• Title, Summary, Keyword: medium chain fatty acid

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Whole-cell Biotransformation of Chlorella Oil Hydrolysates into Medium Chain Fatty Acids

  • Seo, Joo-Hyun;Min, Won-Ki;Lee, Jung-Hoo;Lee, Sun-Mee;Lee, Choul-Gyun;Park, Jin-Byung
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.44-52
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    • 2018
  • A synthetic pathway, which consisted of fatty acid double bond hydratase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase, was applied to Chlorella oil to produce ester fatty acids, which can be hydrolyzed into medium chain fatty acids. Since linoleic acid is a major fatty acid constituent of Chlorella oil, a fatty acid double bond hydratase from Lactobacillus acidophilus NBRC13951, which is able to convert linoleic acid into 13-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid, was used. Recombinant Escherichia coli expressing the fatty acid double bond hydratase from L. acidophilus NBRC13951 successfully transformed linoleic acid in Chlorella oil hydrolysates into 13-hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid with approximately 60% conversion yield. 13-Hydroxyoctadec-9-enoic acid was further converted into ester fatty acids by the recombinant E. coli expressing a long chain secondary alcohol dehydrogenase and a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase. The resulting ester fatty acids were then hydrolyzed into medium chain fatty acids by a lipase. Overall, industrially relevant medium chain fatty acids were produced from Chlorella oil hydrolysates. Thereby, this study may contribute to biosynthesis of medium chain fatty acids from microalgae oils as well as long chain fatty acids.

Growth Performance, Plasma Fatty Acids, Villous Height and Crypt Depth of Preweaning Piglets Fed with Medium Chain Triacylglycerol

  • Chwen, Loh Teck;Foo, Hooi Ling;Thanh, Nguyen Tien;Choe, D.W.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.700-704
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    • 2013
  • A study was conducted to investigate the effects of feeding medium chain triacylglycerol (MCT) on growth performance, plasma fatty acids, villus height and crypt depth in preweaning piglets. A total of 150 new born piglets were randomly assigned into one of three treatments: i) Control (no MCT); ii) MCT with milk (MCT+milk); iii) MCT without milk (MCT+fasting). Body weight, plasma fatty acid profiles, villus height and crypt depth were measured. Final BW for the Control and MCT+fasting was lower (p<0.05) than MCT+milk. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had greater medium chain fatty acids (MCFA) than the Control. In contrast, the Control had greater long chain fatty acid (LCFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA) than the MCT piglets. The piglets fed with MCT regardless of milk provision or fasting had higher villus height for the duodenum and jejunum after 6 h of feeding. Similar observations were found in piglets fed with MCT after 6 and 8 days of treatment. This study showed that feeding MCT to the piglets before weaning improved growth performance, with a greater concentration of MCT in blood plasma as energy source and a greater height of villus in duodenum, jejunum and ileum.

In Vitro Evidence of Anti-Inflammatory and Anti-Obesity Effects of Medium-Chain Fatty Acid-Diacylglycerols

  • Yu, Seungmin;Choi, Jong Hun;Kim, Hun Jung;Park, Soo Hyun;Go, Gwang-woong;Kim, Wooki
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.9
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    • pp.1617-1627
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    • 2017
  • Dietary approaches using structured lipids, including medium-chain fatty acids and diacylglycerols, have been adopted for the prevention of obesity-induced chronic inflammation. In an extension to previous studies, medium-chain fatty acid-diacylglycerol enriched dietary oil (MCDG) was prepared by interesterification of canola oil and medium-chain fatty acid-triacylglycerols. The consequent MCDG product was applied to RAW264.7 macrophages followed by the assessment of multiple inflammatory responses. Compared with conventionally used canola and olive oil controls, MCDG suppressed macrophage phagocytosis, as assessed by the uptake of microsphere beads. Furthermore, the production of IL-6 and $TNF-{\alpha}$, transcription of COX-2 and iNOS, and expression of CD80 on cell surfaces were downregulated by MCDG in LPS-stimulated macrophages. Subsequently, differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were evaluated for proinflammatory cytokine production and lipid accumulation. IL-6 production was marginally affected and lipid accumulation was inhibited by MCDG. Taken together, these results suggest that MCDG has potential as an alternative oil for cooking in order to prevent obesity-induced inflammation.

