

  • Lim, Mi-Hyun;Lee, Dong-Hyoung;Jung, Seung-Eun;Youn, Dong-Ye;Park, Chan-Sun;Lee, Jeong-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.15-20
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    • 2010
  • It has been shown that CA repeats in the 3'-untranslated region (UTR) of bcl-2 mRNA contribute the constitutive decay of bcl-2 mRNA and that hnRNP L (heterogenous nuclear ribonucleoprotein L) interacts with CA repeats in the 3'-UTR of bcl-2 mRNA, both in vitro and in vivo. The aim of this study was to determine whether the alteration of hnRNP L affects the stability of bcl-2 mRNA in vivo. Human breast carcinoma MCF-7 cells were transfected with hnRNP L-specific shRNA or hnRNP L-expressing vector to decrease or increase hnRNP L levels, respectively, followed by an actinomycin D chase. An RT-PCR analysis showed that the rate of degradation of endogenous bcl-2 mRNA was not affected by the decrease or increase in the hnRNP L levels. Furthermore, during apoptosis or autophagy, in which bcl-2 expression has been reported to decrease, no difference in the degradation of bcl-2 mRNA was observed between control and hnRNP L-knock down MCF-7 Cells. On the other hand, the levels of AUF-1 and nucleolin, transacting factors for ARE in the 3'UTR of bcl-2 mRNA, were not significantly affected by the decrease in hnRNP L, suggesting that a disturbance in the quantitative balance between these transacting factors is not likely to interfere with the effect of hnRNP L. Collectively, the findings indicate that the decay of bcl-2 mRNA does not appear to be directly controlled by hnRNP L in vivo.

Polymorphism of the Promoter Region of Hsp70 Gene and Its Relationship with the Expression of HSP70mRNA, HSF1mRNA, Bcl-2mrna and Bax-AMrna in Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood of Heat Shocked Dairy Cows

  • Cai, Yafei;Liu, Qinghua;Xing, Guangdong;Zhou, Lei;Yang, Yuanyuan;Zhang, Lijun;Li, Jing;Wang, Genlin
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.18 no.5
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    • pp.734-740
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    • 2005
  • The blood samples were collected from dairy cows at the same milking stage. The single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method was used to analyze for polymorphism at the 5'flanking region of the hsp70 gene. The mRNA expression levels of HSP70, HSF1, Bcl-2 and Bax-$\alpha$ at different daily-mean-temperature were analyzed by relative quantitative RTPCR. The DNA content, cell phase and the ratio of apoptosis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of dairy cattle at different daily-meantemperature were determined by FCM. The PCR-SSCP products of primer pair 1 showed polymorphisms and could be divided into four genotypes: aa, ab, ac, cc, with the cis-acting element (CCAAT box) included. Mutations in the hsp70 5'flanking region (468-752 bp) had different effects on mRNA expression of HSP70, HSF1, Bcl-2 and Bax-$\alpha$. The ac genotypic cows showed higher expressions of HSP70mRNA, HSF1mRNA and Bcl-2mRNA/Bax-$\alpha$mRNA and lower ratio of apoptosis. These mutation sites can be used as molecular genetic markers to assist selection for anti-heat stress cows.

Effect of Epigallocatechin Gallate on Apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cells (Epigallocatechin Gallate가 인체 유방암 세포인 MDA-MB-231의 세포사멸에 미치는 영향)

  • Hong, Eun-Jung;Kim, Woo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.1114-1119
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    • 2008
  • Among the numerous polyphenols isolated from green tea, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is a predominate and is considered to be a major therapeutic agent. To elucidate the mechanical insights of anti-tumor effect, EGCG was applied to human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. We investigated the effect of EGCG on protein and mRNA expression of proteins related to cell apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. We also identified caspase-3 activity. We cultured MDA-MB-231 cells in the presence of 0, 5, 10, and $20\;{\mu}M$ of EGCG. Protein and mRNA expression of bcl-2 were decreased dose-dependently in cells treated with EGCG. However, protein and mRNA expression of bax were increased (p<0.05). Caspase-3 activities were increased dose-dependently in cells treated with EGCG. These results suggest that EGCG induces cell apoptosis by increase of caspase activity through decreasing of protein and mRNA expression of bcl-2 and increasing of protein and mRNA expression of bax.

