The purpose of the study was to investigate the differences between two groups of students according to information recognition styles such as visual learners and linguistic learners. Two instructional methods, algeblocks and factorization formula, were utilized to introduce the factorization. Four students were participated for the study, and two of them were visual learners and the other two were linguistic learners based on learning style test. Interviews and the diagnostic tests were implemented before the instructions which were lasted for 6 sessions. After the instructions all the participants were interviewed and the researchers also interviewed them 5 days later. The results of the study were the followings: 1. All the participants regardless of their learning style revealed that algeblocks were helpful in understanding the factorization. 2. Visual learners were more likely using algeblocks, while the linguistic learners were more enthusiastic and proficient in using formula to solve the problems. 3. Five days later, two types of learning style students revealed different tendencies. Visual learners mainly used algeblocks, and linguistic learners were not enthusiastic about using algeblocks and one of them did not use them at all. 4. Five days later, two visual learners could not remember the formula, but linguistic learners could remember the formula in somewhat different level.
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
In the 2009 revised science curriculum, comprehensive verbs such as 'know (38%)' and 'understand (46%)' are used in more than 80% of the achievement standard. Many readers, such as teachers, textbook makers, etc. have difficulties in interpreting the meaning of achievement standard sentences with these comprehensive verbs. On the other hand, 'Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS)' uses more various and specific verbs to express the cognitive domain. In this study, we analyzed the 2009 revised science curriculum achievement standard focusing on the TIMSS cognitive domain assessment framework. We divided achievement standard to 228 sentences and three teachers analyzed the meaning of verbs in achievement standard. There were two main results of this study. First, the verb 'Know' was analyzed into different kinds of meanings, such as 'Describe (27%)', 'Recall/Recognize (25%)' and 'Relate (17%)', etc; and the verb 'Understand' was analyzed into 'Explain (37%)', 'Relate (27%)' and 'Describe (21%)', etc. Second, there appeared to have a disagreement among the three analysts during the process of interpreting the achievement standards when the level and scope of the contents of each grade is not clear. This study concludes that there's a need for continuous discussion on the use of verbs in achievement standard to promote clearer expressions for better understanding.
Lacan gives an explanation on our real actual world by the concepts the "Real", the "Imaginary" and the "Symbolic". Although this three registers are not far from each other, they never can be unified. Among animals, only human has interest in the "truth". The concept of truth is discussed and debated in several contexts, including philosophy and religion. Many human activities depend upon the concept, which is assumed rather than a subject of discussion, including science, law, and everyday life. Language and words are a means by which humans convey information to one another, and the method used to determine what is a "truth" is termed a criterion of truth. Accepting then that "language is the basic social institution in the sense that all others presuppose language", Lacan found in Ferdinand de Saussure's linguistic division of the verbal sign between signifier and signified a new key to the Freudian understanding that "his therapeutic method was 'a talking cure'". The purpose of this paper is to understand Lacan's psychology and psychoanalysis by using the mathematical concepts and mathematical models, especially geometrical and topological models. And re-explanation of the symbolic model and symbols can help students understand new ideas and concepts in the educational scene.
The purpose of this study is to analyze the structures of teacher's discourse according to the pattern of interaction between teachers and students in the understanding mathematical word problem. The structures of teacher's discourse could be conceptualized as a process in which the teacher starts, develops and organizes the discourse based on prior research. For this purpose, the fourth class(example, a problem of the same type as the example, formative assessment, and final assessment) was extracted from one semester of experienced teachers who have been practicing teaching methods to facilitate student participation for many years. A methodology used to develop a theory based on data collected through classroom observations. Because the purpose of the study is to identify the structures of teacher's discourse to help the problem understanding, observe the teacher's discourse and collect data based on student engagement. Results show that the structure of teacher's discourse, which consults on important aspects of interaction between teachers-students and creates mathematical meanings, helped students understand the mathematics word problem by promoting their engagement in class. Based on the structures of teacher's discourse to understand problems based on the interaction patterns between teachers and students, it can be said that teachers provided specific methodologies on how to communicate with students in order to understand problems in the future.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the auxiliary questions of word problems presented to students on their problem solving-strategies and mathematical thinking and to discuss the educational implications of the results. As a result of making an analysis, problems that included auxiliary questions to give information on workable problem-solving strategies made it more possible for students of different levels to do relatively equal mathematical thinking than problems that didn't by inducing them to adopt efficient problem-solving strategies. And they were helpful for the students in the middle and lower tiers to find a clue for problem solving without giving up. But it's unclear whether the problems that provided possible strategies through the auxiliary questions stirred up the analogical thinking of the students. In addition, due to the impact of the problems provided, some students failed to adopt a strategy that they could have come up with on their own. On the contrary, when the students solved word problems that just offered basic recommendation by minimizing auxiliary questions, the upper-tiered students could devise various strategies, but in the case of the students in the middle and lower tiers, those who gave up easily or who couldn't find an answer were relatively larger in number.
Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
This study aims to develop the scales to measure the innovation configurations of Science. Technology, Engineering, Art and Mathematics (STEAM) from the perspective of elementary school teachers and investigates the effect of the innovation configurations and related environmental factors on the usage levels of STEAM based on the newly developed scales for the innovation configurations of STEAM. The scales for the innovation configurations of STEAM are based on analyzing the various previous studies and in-depth interviews and consist of four sub-configurations: The 'Preparation,' 'Design,' 'Implementation,' and 'Evaluation.' The innovation configurations of STEAM was investigated with the developed scales through 266 teachers who are leading STEAM school teachers, are involved in STEAM research group, or are implementing STEAM in general schools. The final 19 questionnaires for the scale of the innovation configuration of STEAM are confirmed with exploratory factor analysis and reliability analysis. In order to examine the relationship between the innovation configurations and levels of use, the direct relationship between four sub-configurations and the usage levels of STEAM and the effect of environmental factors on the innovation configuration and the usage levels of STEAM have been conducted and their interactions are considered. The results show that 'Implementation' in the innovation configurations of STEAM and 'STEAM training experience' are most important factors to improve the usage levels of STEAM for elementary school teachers. It implies that the scales are very helpful in improving as well as figuring out the current innovation configurations of STEAM.
Journal of Elementary Mathematics Education in Korea
The purpose of this study is to examine the characteristics of visual representation used in problem solving process and examine the representation types the students used to successfully solve the problem and focus on systematizing the visual representation method using the condition students suggest in the problems. To achieve the goal of this study, following questions have been raised. (1) what characteristic does the representation the elementary school students used in the process of solving a math problem possess? (2) what types of representation did students use in order to successfully solve elementary math problem? 240 4th graders attending J Elementary School located in Seoul participated in this study. Qualitative methodology was used for data analysis, and the analysis suggested representation method the students use in problem solving process and then suggested the representation that can successfully solve five different problems. The results of the study as follow. First, the students are not familiar with representing with various methods in the problem solving process. Students tend to solve the problem using equations rather than drawing a diagram when they can not find a word that gives a hint to draw a diagram. The method students used to restate the problem was mostly rewriting the problem, and they could not utilize a table that is essential in solving the problem. Thus, various errors were found. Students did not simplify the complicated problem to find the pattern to solve the problem. Second, the image and strategy created as the problem was read and the affected greatly in solving the problem. The first image created as the problem was read made students to draw different diagram and make them choose different strategies. The study showed the importance of first image by most of the students who do not pass the trial and error step and use the strategy they chose first. Third, the students who successfully solved the problems do not solely depend on the equation but put them in the form which information are decoded. They do not write difficult equation that they can not solve, but put them into a simplified equation that know to solve the problem. On fraction problems, they draw a diagram to solve the problem without calculation, Fourth, the students who. successfully solved the problem drew clear diagram that can be understood with intuition. By representing visually, unnecessary information were omitted and used simple image were drawn using symbol or lines, and to clarify the relationship between the information, numeric explanation was added. In addition, they restricted use of complicated motion line and dividing line, proper noun in the word problems were not changed into abbreviation or symbols to clearly restate the problem. Adding additional information was useful source in solving the problem.
