• Title, Summary, Keyword: magnetic resonance diffusion-Weighted Image

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Clear Cell Sarcoma of the Wrist: MRI Findings with Diffusion-Weighted Image and Histopathologic Correlation

  • Chung, Bo Yong;Lee, Seun Ah;Choi, Jung-Ah;Shim, Jung-Weon
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.136-139
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    • 2016
  • Clear cell sarcoma is rare and difficult to diagnose. Herein, we present a case of clear cell sarcoma in the dorsum of the wrist with MRI findings, including diffusion-weighted imaging, and histopathologic correlation, which was initially diagnosed as giant cell tumor of tendon sheath.

An Unusual Case of Japanese Encephalitis Involving Unilateral Deep Gray Matter and Temporal Lobe on Diffusion-Weighted MRI

  • Seok, Hee Young;Lee, Dong Hoon
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.250-253
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    • 2016
  • Acute Japanese encephalitis (JE) is an endemic viral infectious disease in various parts of Far East and Southeast Asian countries including Korea. Bilateral thalami are the most common involving sites in JE. Other areas including the basal ganglia, substantia nigra, red nucleus, pons, cerebral cortex and cerebellum may be also involved. We report an extremely unusual brain diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) findings in a 53-year-old man with serologically proven JE involving unilateral deep gray matter and temporal lobe, which shows multifocal high signal intensities in left thalamus, left substantia nigra, left caudate nucleus and left medial temporal cortex on T2-weighted image and DWI with iso-intensity on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map.

Hypointensity on Susceptibility-Weighted Images Prior to Signal Change on Diffusion-Weighted Images in a Hyperacute Ischemic Infarction: a Case Study

  • Kim, Dajung;Lee, Hyeonbin;Jung, Jin-Man;Lee, Young Hen;Seo, Hyung Suk
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.131-134
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    • 2018
  • Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is well known for detecting the presence of hemorrhagic transformation, microbleeds and the susceptibility of vessel signs in acute ischemic stroke. But in some cases, it can provide the tissue perfusion state as well. We describe a case of a patient with hyperacute ischemic infarction that had a slightly hypodense, patchy lesion at the left thalamus on the initial SWI, with a left proximal posterior cerebral artery occlusion on a magnetic resonance (MR) angiography and delayed time-to-peak on an MR perfusion performed two hours after symptom onset. No obvious abnormal signals at any intensity were found on the initial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). On a follow-up MR image (MRI), an acute ischemic infarction was seen on DWI, which is the same location as the lesion on SWI. The hypointensity on the initial SWI reflects the susceptibility artifact caused by an increased deoxyhemoglobin in the affected tissue and vessels, which reflects the hypoperfusion state due to decreasing arterial flow. It precedes the signal change on DWI that reflects a cytotoxic edema. This case highlights that, in some hyperacute stages of ischemic stroke, hypointensity on an SWI may be a finding before the hyperintensity is seen on a DWI.

Effect of Gd-DTPA on Diffusion in Canine Brain with Hyperacute Stroke (초급성 뇌경색을 일으킨 개에서 Gd-조영제의 주입이 뇌의 확산에 미치는 영향)

  • 김범수;정소령;신경섭
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.158-165
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : To evaluate the effect of Gd-DTPA on signal intensity of diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance(MR) image and apparent diffuse coefficient (ADC) in dog brain with hype racute stroke. Materials and methods : Experimental canine model of hyperacute cerebral infarction was made by selective intraarterial embolization with particulate embolic material. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging was performed in five dogs at 1 hour after the embolization of internal carotid artery. After intravenous bolus injection of Gd- DTPA, additional 11 diffusion-weighted MR images were serially obtained from 2 minutes to 90 minutes after injection in each dog. The author evaluated findings of hyperacute cerebral infarction on diffusion-weighted MR imaging, and calculated mean signal intensity and mean ADC in infarcted region and contralateral normal region. Statistical analysis of mean signal intensity, mean ADC and contrast-noise ratio before and after Gd-DTPA injection was performed. Results : Hyperacute cerebral infarction developed in all five dogs on diffusion-weighted MR images obtained 1 hour after embolization. The area of hyperacute infarction had steady increase in signal intensity on diffusion-weighted MR image and decrease in ADC. In normal perfusion area, decrease in signal intensity was observed at 2 minutes the Gd-DTPA injection, whereas ADC did not changed. Conclusion : Intravenous injection of Gd-DTPA had no influence on ADC in both hyperacute infarction and normally perfused are a, but caused initial transient signal reduction in normally perfused area on diffusion-weighted MR image due to susceptibility effect of Gd-DTPA. It is important to calculate ADC in evaluating the effect of diffusion after injection of Gd-DTPA.