Expression of Bcl-2 Family in 4-Nitroquinoline 1-Oxide-Induced Tongue Carcinogenesis of the Rat (백서 혀에서의 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide 유도 발암과정에서 Bcl-2 계 유전자의 발현)

  • Choi, Jae-Wook;Chung, Sung-Su;Lee, Geum-Sug;Kim, Byung-Gook;Kim, Jae-Hyeong;Kook, Eun-Byul;Jang, Mi-Sun;Ko, Mi-Kyeong;Jung, Kwon;Choi, Hong-Ran;Kim, Ok-Joon
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.301-317
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    • 2005
  • The number of patients with tongue carcinoma is increasing rapidly among young individuals in many parts of the world. Oral carcinoma progresses from hyperplastic lesion through dysplasia to invasive carcinoma and the concept of "field cancerization" with molecular alteration has been suggested for oral cavity carcinogenesis. Significant improvement in treatment and prognosis will depend on more detailed understanding of the multi-step process leading to cancer development. To induce tongue carcinoma in rat by 4-NQO, each drinking water was made to 10 ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm and control (only D.W. without 4-NQO). Specimens were classified into 4 groups such as control, I (mild & moderate dysplasia), II (severe dysplasia and carcinoma in situ), III (carcinoma). The mRNA expressions of Bcl-2 family were evaluated by RT-PCR technique. For anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family, mRNA expression of Bcl-w was down-regulated in all stages of tongue carcinogenesis model. However, mRNA expression of Bcl-2 was up-regulated. For pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family, all members were down-regulated in all stages of tongue carcinogenesis model except for Bad mRNA in group III. In terms of BH3 only protein, mRNA expressions of Bok and Mcl-1 were down regulated in all stages of specimen, but Bmf in group II and BBC3 in group III were up-regulated. Our current findings demonstrated the involvements of mRNA expression of Bcl-2 family in multi-step tongue carcinogensis. This highlights the necessity for continued efforts to discover suitable biomakers (Bcl-2 family) for early diagnosis of the disease, and to understand its pathogenesis as a first step in improving methods of treatment. The discovery of these potential biomarkers and molecular targets for cancer diagnostics and therapeutics has the potential to significantly change the clinical approach and outcome of the disease.

Effect of [6]-Gingerol on Bcl-2 and Bax Expression in MDA-MB-231 Human Breast Cancer Cell Line ([6]-Gingerol이 인체 유방암세포 MDA-MB-231에서 Bcl-2와 Bax 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Eun-Young;Kim, Woo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.35 no.6
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    • pp.671-676
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    • 2006
  • We investigated the effect of gingerol (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae) on Bcl-2 and Bax expression in MDA-MB-231 human breast cell lines. The oleoresin from rhizomes of ginger contains [6]-gingerol (1-[4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl]-5-hydroxy-3-decanone). We previously reported that [6]-gingerol inhibits cell proliferation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. In this study, we examined protein and mRNA expression associated with cell apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines. We cultured MDA-MB-231 cells in presence of various concentrations 0, 2.5, 5 and $10\;{\mu}M$ of [6]-gingerol. Bcl-2 protein and its mRNA levels were decreased dose-dependently in cells treated with [6]-gingerol, but Bax protein and its mRNA levels were unchanged by [6]-gingerol treatment. Bcl-2/Bax ratio was decreased in a dose dependent manner treated with [6]-gingerol. Caspase-3 activity was significantly increased dose-dependently in cell treated with [6]-gingerol (p<0.05). In conclusion, we have shown that [6]-gingerol induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell lines.

ZFP36L1 and AUF1 Induction Contribute to the Suppression of Inflammatory Mediators Expression by Globular Adiponectin via Autophagy Induction in Macrophages