Transmucosal Delivery of Luteinizing Hormone-Releasing Hormone: Effect of Medium Chain Fatty Acid Salts on Stabilization of LHRH in Mucosal Homogenates in vitro. (황체호르몬 유리호르몬의 경점막 수송: 가토 점막균질액 중에서 중쇄지방산염의 LHRH에 대한 안정화 효과)

  • Han, Kun;Park, Jeong-Sook
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.67-77
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    • 1994
  • In order to investigate the feasibility of transmucosal delivery of the model peptide, LHRH, metabolism of LHRH and inhibition effect of medium chain fatty acid salts were studied in rabbit mucosal homogenate. LHRH incubated in homogenates of rectal(RE), nasal(NA) and vaginal(VA) mucosa were assayed by HPLC. Five to six degradation products of LHRH were deterted and the degradation of LHRH$(500\;{\mu}g/ml)$ followed the first order kinetics. The main degradation products were found as $LHRH^{1-5}(M-I)$, $LHRH^{1-3}(M-II)$ and $LHRH^{1-6}(M-III)$ by the method of amino acid analysis. The half-lives of LHRH in the mucosal homogenates were found to be less than 20 min at protein concentration of 2.5 mg/ml with the order of VA>NA>RE mucosal homogenate. Medium chain fatty acid salts such as sodium caprylate $(C_8)$, sodium caprate $(C_{10})$ and sodium laurate $(C_{12})$ at the concentration of $0.5%{\sim}1.0%$ inhibit the proteolysis of LHRH significantly. The addition of sodium laurate(0.5%) into the NA and VA mucosal homogenates protected LHRH completely from the degradation.

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Formation of Medium Chain Fatty Acid by Wine Yeasts (포도주 효모에 의한 중간크기의 지방산 생성)

  • Lee, Soo-O
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.832-837
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    • 1989
  • It has been suggested that medium chain fatty acid(MCFA) may be toxic to yeast and bacteria and thus play a role in the inhibition of alcoholic and malolactic fermentations and also important contributors to wine flavour We measured, by the use of GLC, the concentrations of octanoic, decanoic and dodecanoic acids produced by 12 wine yeast strains during the alcoholic fermentation of a grape juice-like medium. In general, there was a high production of MCFA at first, dropping dramatically later. The formation of MCFA is largely dependent on yeast strain but it also depends upon temperature, sugar concentration, stirring and carbon dioxide sparging.

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Enhancement of Rectal Absorption of Insulin in Eudispert hv Hydrogels Containing Medium Chain Fatty Acid Salts in Rats (중쇄지방산염 함유 Eudispert hv 하이드로겔의 인슐린 직장 흡수증대효과)

  • Han, Kun;Kim, Joun-Sik;Yoo, Jeoung-Hee;Chung, Youn-Bok
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.189-198
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of medium chain fatty acid salts, reported as enhancers in insulin nasal absorption, on the rectal absorption of insulin in rats. The serum glucose and remained insulin level in perfusate were measured after rectal recirculation of insulin with or without sod. laurate, sod. caprate and sod. caprylate in situ. The addition of sod. laurate or sod. caprate reduced serum glucose concentration considerably. Sod. caprate (1.0%) showed the greatest promoting effect on the decrement of serum glucose. Eudispert hv hydrogels containing insulin with medium chain fatty acid salts were, thereby, prepared and evaluated. The release rate of insulin from Eudispert hv hydrogels was reduced with an increase in the content of Eudispert hv, and was raised with increasing NaOH concentration. Ten percent Eudispert hv hydrogels were offered for the rectal administration of insulin. The addition of 1.0% sod. caprate reduced serum glucose concentration remarkably after rectal administration of 10% Eudispert hv hydrogels containing insulin. The level of glucose decrement was greater by 30% compared to subcutaneous administration of insulin solution. From the above findings, Eudispert hv hydrogels would be used as useful rectal delivery systems of insulin.

