• Title, Summary, Keyword: mammary glands

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Expression of ErbB receptors in the pre-pubertal and pubertal virgin mammary glands of dairy cows

  • Lee, Byung-Woo;Kim, Yo-Han;Jeon, Byung-Suk;Singh, Naresh Kumar;Kim, Won-Ho;Kim, Meing-Jooung;Yoon, Byung-Il
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.52 no.4
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    • pp.269-273
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    • 2012
  • In the present study, we investigated the expression patterns of ErbB family proteins in the pre-pubertal and pubertal mammary glands of dairy cows in association with gland development. For this study, we performed immunohistochemistry for ErbB-1-4 and Ki-67 cell proliferation marker. We found that the pre-pubertal and pubertal mammary glands had typical structures, including ducts and terminal end buds embedded in the stroma, and no development of lobuloalveolar structures. On immunohistochemistry, ErbB-2 and ErbB-3 were strongly expressed in the cytoplasm and nuclei in the epithelial cells of mammary ducts and terminal end buds, and stromal cells, whereas ErbB-1 and ErbB-4 were weakly expressed only in the cytoplasm of gland epithelium and stromal cells, irrespective of the developmental stage. Cell proliferation was inactive in the mammary gland cell compartments in both phases. Thus, expression of the ErbB family in the developing mammary glands was not associated with their functional effects, such as cell proliferation and lobuloalveolar development. In conclusion, ErbB receptors were differentially expressed in the epithelial and stromal cells of virgin mammary glands of dairy cows. Compared with rodent mammary glands, ErbB-3 and ErbB-4 were found to be highly expressed in bovine mammary glands.

Effects of a Selective COX-2 Inhibitor Celecoxib and Soy-Isoflavones on Molecular Markers Related to Apoptosis, and COX-2 and Mapkinase Expression in Estrogen-Fed Rats

  • Kim, Tae-Kyung;Park, Ock Jin
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 2005
  • The present study examined the effects of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor celecoxib or soy-isoflavones in the presence of estrogen on apoptosis related gene expression, COX-2 and mapkinase in 48-week old female rats. Expressions of bel-2 and bax proteins, which are known to be involved in the regulation of apoptosis, were investigated in mammary glands and heart tissues. The elevated expression of bel-2 expression was observed in mammary glands of celecoxib supplemented rats as well as soy-isoflavones. The mammary glands bel-2/bax ratio was found to be higher in celecoxib or soy-isoflavones supplemented rats. However, in heart tissues, expression of bel-2 and bax was in the order of control, celecoxib and soy-isoflavones. The up-regulation of COX-2 was observed in celecoxib or soy-isoflavones in mammary glands. 'The similar trend was not displayed with the mapkinase expression. In heart tissues, the down-regulation of COX-2 as well as mapkinase was observed in celecoxib or soy-isoflavones supplemented rats. Soy-isoflavones and celecoxib both had a similar regulatory pattern of bel-2, bax and COX-2 in mammary glands, and in heart tissues, only COX-2 exhibited a similar down-regulatory properly. These findings revealed that in estrogen sufficient state, celecoxib and soy-isoflavones might not exhibit proapoptotic potential or COX-2 inhibition in normal mammary glands.

Inflammatory Mammary Carcinoma in a Dog (개에서 발생한 Inflammatory Mammary Carcinoma)

  • Lee, Youn-Kyung;Suh, Guk-Hyun;Lee, Chai-Yong
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.405-407
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    • 2008
  • A 13-year old female miniature Poodle was presented with ventro-abdominal skin purpura. All mammary glands were included, but right side mammary glands and left thoracic gland were mild while left abdominal and inguinal glands were moderately changed. Overlying skin of mammary glands was purple colored, thickened, and firm. Yellowish brown colored mammary discharge was noticed from every teats except cranial thoracic gland. On histologic finding, dermal lymphatic vessels were filled with tumor emboli that stained positively with cytokeratin. This case was diagnosed as inflammatory mammary carcinoma by clinical examination and histopathologic finding.

Effect of Sustained-Release of Adenosine by Elvax 40P Implant on Mouse Mammary Development (생쥐의 유선발달에 있어서 Elvax 40P Implant를 이용한 서방형 Adenosine의 역할)