  • Shrestha, Aastha;Pun, Nirmala Tilija;Park, Pil-Hoon
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.446-457
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    • 2018
  • Adiponectin, a hormone predominantly originated from adipose tissue, has exhibited potent anti-inflammatory properties. Accumulating evidence suggests that autophagy induction plays a crucial role in anti-inflammatory responses by adiponectin. However, underlying molecular mechanisms are still largely unknown. Association of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1, an autophagy activating protein, prevents autophagy induction. We have previously shown that adiponectin-induced autophagy activation is mediated through inhibition of interaction between Bcl-2 and Beclin-1. In the present study, we examined the molecular mechanisms by which adiponectin modulates association of Bcl-2 and Beclin-1 in macrophages. Herein, we demonstrated that globular adiponectin (gAcrp) induced increase in the expression of AUF1 and ZFP36L1, which act as mRNA destabilizing proteins, both in RAW 264.7 macrophages and primary peritoneal macrophages. In addition, gene silencing of AUF1 and ZFP36L1 caused restoration of decrease in Bcl-2 expression and Bcl-2 mRNA half-life by gAcrp, indicating crucial roles of AUF1 and ZFP36L1 induction in Bcl-2 mRNA destabilization by gAcrp. Moreover, knock-down of AUF1 and ZFP36L1 enhanced interaction of Bcl-2 with Beclin-1, and subsequently prevented gAcrp-induced autophagy activation, suggesting that AUF1 and ZFP36L1 induction mediates gAcrp-induced autophagy activation via Bcl-2 mRNA destabilization. Furthermore, suppressive effects of gAcrp on LPS-stimulated inflammatory mediators expression were prevented by gene silencing of AUF1 and ZFP36L1 in macrophages. Taken together, these results suggest that AUF1 and ZFP36L1 induction critically contributes to autophagy induction by gAcrp and are promising targets for anti-inflammatory responses by gAcrp.

Exosome-derived microRNA-29c Induces Apoptosis of BIU-87 Cells by Down Regulating BCL-2 and MCL-1

  • Xu, Xiang-Dong;Wu, Xiao-Hou;Fan, Yan-Ru;Tan, Bing;Quan, Zhen;Luo, Chun-Li
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.8
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    • pp.3471-3476
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    • 2014
  • Background: Aberrant expression of the microRNA-29 family is associated with tumorigenesis and cancer progression. As transport carriers, tumor-derived exosomes are released into the extracellular space and regulate multiple functions of target cells. Thus, we assessed the possibility that exosomes could transport microRNA-29c as a carrier and correlations between microRNA-29c and apoptosis of bladder cancer cells. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 cancer and adjacent tissues were examined by immunohistochemistry to detect BCL-2 and MCL-1 expression. Disease was Ta-T1 in 12 patients, T2-T4 in 16, grade 1 in 8, 2 in 8 and 3 in 12. The expression of microRNA-29c in cancer tissues was detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR (QRT-PCR). An adenovirus containing microRNA-29c was used to infect the BIU-87 human bladder cancer cell line. MicroRNA-29c in exosomes was measured by QRT-PCR. After BIU-87 cells were induced by exosomes-derived microRNA-29c, QRT-PCR was used to detect the level of microRNA-29c. Apoptosis was examined by flow cytometry and BCL-2 and MCL-1 mRNA expressions were assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Western blotting was used to determine the protein expression of BCL-2 and MCL-1. Results: The expressions of BCL-2 and MCL-1 protein were remarkably increased in bladder carcinoma (p<0.05), but was found mainly in the basal and suprabasal layers in adjacent tissues. The expression of microRNA-29c in cancer tissues was negatively correlated with the BCL-2 and MCL-1. The expression level of microRNA-29c in exosomes and BIU-87 cells from the experiment group was higher than that in control groups (p<0.05). Exosome-derived microRNA-29c induced apoptosis (p<0.01). Although only BCL-2 was reduced at the mRNA level, both BCL-2 and MCL-1 were reduced at the protein level. Conclusions: Human bladder cancer cells infected by microRNA-29c adenovirus can transport microRNA-29c via exosomes. Moreover, exosome-derived microRNA29c induces apoptosis in bladder cancer cells by down-regulating BCL-2 and MCL-1.

The Combined Effects of Ginkgo Biloba Extracts and Aspirin on Viability of SK-N-MC, Neuroblastoma Cell Line in Hypoxia and Reperfusion Condition

