• Title, Summary, Keyword: medical sample tube

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Design of an Ultra-Compact UHF Passive RFID Tag Antenna for a Medical Sample Tube

  • Lee, Jung-Nam;Hwang, Moon-Young;Lee, Sang-Il;Lee, Kwang-Chun;Park, Jong-Kweon
    • ETRI Journal
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.974-977
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    • 2012
  • In this letter, a small-sized ultra-high frequency (UHF) RFID tag antenna for a medical sample tube is proposed. The RFID tag antenna is designed and fabricated based on the circular loop antenna used in the UHF band (Korea standard, 917 MHz to 923.5 MHz). The tag antenna size is reduced using a circular meander stub. The antenna has a physical size of 8 mm, which is about ${\lambda}$/40 in electrical length. The proposed tag antenna is molded into a medical sample and multitag identification is performed.

Uncertainty Minimization in Quantitative Electron Spin Resonance Measurement: Considerations on Sampling Geometry and Signal Processing

  • Park, Sangeon;Shim, Jeong Hyun;Kim, Kiwoong;Jeong, Keunhong;Song, Nam Woong
    • Journal of the Korean Magnetic Resonance Society
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.53-58
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    • 2020
  • Free radicals including reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important chemicals in the research area of biology, pharmaceutical, medical, and environmental science as well as human health risk assessment as they are highly involved in diverse metabolism and toxicity mechanisms through chemical reactions with various components of living bodies. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy is a powerful tool for detecting and quantifying those radicals in biological environments. In this work we observed the ESR signal of 2,2,6,6-Tetra-methyl piperidine 1-oxyl (TEMPO) in aqueous solution at various concentrations to estimate the uncertainty factors arising from the experimental conditions and signal treatment methods. As the sample position highly influences the signal intensity, dual ESR tube geometry (consists of a detachable sample tube and a position fixed external tube) was adopted. This type of measurement geometry allowed to get the relative uncertainty of signal intensity lower than 1% when triple measurements are averaged. Linear dependence of signal intensity on the TEMPO concentration, which is required for the quantification of unknown sample, could be obtained over a concentration range of ~103 by optimizing the signal treatment method depending on the concentration range.

A Comparative Study on the Clamping Protocols of a Biliary External Drainage Tube in Adult Living-donor Liver Transplant Recipients (성인 생체 간이식 수혜자에서 담도 외-배액관 잠그기 훈련 방법 비교)

  • Chung, Jin Ah;Choi, Hye Ran
    • Journal of Korean Critical Care Nursing
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.33-39
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The propose of this study was to introduce the clamping protocols for a biliary external drainage tube and trace the results of using clamping protocols to prevent some possible biliary complications or enable their early detection in living-donor liver transplantation. Method: This study was a retrospective study to analyze the cases of 97 subjects who had undergone liver transplantation in a hospital in Seoul, Korea. Clamping protocol 1 was applied to 47 patients, and clamping protocol 2 was applied to 50 patients. Results: In the case of protocol 1, the success rate of the clamping protocol was 74.5%, while that of protocol 2 was 84.0%. However, there was no significant difference in the compiled statistics from authentic sources (p = .246). Conclusions: The difference in the success rate between the two protocols was not significant for the clamping protocols of the biliary external drainage tube. However protocol 2 is suggested for the clamping method due to the simplicity of application. Further study with a large sample size is suggested.

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Evaluation of Coated Tube CA19-9 IRMA kit (Coated tube를 사용한 CA19-9 측정용 IRMA 시약의 평가)

  • Lee, Hyun-Ju;Jang, Hyun-Young;Shin, Sun-Young;Kim, Hee-Sun;Kim, Tae-Hoon;Lee, Ho-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.208-211
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: $TFB^{(R)}$ CA19-9 IRMA kit uses beads coated with CA19-9 antibody. However, this mathod can not use automated equipment, and requires a long time test. Recently, CA19-9 IRMA kit developed by $TFB^{(R)}$ is coated with CA19-9 antibody to the polystyrene test tube and reaction at room temperature, and also reduced test time. This study evaluated the performance of a newly developed $TFB^{(R)}$ CA19-9 IRMA kit. Materials and Methods: This study were measured by using 56 patients sample of Boramae Medical Center and Seoul National University Hospital. We evaluated intra-and inter-assay precision, recovery rate, linearity, sensitivity and high dose hook effect of coated tube CA19-9 IRMA kit developed by $TFB^{(R)}$. The values of CA19-9 measured by $TFB^{(R)}$ bead kit were compared with those measured by $TFB^{(R)}$ coated tube kit. Results: ntra-assay coefficients of variation on three different levels were 4.1%, 4.0% and 4.2%. Inter-assay coefficients of variation were 7.6%, 4.3% and 7.8%. Recovery tests on all three different levels showed within $100{\pm}10%$. Linearity was good and sensitivity was 0.3 U/mL. High dose hook effect is not observed. There was strong correlation between bead kit and coated tube kit by $TFB^{(R)}$ CA19-9 IRMA kit. (y=0.9185x-0.953, $R^2$=0.9779) Conclusion: Coated tube CA19-9 IRMA kit developed by $TFB^{(R)}$ showed satisfactory precision, recovery rate, linearity, sensitivity and high dose hook effect.