  • 여인서;박춘근;홍병주
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.387-397
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    • 1993
  • To examine local response of adenosie(purine nucleoside) on the developing mammary gland, Elvax 40P implants containing adenosine were surgically implanted into mammary fat pad of the five week old female ICR mice. Inguinal(the 4th) mammary glands of anesthetized mice were exposed andplaced the implants for 12 days. One gland was treated with an adenosine implant, while the contralateral gland received a blank implant as control. For whole-mount preparations, glands were stained with alum carmine, and for histological observation, micro-selected mammary glands were stained with hematoxylin and eosin Y. Implantation with Elvax 40P did not affect on the damage of neighboring mammary tissue. Adenosie 25 or 250$\mu\textrm{g}$ per slow-release implant stimulated local mammary end bud formation of ovariectomized mice such as end bud size and numbers of end bud per gland in a dose dependent manner(P<0.05), and lower concentration of adenosie(2.5 or 25$\mu\textrm{g}$/implant) increased numbers of end bud(P<0.05) and end bud size(P<0.1) of intact mice. Adenosine treatment and intact ovarian function had moderate interation effects on the stimulation of end bud formation at 2.5$\mu\textrm{g}$ adenosine/implant(P<0.1). In histological observation, adenosine implants increased numbers of mammary epithelial type of cells at mammary duct in the presence or absece ofovary. These results indicate that adenosine should be one of regulators in mouse mammary ductal growth.

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Scintigraphic Detection of Mammary Tumor in a Bitch (암캐에서 유전 종양의 핵의학적 진단)

  • 강성수;김명환;배춘식;최석화
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.469-473
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    • 2001
  • A 12-year-old bitch, Yorkshire terrier, was admitted to the Chungbuk National University animal hospital with draining from mammary masses in the left and right mammary glands. She was involved in the mammary masses, suffering bilateral inguinal hernia. Physical examination during the hospitalization demonstrated the masses in right (3 cm) and left (1.5 cm) mammary glands. Blood pool images didn\`t show the subtle increase in blood flow to the inguinal hernia, and the increase of radionuclide distribution to the mammary gland on the soft tissue phase. However, delayed bone images showed a very focal lesion in the right mammary gland. These findings were confirmed on a subsequent biopsy, which also revealed adenocarcinoma with areas of malignant new bone formation. We present a case of primary mammary adenocarcinoma with $^{99m}Tc-MDP$ activity relative to normal bone. Tumor in the bitch demonstrates malignant new bone formation as the likely mechanism for the marked radiotracer avidity.

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Metastatic Malignant Mixed Tumor of Mammary Glands in an Irish Setter Dog : A Case Report (개의 악성유선혼합종의 전이 예)

  • Kang Boo-Hyon;Seo Il-Bok
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.457-466
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    • 1992
  • An 11 years old Irish Setter bitch was euthanlzed and necropsied because of clinical findings such as severe purulent nasal discharge and formation of large tumor mass, 8 ${\times}$8cm in size, in the abdominal cavity. A complete unilateral mastectomy had been carried out twice 14 and 22 months before necropsy. The surgically removed masess of the mammary glands had been diagnosed as malignant mixed tumor in each time. Grossly, tumor masses were observed in nasal cavity, infralumbar lymph node, lung, abdominal cavityn and brain. Microscopic findings of the surgically removed masses consisted of tumor epithelial cells, tumor hyaline cartilage-like structures and abundant connective tissues. The mass of the lymph node had similar microscopic features to those of the original malignant mixed tumor of the mammary glands. The tumor osseous tissue and osteoid were observed in the abdominal cavity, lung, and brain. Myoepithelial cells were frequently found on association with the metastatic tumors. From the results, it was concluded that malignant mixed tumor of the mammary glands metastasized to the infralunbar lymph node, abdominal cavity, lung and brain. In addition, the observation in this study supported two theories at the same time that the bone in malignant mixed tumor arises by endochondral ossification of the cartilage formed by the myoepithelial cells and arises by intramembranous ossification of stromal connective tissue or transformed myeopithelial cells. Solid carcinoma of the nasal epielia and granulosa cell tumor were also diagnosed in a mass of the nasal cavity and of the ovaries respectively.

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Isolation and Characterization of Mammary FpithelialStem Cells in Culture (유선상피 간세포의 분리 및 특성연구)

  • ;;Kelly H. Clifton
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 2000
  • The mammary gland contains a subpopulation of epithelial cells with large proliferative potentials which are the likely targets for carcinogens. These clonogenic cells can proliferate and differentiate into functional glandular structures. Rat mammary epithelial cells (RMEC) were isolated and characterized in vitro. By flow cytometry of RMEC stained with fluorescein isothiocyanate-peanut agglutinin(PNA) and phycoerythrin anti-Thy-1.1 monoclonal antibody, it was possible to four cell subpopulations from 7-8 week old F344 female rat mammary glands: cells negative to both reagents (B-), PNA-positive cells (PNA+), Thy-1.1-positive cells (Thy-1.1+), and cells positive to both reagents (B+). When single PNA+ cells were isolated and cultured in Matrigel with irradiated (∼50 Gray) 3T3 fibroblast feeder layer, they gave rise to multicellular clonal structures of three types: alveolar, foamy alveolar, and squamous colonies. The developed structures were similar to the mammary glands in vivo. These results suggest that some of PNA+ cells possesses many of the characteristics of multipotent clonogenic stem-like cells.