  • Moon, Sung-Hwan;Lee, Yong-Jik;Park, Soo-Yong;Song, Kwan-Young;Kong, Min-Ho;Kim, Jung-Hee
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.13-19
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    • 2011
  • Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate the combined effects of ginkgo biloba extract, ginkgolide A and B and aspirin on SK-N-MC, human neuroblastoma cell viability and mRNA expression of growth associated protein43 (GAP43), Microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), B-cell lymphoma2 (Bcl2) and protein53 (p53) gene in hypoxia and reperfusion condition. Methods: SK-N-MC cells were cultured with Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM) media in $37^{\circ}C$, 5% $CO_2$ incubator. The cells were cultured for 8 hours in non-glucose media and hypoxic condition and for 12 hours in normal media and $O_2$ concentration. Cell survival rate was measured with Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) reagent assay. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to estimate mRNA levels of GAP43, MAP2, Bcl2, and p53 genes. Results: The ginkgolide A and B increased viable cell number decreased in hypoxic and reperfused condition. The co-treatment of ginkgolide B with aspirin also increased the number of viable cells, however, there was no additive effect. Although there was no increase of mRNA expression of GAP43, MAP2, and Bcl2 in SK-N-MC cells with individual treatment of ginkgolide A, B or aspirin in hypoxic and reperfused condition, the co-treatment of ginkgolide A or B with aspirin significantly increased GAP43 and Bcl2 mRNA levels. In MAP2, only the co-treatment of ginkgolide A and aspirin showed increasing effect. The mRNA expression of p53 had no change in all treating conditions. Conclusion: This study suggests that the combined treatments of Ginkgo biloba extracts and aspirin increase the regeneration of neuroblastoma cells injured by hypoxia and reperfusion.

Expression of Proapoptotic Bcl-2 Family Member in the Mouse Ovary (I) (생쥐 난소에서 Bcl-2계 세포고사인자에 관한 연구 (I))

  • Lee, Yu-Il;Lee, Jin;Chun, Sang-Young
    • Clinical and Experimental Reproductive Medicine
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.47-55
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    • 2003
  • Objectives: Bok, Bcl-2-related ovarian killer, is a proapoptotic Bcl-2 family protein identified in the ovary based on its dimerization with the antiapoptotic protein Mcl-1. The present study examined the hormonal regulation and localization of Bok messenger RNA levels in the mouse ovary during the follicle development. Methods: The animals were implanted subcutaneously with Silastic brand capsules containing the synthetic estrogen, DES at $21{\sim}23$ days of age. Ovaries were collected $1{\sim}3$ days after implantation for RNA analysis and in situ hybridization. Some mice were removed capsule for $1{\sim}2$ days to induce ovarian follicle apoptosis. Ovaries were also collected from 26 day-old immature mice at various times after treatment with 10 IU PMSG. Some mice received a single intraperitoneal injection of 10 IU hCG to induce ovulation, and ovaries were obtained at different time intervals for Northern blot and in situ hybridization analysis, respectively. Results: Treatment of immature mice with diethylstilbestrol (DES) for $24{\sim}48$ h increased ovarian Bok mRNA levels. Bok mRNA was remained the same levels in mice removed DES for $24{\sim}48$ h to induce apoptosis. High signals of Bok mRNA after DES treatment were detected in granulosa cells of early antral follicles. Treatment of immature mice with PMSG for 12 h increased markedly ovarian Bok mRNA expression which was detected mainly in preantral and atretic follicles. Interestingly, low levels of Bok mRNA were also expressed in granulosa cells of preovulatory follicles. Treatment of PMSGprimed mice with hCG stimulated strongly ovarian Bok mRNA expression at $6{\sim}9$ h. At that time, Bok mRNA was expressed in granulosa cells of atretic and small growing follicles. Conclusion: These results demonstrate that Bok is one of proapoptotic Bcl-2 members expressed in early growing and atretic follicles during the ovarian follicular development. Gonadotropins induce a transient increase of Bok gene expression in granulosa cells of preantral and preovulatory follicles indicating some role in the ovulatory process.

Mangiferin Induces Apoptosis by Regulating Bcl-2 and Bax Expression in the CNE2 Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Cell Line

  • Pan, Li-Li;Wang, Ai-Yan;Huang, Yong-Qi;Luo, Yu;Ling, Min
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.17
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    • pp.7065-7068
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    • 2014
  • To investigate the anti-proliferative mechanism of mangiferin in a human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line, CNE2 cells were incubated with different concentrations of mangiferin (12.5, 25, 50, 100, 150 and $200{\mu}M$) or with PBS as a control for 72 hours. Analyses were made of the cell cycle and apoptosis with measurement of mRNA and protein levels of two apoptosis-related genes, Bcl-2 and Bax. Flow cytometry assays showed mangiferin could inhibit CNE2 cell proliferation via G2/M arrest and induction of early apoptosis. Real time PCR and Western blotting showed the mRNA and protein level of Bcl-2 to be down-regulated, while those of Bax were upregulated, when CNE2 cells were treated with mangiferin. This investigation indicated anti-proliferation effects of mangiferin through induction of cell apoptosis regulated by Bcl-2 and Bax expression.