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Analysis of a Spun-CNT Based X-ray Source

  • Kim, Hyun Suk;Castro, Edward Joseph D.;Hun, Choong
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.639-639
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    • 2013
  • In this research we report the significant contribution of the as-spun multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) on the x-ray images formation using a low tube voltage x-ray source. The MWCNT, which was used for the fabrication of the spun CNT, was grown using a microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition machine. Electrical-optics simulation software was utilized to determine the electron field emission trajectory of the triode-structure-as-spun CNT-based x-ray source. It was shown that a significant amount of converging electrons hit the target anode producing a clear x-ray image. These x-ray images where produced at a small amount of anode current of 0.67 mA at a tube voltage of 5 kV with the gate voltage of 0 V. Also, comparisons of the radiographs at various exposure times of the sample where analyzed with and without an x-ray dose filter. Results showed that spatially-resolved images were formed using the as-spun CNT at a low tube voltage with a $54-{\mu}m$ Al x-ray filter. This study can be used for low-voltage medical applications.

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An experimental study on the biological safety and compatability of P.V.C. made in Korea (한국산 P.V.C.의 생물학적 안정도 및 적합성에 대한 실험적 고찰)

  • Sun, Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.157-166
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    • 1984
  • These biologic test procedures are designed to test the suitability of P.V.C. made in Korea intended for parenteral preparation, which were based on the U.S. Pharmacopeia XIX "Biologic Test-Plastic Container", Official from July 1, 1975. Healthy adult human blood and rabbits weighing 2\ulcorner.2Kg were used for test materials. Sample P.V.C. were sampled from the medical equipments made in Korea randomly and Control P.V.C. were sampled from the standardized Cobe and Polystan P.V.C. tubes. P.V.C. extract was prepared from a homogeneous P.V.C. samples by incubating 60 square centimeters of the sample per 20 millimeters of sterile pyrogen-free saline at 70\ulcorner for 72 hours or autoclaving at 120\ulcorner for 1 hour. The Implantation Test was designed to evaluate the reaction of living tissue to the plastic by the method of the implantation of the Sample itself into animal tissue. The Systemic Injection Test, the Intracutaneous Test, and the remainders were designed to determine the biological response of animals to plastics by the single-dose injection of specific extracts prepared from a Sample. The results are as follows; 1.Implantation Test - No significant difference for reactions was noted between the Sample treated animal and the Control after 72 hours of implantation. 2.Systemic Toxicity Injection Test - No sign of toxicity and/or death immediately after injection and at 4, 24, 48 hours respectfully after injection. 3.Intracutaneous Test - None of the animals treated with the Sample showed a significantly greater reaction than the observed in the animals treated with Blank. 4.Pyrogen Assay-Only one animal treated with the Sample showed the maximal rise of rectal temperature about 0.2\ulcorner after 3 hours of injection, but remainders showed no change. 5.Hemolytic Index - The positive Control tube of distilled water exhibited complete hemolysis while the negative Control tube and P.V.C. extract were negative demonstrating no hemolysis. 6.Cell Morphology of Erythrocytes and Leukocytes on Stored, Heparinized Human Blood -- There was no significant difference in the morphology of either the Control or Sample extract. 7.Clotting Mechanism of Human Blood in vitro - After allowing to the P.V.C. extract at room temperature for 5 Hours and at 10\ulcorner for 24 hours, there was no appreciable difference in Prothrombin Time under these conditions. 8.Clotting Mechanism of Rabbit in vivo - At the termination of 5 days after intraperitoneal injection of the P.V.C. extract, no significant changes in Clotting Time were observed. According to the above results, it could be concluded that the P.V.C. made in Korea was acceptable for parenteral preparation, especially treated with physiologic saline and/or human blood.man blood.

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Construction of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Inside-out probes for Internal Imaging (핵자기공명 영상법을 위한 내부 영상용 뒤집음-탐침의 제작)

  • Ko, R.K.;Lee, D.H.;Jeong, E.K.
    • Proceedings of the KOSOMBE Conference
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    • v.1995 no.11
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    • pp.78-81
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    • 1995
  • In imaging the samples or human internal organs in a tube shape, general RF-probe types (that encircles a sample or places on top of the sample) are usually unsuitable for the internal imaging due to the degradation of signal-to-noise ratios(SNR's). In the present study the inside-out probes for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) have been constructed in the three different shapes such as an anti-solenoidal, a saddle and a dual surface types which are positioned as close to the area as possible by putting the probe inside the tubelike sample to improve filling factor. RF-field distributions have also been calculated depending upon the geometrical changes of anti-solenoid probes. Moreover, the performance of the inside-out probes has been checked by measuring SNR's of the images acquired. The inside-out probes constructed in this study produced better SNR's and rf-field uniformity in the area close to the probes in comparing with any other commercial probes. There is a high possibility that the constructed probes in the present study are applicable to the diagnosis of human bodies.