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Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Pathologic Correlation of Cerebral Fat Embolism using Oleic Acid

  • Park, Byung-Rae
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.115-120
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    • 2004
  • To investigate the correlation between the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of cerebral fat embolism that is induced by injecting oleic acid into 10 cats, and a pathologic diagnosis. Using a microcatheter, 30 ${mu}ell$ of oleic acid was injected into the internal carotid artery of 10 cats. MR T2-weighted image (T2WI), diffusion-weighted image (DWI) and Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted image (Gd-enhanced T1WI) were obtained after 30 minutes and 2 hours of embolization. After 30 minutes of the embolization, lesions of very high signal intensity were detected by T2WI in 6 cats, and of slightly high signal intensity in 2 cats; in the remaining 2 cats, signal intensity was normal. DWI showed lesions of very high intensity in 9 cats and of slightly high intensity in one cat. According to the findings of light microscopic examination, infarcted lesions mainly involved the gray matter, but also some white matter. A magnetic resonance imaging diagnosis for cerebral fat embolism that was induced by oleic acid through the internal carotid artery in cats showed high signal intensity on the T2WI and the DWI within an initial 2 hours, and with a well enhancement on the Gd-enhanced T1WI. Considering cellular edema, cerebrovascular injury and extracellular space widening, we assumed pathologically that cytotoxic and vasogenic edema exists at the same time.

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Preoperative Assessment of Cystic Brain Lesion : Significance of Diffusion-Weighted Image and ADC (Apparent Diffusion Coefficiency) Values

  • Choi, Hyun-Chul;Lee, Sang-Won;Ji, Cheol
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.41 no.6
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    • pp.371-376
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    • 2007
  • Objective : The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of diffusion-weighted imaging [DWI] and apparent diffusion coefficiency [ADC] in distinguishing brain abscesses from cystic or necrotic brain tumors, which are difficult to be differentiated by conventional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. Methods : Seven patients with brain abscesses and ten patients with cystic brain tumors were studied from September 2003 to October 2005. Abscess, subdural empyema and ventriculitis were categorized to the abscess group and cystic or necrotic brain gliomas or metastatic brain tumors into the tumor group. Preoperative magnetic resonance images were performed in all patients and diffusion-weighted images and apparent diffusion coefficiency values of lesions were calculated directly from software of 1.5 tesla MRI [General Electrics, USA]. The ratio of the ADC of the lesion to contralateral regional ADC was also measured [relative ADC, rADC]. Results : The average ADC value of pyogenic abscesses group was $0.82+/-0.14{\times}10^{-3}\;[mean+/-S.D.]\;mm^2/s$ and mean rADC was 0.75. Cystic or necrotic areas had high ADC values [$2.49+/-0.79{\times}10^{-3}\;mm^2/s$, mean rADC=2.14]. ADC and rADC values of abscesses group showed about three times lower values than those of cystic or necrotic tumor group. Conclusion : This study results based on numerical comparison of signal intensities and quantitative analysis to distinguish between brain abscess and cystic or necrotic tumor, DWI and ADC mapping are thought to be very useful diagnostic tools.

Quantitative and Qualitative Evaluation of Brain Diffusion Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Comparision with 1.5 T and 3.0 T Units (뇌 확산강조 자기공명영상에 대한 정량적, 성적 평가: 1.5 T와 3.0 T 기기 비교)

  • Goo, Eun-Hoe;Dong, Kyung-Rae
    • Journal of Radiation Industry
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.227-230
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    • 2016
  • DWI of biological effects are independent of magnetic field strength in various regions. High field strength, however, does affect the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and artifacts of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) images, which ultimately will influence the quantitative of diffusion imaging. In this study, the effects of field strength on DWI are reviewed. The effects of the diseases also are discussed. Comparing DWI in cerebellum, WM, GM, Hyperacute region measurements both as a function of field strength (1.5T and 3.0T). Overall, the SNR of the DWI roughly doubled going from 1.5 T to 3.0 T. In summary, DWI studies at 3.0 T is provided significantly improved DWI measurements relative to studies at 1.5T.