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A Histopathological Observation on the Mammary Gland of Lactating Rat Injected with Dexamethasone (Dexamethasone을 투여(投與)한 Rat 유선조직(乳腺組織)의 병리조직학적(病理組織學的) 관찰(觀察))

  • Ryu, Si-Yun;Lee, Cha-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.57-67
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    • 1983
  • The present study was carried out to observe the histopathological changes in the mammary gland of lactating rats and rabbits injected with dexamethasone. White rats were intramuscularly injected with 0.25mg, 0.5mg or 1.0mg of dexamethasone sodium phosphate (containing $9{\alpha}$-fluoro-$16{\alpha}$-methylprednisolone, 5.0mg/ml) daily for 3 to 10 days on the 3rd day after parturition and white rabbits were intramammary infused with 4mg or 20mg of dexamethasone daily for 4 days on 7th day after parturition. The histopathological changes of the mammary glands, ovaries and adrenal glands of rats and rabbits were observed with light microscope. In the mammary glands of rats, the microscopic findings encountered were decrease of the milk in the alveolar lumina, necrosis and desquamation of epithelial cells, atrophy of alveoli, proliferation of fibroblasts and thickness of alveolar walls, destruction of alveoli, presence of fat droplets within the glandular epithelial cells, infiltration of mononuclear cells and proliferation of adipose tissue, which were relative to the dose and duration of injection. Especially, in the cases of the administration of large doses or long duration, there were severe fibrosis and focal necrosis of glandular tissue. In the mammary glands of rabbits, the morphological changes were similar to those findings in the rats. The milk in the alveolar lumina was decreased gradually according to the dose and duration of injection, while milk fat concentration regarded to increase. In the histological findings of ovaries, necrosis of granulosa cellos, vacuolization and necrosis of luteal cells, atrophy and necrotic foci in the corpora lutes were observed. In the adrenal glands, hyperemia, hemorrhage, vacuolization of adrenal cortical cells, necrotic foci and atrophy of adrenal cortex were observed.

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POSSIBLE ROLES OF SUBMANDIBULAR SALIVARY GLANDS ON OVARIAN STEROIDS RESPONSIVENESS OF MOUSE MAMMARY GLANDS

  • Yuh, I.S.;Jang, B.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.9 no.6
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    • pp.695-699
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    • 1996
  • This experiment was to determine the effect of sialoadenectomy on the ability of the mammary gland development to response to ovarian steroids, estrogen and progesterone, stimulus in vivo. Body weights did not differ between sham-operated and sialoadenectomized mice within 0 to 18 day estradiol + progesterone (E + P) injection (p > 0.05). Sialoadenectomy reduced mammary development scores from 4.6 to 3.9 or from 4.4 to 3.8 in comparison with those of sham-operated mice for the 12 or 18 day E + P injection ($P{\leq}0.05$), however, sialoadenectomized mice with 0, 1, 3 or 6 day of E + P injection slightly decreased mammary development scores relative to those of sham-operated mice. These results indicate that the endocrine factor secreted from submandibular salivary gland appears to be required for the mammary development to respond fully to estradiol and progesterone. Similar results were obtained in the measurement of mammary DNA contents. Mammary DNA contents of sialoadenectomized mice were significantly decreased relative to those of sham-operated mice for the 6, 12 or 18 day E + P injections. Overall results suggest that salivary gland-secreted endocrine factor, presumably epidermal growth factor (EGF), was mammogenic and should interact with ovarian steroids in mammary development.

TERT mRNA Expression is Up-Regulated in MCF-7 Cells and a Mouse Mammary Organ Culture (MMOC) System by Endosulfan Treatment

  • Je Kang Hoon;Kim Ki Nam;Nam Kung Woo;Cho Myung Haing;Mar Woong Chon
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.351-357
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    • 2005
  • Endosulfan is one of the organochlorine pesticides, which are well-known endocrine disruptors (EDs), and it acts as an estrogen agonist. Estrogen is a group of hormones that play an important role in mammary gland function and are implicated in mammary carcinogenesis. In the present study, we studied the effects of endosulfan on nodule like alveolar lesion (NLAL) formation in mouse mammary gland development using a mouse mammary gland organ culture (MMOC) system. Although endosulfan-treated mammary glands did not form NLALs, more alveolar buds were formed in this group than in the negative control (vehicle-treated) group. In addition, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) mRNA expression levels were increased in endosulfan-treated mammary glands in a dose-dependent manner. Telomerase can be activated by estrogen, therefore, we examined the effects of endosulfan on telomerase activity, and found that the telomerase activity in estrogen receptor-positive MCF-7 cells was up-regulated by endosulfan treatment. Moreover, this activation was accompanied by the up­regulation of the TERT mRNA expression. Also, transient expression assays using CAT reporter plasm ids containing various fragments of the TERT promoter showed that this imperfect palindromic estrogen-responsive element is almost certainly responsible for the transcriptional activation by endosulfan. These results may help elucidate the endocrine disrupting mechanism of endosulfan.