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Numerical Modeling and Experiment for Single Grid-Based Phase-Contrast X-Ray Imaging

  • Lim, Hyunwoo;Lee, Hunwoo;Cho, Hyosung;Seo, Changwoo;Lee, Sooyeul;Chae, Byunggyu
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.83-91
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    • 2017
  • In this work, we investigated the recently proposed phase-contrast x-ray imaging (PCXI) technique, the so-called single grid-based PCXI, which has great simplicity and minimal requirements on the setup alignment. It allows for imaging of smaller features and variations in the examined sample than conventional attenuation-based x-ray imaging with lower x-ray dose. We performed a systematic simulation using a simulation platform developed by us to investigate the image characteristics. We also performed a preliminary PCXI experiment using an established a table-top setup to demonstrate the performance of the simulation platform. The system consists of an x-ray tube ($50kV_p$, 5 mAs), a focused-linear grid (200-lines/inch), and a flat-panel detector ($48-{\mu}m$ pixel size). According to our results, the simulated contrast of phase images was much enhanced, compared to that of the absorption images. The scattering length scale estimated for a given simulation condition was about 117 nm. It was very similar, at least qualitatively, to the experimental contrast, which demonstrates the performance of the simulation platform. We also found that the level of the phase gradient of oriented structures strongly depended on the orientation of the structure relative to that of linear grids.

Study on Overcoming Interference Factor by Automatic Synthesizer in Endotoxin Test (내독소 검사에서 자동합성장치에 따른 간섭요인 극복에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong Il;Kim, Si Hwal;Chi, Yong Gi;Seok, Jae Dong
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.3-6
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    • 2012
  • Purpose : Samsung medical ceter shall find a cause of the interference factor and suggest a solution for it. Materials and Methods : A sample of $^{18}F$-FDG, radioactive pharmaceuticals produced by TRACERlab MX and FASTlab synthesizer. Gel-clot method uses Positive control tube and single test tube. Kinetic chromogenic method uses ENDOSAFE-PTS produced by Charles River. Results : According to Gel clot method of Endotoxin Tests at FASTlab, both turbidity and viscosity increased at 40-fold dilution and Gel clot was detected. In case of TRACERlab MX, Gel clot was detected in most of samples but intermittently not in a few of them. When using ENDOSAFE-PTS, sample CV (Coefficient of Variation) of FASTlab is 0% at all dilution rates whereas spike CV is 0% at 1-fold dilution, 0~35% at 10-fold, 3.6~12.9% at 20-fold, 5.2~7.1% at 30-fold, 1.1~17.4% at 40-fold, spike recovery; 0% at one-fold, 25 ~ 58% at 10-fold, 50 ~ 86% at 20-fold, 70~92% at 30-fold, and 75~120% at 40-fold. Sample CV of TRACERlab MX, is 0% at all dilution rates whereas spike CV is 1.4~4.8% at one-fold dilution, 0.6~19.9% at 10-fold, spike recovery; 35~72% at one-fold dilution and 77~107% at 10-fold. Conclusion : Gel clot does not seem to occur probably to H3PO4 which engages in bonding with Mg2+ion contributing gelation inside PCT. Dilution which is identical to reducing the amount of H3PO4, could remove interfering effects accordingly. Spike recovery was obtained within 70~150% - recommended values of supplier - at 40-fold dilution even in kinetic chromogenic method.

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A Study on the Safety of a Screening X-ray Laboratory Using Containers in accordance with the COVID 19 Outbreak (COVID 19 유행에 따른 컨테이너를 이용한 선별 X-선 검사실의 안전성에 대한 고찰)

  • Kim, Jae-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Radiology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.425-431
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    • 2020
  • When a radiation generating device is installed in an export container due to COVID-19, the purpose of this study was to measure the space dose in the radiation room and to study the effectiveness of the shielding wall in the laboratory. Air dose measurement method was set behind the X-ray tube, 50 cm, 100 cm, 200 cm, and measured 12 locations. The dose values before and after the use of the movable radiation shielding wall were compared by measuring 3 locations behind the X-ray tube using the movable radiation shielding wall. The measured values were 50 cm on the left behind the X-ray tube: 1.446 μSv, behind the X-ray tube: 0.545 μSv, and 50 cm on the right behind the X-ray tube: 1.466 μSv. Measurements behind the radiation barrier were 0.190 μSv, 0.204 μSv, and 0.191 μSv. As a result of performing the corresponding sample t test of the average value according to the use of movable barrier walls, p <0.001 was found. As a result of the actual measurement, the medical exposure of the examiner due to the shielding wall in the laboratory decreased to 82.3%. In order to reduce occupational exposure in screening radiological laboratories, it is recommended that sufficient separation from radiation sources and the use of shielding walls are recommended.