Changes in SNR and ADC According to the Increase in b Value in Liver Diffusion-Weighted Images

  • Cho, Jae-Hwan;Kim, Ham-Gyum
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.219-224
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    • 2012
  • In the present study, changes in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the diffusion-weighted images in the normal livers were investigated using changes in b values in 1.5 T MR (magnetic resonance) instruments. Respective diffusion-weighted images and ADC map images were obtained from 20 healthy individuals by increasing b values from 50 to 400 and 800 $s/mm^2$ using 1.5T MR scanner between January 2011 and November 2011. At each ADC map image obtained at each b value, ADCs in the right hepatic lobe, spleen and kidney were measured. As a result, ADCs of the right hepatic lobe, spleen and kidney have gradually decreased in the diffusion-weighted images in accordance with the reduced b value. This outcome may be used as preliminary data for applications to various abdominal diseases.

Vasogenic Edema in Experimental Cerebral Fat Embolism

  • Park Byung-Rae;Koo Bong-Oh
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2005
  • To evaluate the magnetic resonance imaging and electron microscopic findings of the hyperacute stage of cerebral fat embolism in cats and the time needed for the development of vasogenic edema. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed at 30 minutes (group 1, n=9) and at 30 minutes and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after embolization with triolein (group 2, n= 10). As a control for group 2, the same acquisition was obtained after embolization with polyvinyl alcohol particles (group 3, n=5). Electron microscopic examination was done in all cats. In group 1, the lesions were iso- or slightly hyperintense on T2-weighted (T2W) and diffusion-weighted (DWIs) images, hypointense on the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map image, and markedly enhanced on the gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted images (Gd-T1WIs). In group 2 at 30 minutes, the lesions were similar to those in group 1. Thereafter, the lesions became more hyperintense on T2WIs and DWIs and more hypoinfense on the ADC map image. In group 3, the lesions showed mild hyperintensity on T2WIs at 6 hours but hypointensity on the ADC map image from 30 minutes, with a tendency toward a greater decrease over time. Electron microscopic findings revealed discontinuity of the capillary endothelial wall, perivascular and interstitial edema, and swelling of glial and neuronal cells in groups 1 and 2. The lesions were hyperintense on T2WIs and DWIs, hypointense on the ADC map image, and enhanced on Gd-T1WIs. On electron microscopy, the lesions showed cytotoxic and vasogenic edema with disruption of the blood-brain barrier.

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Added Value of Diffusion Weighted Imaging for Detecting Pancreatic Abnormality in Patients with Clinically Suspected Acute Pancreatitis

  • Nam, In Chul;Kim, Seung Ho;Kim, Seon-Jeong;Lim, Yun-jung
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.241-249
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: To evaluate the added value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) to computed tomography (CT) for detecting pancreatic abnormality in patients with clinically suspected acute pancreatitis (AP). Materials and Methods: 203 patients who underwent abdomen CT and subsequent DWI to do a workup for epigastric pain were analyzed. Two blinded radiologists independently performed an interval reading based on CT image sets first, then based on combined CT and DWI image sets. The diagnostic criterion on DWI was the increased signal intensity in the pancreas to that of the spleen. For quantitative analysis, the third radiologist measured ADC value of the pancreas in each patient. Results: For AP (n = 43), the sensitivity for detecting pancreatic abnormality increased, from 42% to 70% for reader 1 (P < 0.05) and from 44% to 72% for reader 2 (P < 0.05). For borderline pancreatitis (n = 42), the sensitivity also increased, from 10% to 26% for reader 1 (P < 0.05) and from 7% to 29% for reader 2 (P < 0.05). The mean ADC values (unit, ${\times}10^{-3}mm^2/s$) were significantly different among the three groups (for AP, $1.09{\pm}0.16$; for borderline pancreatitis, $1.28{\pm}0.2$; for control, $1.46{\pm}0.15$, P < 0.05). Conclusion: Sensitivity for detecting pancreatic abnormality increased significantly after adding DWI to CT in patients with clinically suspected AP.