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Undecanoic Acid, Lauric Acid, and N-Tridecanoic Acid Inhibit Escherichia coli Persistence and Biofilm Formation

  • Jin, Xing;Zhou, Jiacheng;Richey, Gabriella;Wang, Mengya;Choi Hong, Sung Min;Hong, Seok Hoon
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.130-136
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    • 2021
  • Persister cell formation and biofilms of pathogens are extensively involved in the development of chronic infectious diseases. Eradicating persister cells is challenging, owing to their tolerance to conventional antibiotics, which cannot kill cells in a metabolically dormant state. A high frequency of persisters in biofilms makes inactivating biofilm cells more difficult, because the biofilm matrix inhibits antibiotic penetration. Fatty acids may be promising candidates as antipersister or antibiofilm agents, because some fatty acids exhibit antimicrobial effects. We previously reported that fatty acid ethyl esters effectively inhibit Escherichia coli persister formation by regulating an antitoxin. In this study, we screened a fatty acid library consisting of 65 different fatty acid molecules for altered persister formation. We found that undecanoic acid, lauric acid, and N-tridecanoic acid inhibited E. coli BW25113 persister cell formation by 25-, 58-, and 44-fold, respectively. Similarly, these fatty acids repressed persisters of enterohemorrhagic E. coli EDL933. These fatty acids were all medium-chain saturated forms. Furthermore, the fatty acids repressed Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) biofilm formation (for example, by 8-fold for lauric acid) without having antimicrobial activity. This study demonstrates that medium-chain saturated fatty acids can serve as antipersister and antibiofilm agents that may be applied to treat bacterial infections.

Isolation of a Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanoic Acids Degrading Bacterium, Janthinobacterium lividum

  • Park, Jin-Seo;Park, Jeong-Youl;Joung, Pil-Mun;Park, Seong-Joo;Rhee, Young-Ha;Shin, Kwang-Soo
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.139-141
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    • 2001
  • Medium-chain length polyhydrexyalkanoic acids (MCL-PHAs) degrading bacterium was isolated from the soil. The bacterium was identified as Janthinobacterium lividum by its biochemical properties, cell membrane fatty acids composition, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis. The bacterium showed a similarity of 0.911 with J. lividum according to the cell membrane fatty acids analysis and a similarity of 97% in the 16S rDNA requence analysis. Culture supernatant of the bacterium skewed the highest depolymerase activity toward polyhydroxynonanoic acid (PHN) that did not degrade the poly-$\beta$-hydroxybutyric acid (PHB). The esterase activity was also detected with p-nitrophenyl (PNP) esters of fatty acids such as PNP-dodecanoic PNP-dodecanoic acid, PNP-decanoic acid, and PNP-hexanoic acid.

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Fatty Acid Analysis from Leech Skin

  • Hong, Suk-Jin;Kim, Dong-Ryeong;Yoon, In-Joong;Kang, Ke-Won
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.261-264
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    • 1995
  • The lipids of a Korean native blood-sucking leech (Hirudo nipponia) were isolated and analyzed. Cholesterol, fatty acids, triglycerides, glycerylether diester and cholesteryl esters were found from epidennal extracts. The major fatty acids in the leech skin were $C_{16:0}$, $C_{18:0}$, $C_{20:1}$. $C_{20:3}$ components. These components were derived from cholesteryl esters, glycerides, fatty acids and other polar lipids. After 60 days fasting, cholesterol, fatty acids and triglycerides in the skin were reduced in number and the total fatty acid composition was changed slightly. The data of total fatty acids in fasted and fed leech showed that medium-chain fatty acids were more affected than long-chain fatty acids. Other trace fatty acids appeared to be decreased by fasting.

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Antifungal Activity of Medium-chain Saturated Fatty Acids and Their Inhibitory Activity to the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase of Fungi (중급 지방산 항진균 활성과 진균의 Plasma membrane H+-ATPase에 대한 저해작용)

  • 이상화;김창진
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.354-358
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    • 1999
  • In order to know the antifungal characteristics of saturated fatty acids having 6 to 12 carbons, their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) were estimated against Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Fatty acids from C6 to C11 exhibited increasing activity with chain length, but C12 fatty acid did not show activity at all. In relation to antifungal modes of actions, fatty acids investigated showed on inhibitory activity toward the plasma membrane H+-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Their inhibitions to the glucose-induced acidification and ATP hydrolysis caused by the proton pump were found to be in common wiht antifungal activities. At the test concentration of 1mM, hexanoic acid (C6) showed the lowest inhibition of about 30%, while undecanoic acid(C11) showed the strongest inhibition of over 90%. In addition, as seen with antifungal activity, the inhibitory activity of dodecanoic acid (C12) was suddenly reduced to less than 50%.

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