This study was analyzed that what kind of elements for STEAM, except scientific commonsense, are contained in 2009 revised chemistry textbooks I for high school students. So first, elements of STEAM in textbooks were examined by following three sections; by publishing company, each unit and area of textbook. For reference, new sub-elements of STEAM were set because existing elements of STEAM is incongruent with current textbooks. As a result, most chemistry textbooks included elements of STEAM properly for inter-related learning with the other fields. Every textbook had its unique learning methods for utilizing elements of STEAM and they were unified as one way. Depending on textbooks, learning methods were little bit different from the others. Also, detailed elements of STEAM contained in textbooks were classified just 14 types. And they were even focused on a few elements according to sort of textbook. Thus, it seemed that there was a certain limitation of current education of STEAM in chemistry Field. By the unit, according to the curriculum, contained elements of STEAM were different. Almost all elements of STEAM were located in I section. Consequently, it is difficult to include elements of STEAM if mathematics or history were not existed in curriculum. Lastly, by the area, most of all elements of STEAM were included in reference section. Almost all elements of STEAM were focused on art and culture. Thus, STEAM was used for utilization about chemical knowledge in substance. Otherwise, convergence training for approach method was not enough in chemical knowledge.
The purpose of this study was to explore how primary school students develop their interest in science. A survey questionnaire was used to investigate students' interest, change of their interest, and engagement in science related activities three times a year. 201 students of two primary schools in Seoul Metropolitan City initially participated in this study. A follow-up case study was conducted with students who showed an increased interest in science. Finally, seven students were chosen in the case study. They were asked to keep a photo journal for 12 weeks, and were interviewed in every other week by one of the researchers. Among these seven participants, two (TK and QQ) were chosen for analyzing their data in this case study because they showed positive changes in developing science interest throughout the study. The results of two participants' survey, photo-journal and interview were analyzed qualitatively. First, TK, whose science interest developed from situational interest II to individual interest I, engaged in doing experiments at home, doing mathematics activities, raising pets or plants, observing phenomena, and visiting informal educational centers. He tended to participate in hands-on activities by himself in out-of-school settings. Second, QQ who developed from situational interest I to situational interest II, engaged in taking pictures as a representative activity at home and school. He tended to participate in activities with either his father or one of the researchers. Both students showed personal characteristics such as doing place-based activities, interaction with others and activity subjectivity. The goal of TK's interactions with others on the various places was to develop in cognitive domain. On the contrary, QQ's goal of interactions with others was to develop in emotional communication. This study reported the cases of characteristics of students who developed their interests in science including activities in- and out-of-school settings and their accompanying people.
The purpose of this study is to investigate if top-ranked high school students do integrated understanding about the concept of a differential coefficient. For here, the meaning of integrated understanding about the concept of a differential coefficient is whether students understand tangent and velocity problems, which are occurrence contexts of a differential coefficient, by connecting with the concept of a differential coefficient and organically understand the concept, algebraic and geometrical expression of a differential coefficient and applied situations about a differential coefficient. For this, 38 top-ranked high school students, who are attending S high school, located in Cheongju, were selected as subjects of this analysis. The test was developed with high-school math II textbooks and various other books and revised and supplemented by practising teachers and experts. It is composed of 11 questions. Question 1 and 2-(1) are about the connection between the concept of a differential coefficient and algebraic and geometrical expression, question 2-(2) and 4 are about the connection between occurrence context of the concept and the concept itself, question 3 and 10 are about the connection between the expression with algebra and geometry. Question 5 to 9 are about applied situations. Question 6 is about the connection between the concept and application of a differential coefficient, question 8 is about the connection between application of a differential coefficient and expression with algebra, question 5 and 7 are about the connection between application of a differential coefficient, used besides math, and expression with geometry and question 9 is about the connection between application of a differential coefficient, used within math, and expression with geometry. The research shows the high rate of students, who organizationally understand the concept of a differential coefficient and algebraic and geometrical expression. However, for other connections, the rates of students are nearly half of it or lower than half.
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