• Title, Summary, Keyword: memory attention

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Developmental Trajectories of Attention in Normal Korean Population

  • Huh, Han Nah;Kang, Sung Hee;Hwang, Soon Young;Yoo, Hanik K.
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.66-73
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    • 2019
  • Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the trajectory of change of diverse attention and working memory in Koreans from 4 to 40 years of age. Methods: The data of 912 subjects from 4 to 15 years of age obtained from a previous standardization study of the computerized comprehensive attention test were merged with the newly obtained data of 150 subjects aged 16 to 40 years from this study. We evaluated the various kinds of attention, in which each subtest had five indicators. Working memory, with parameters such as number of correct responses and span, was also measured. Results: Our findings indicated that attention developed as age increased, and it decreased or was maintained after a certain age. Selective and sustained attention developed rapidly in children and adolescents, until mid-teens or 20 s when it ceased development. Divided attention, however, developed up to approximately age 20. In addition, working memory developed until mid-teens or 20 s. Conclusion: We presented the standardized data on diverse kinds of attention and working memory in children, adolescents, and adults in Korea. We could recognize any patterns of change in attention and working memory with increasing age.

Effects of Object- and Space-Based Attention on Working Memory (대상- 및 공간-기반 주의가 작업기억에 미치는 영향)

  • Min, Yoon-Ki;Kim, Bo-Seong;Chung, Chong-Wook
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.125-142
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated the effects of space- and object-based attention on spatial and visual working memory, by measuring recognition of working memory on the spatial Stroop task including two modalities of attention resource. The similarity condition of stimulus arrangement between working memory task and spatial stroop task was manipulated in order to examine the effects of space-based attention on spatial rehearsal during working memory task, while Stroop rendition was manipulated in order to examine the effects of object-based attention on object rehearsal during working memory task. The results showed that in a condition that stimulus arrangement was highly similar for the spatial working memory task and the spatial Stroop task, recognition accuracy of the spatial working memory was high, but it was not significantly different with the Stroop conditions. In contrast, the recognition accuracy of visual working memory in the incongruent Stroop condition was lower than that in the congruent Stroop condition, but it was not significantly different with the similarity conditions (25% vs. 75%). The results indicated that selective attention has effects on working memory only when resource modality of working memory is the same as that of selective attention.

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Memory Attention-based Breakdown Detection for Natural Conversation in Dialogue System (대화 시스템에서의 자연스러운 대화를 위한 Memory Attention기반 Breakdown Detection)

  • Lee, Seolhwa;Park, Kinam;Lim, Heuiseok
    • Annual Conference on Human and Language Technology
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    • pp.31-34
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    • 2018
  • 대화 시스템에서 사람과 기계와의 모든 발화에서 발생하는 상황들을 모두 규칙화할 수 없기 때문에 자연스러운 대화가 단절되는 breakdown 현상이 빈번하게 일어날 수 있다. 이런 현상이 발생하는 이유는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 대화에서는 다양한 도메인이 등장하기 때문에 시스템이 커버할 수 있는 리소스가 부족하며, 둘째, 대화 데이터에서 학습을 위한 annotation되어 있는 많은 양의 코퍼스를 보유하기에는 한계가 있으며, 모델에 모든 대화 흐름의 히스토리를 반영하기 어렵다. 이런 한계점이 존재함에도 breakdown detection은 자연스러운 대화 시스템을 위해서는 필수적인 기능이다. 본 논문은 이런 이슈들을 해소하기 위해서 memory attention기반의 새로운 모델을 제안하였다. 제안한 모델은 대화내에 발화에 대해 memory attention을 이용하여 과거 히스토리가 반영되기 때문에 자연스러운 대화흐름을 잘 detection할 수 있으며, 기존 모델과의 성능비교에서 state-of-the art 결과를 도출하였다.

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Conceptual understanding of the relationship between consciousness, memory, and attention

  • Kim, Eun-Sook;Shin, Hyun-Jung
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Cognitive Science Conference
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    • pp.13-17
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    • 2010
  • Consciousness is really regarded as too ambiguous a concept to be understood and accepted as a mental construct without the inclusion of memory and attention in any conceptualization. However we need one criterion to count satisfactorily as an explanation of consciousness in information processing. An operational working definition of consciousness could be made in comparison of memory and attention: Consciousness would be a subjective awareness of momentary experience and also have the characteristics of an operating system performing control and consolidation information processing. This could be called a cognitive consciousness. It is possible that some distinctions between consciousness, memory and attention can be made conceptually and functionally from the perspectives of information processing.

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Augmentative Effects of Working Memory Training on Clinical Symptoms and Neuropsychology in Medicated Children and Adolescents with Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (약물치료 중인 주의력결핍 과잉행동장애 아동 청소년에서 작업기억력 훈련이 임상증상과 신경심리소견에 미치는 부가적 효과)

  • Kim, Hye Sun;Lee, Eun Kyung;Hong, In Hwa;An, Jung Sook;Yoo, Hanik K.
    • Journal of the Korean Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.123-131
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    • 2017
  • Objectives: Executive dysfunction including working memory deficit has been suggested to be one of the major neuropsychological etiologies of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the augmentative effects of Cogmed working memory training on the symptoms and neurocognitive functions in medicated children and adolescents with ADHD. Methods: Twenty-five children with ADHD, aged 7 to 19 years, taking ADHD medication participated in this study. The participants were trained for 5 weeks with a commercially available and computerized working memory program ($Cogmed^{(R)}$) without any changes to their medication. The Korean version of the ADHD Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression Scale, and Comprehensive Attention Test were administered before training and 4 weeks and 7 months after training, respectively. Results: After completing the training, the clinical symptoms and function, rated by the parents and clinician, were improved. In addition, the level of commission errors was significantly reduced in the selective attention (visual/auditory) task, sustained attention to response task, and flanker task. The untrained visuospatial short-term memory and working memory were also improved. These effects were still observed 7 months after the training. Conclusion: Cogmed working memory training can be a promising training option for the additional improvement of the symptoms and deficits in working memory and response inhibition in medicated children with ADHD.

Improvement of Attention and Memory of Stroke Patient Using Smart Phone Applications : Single Case Study (스마트폰 어플리케이션을 이용한 뇌졸중 환자의 집중력과 기억력 증진: 단일 사례연구)

  • Lee, In-Seon
    • Therapeutic Science for Rehabilitation
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 2014
  • Objective : In this study, to investigate the effect of Attention and Memory using a smart phone application intervention for stroke patients. Methods : single-subject experimental research was conducted using an ABA design. During the study, subject was applied to a total of 20 sessions with five times baseline, ten times intervention line, five times re-baseline. baseline and re-baseline did not have a separate intervention. During the intervetion line was trained by the application 'Master of memory(Numbers, Shapes, Fruits mode)' and 'Matching cute animals'. All sessions were evaluated an Attention and Memory using by 'Master of memory(Random mode)' and 'Memory free(Picture memory)' application. The resulting data was presented in graphs and descriptive statistics. Results : Implemented in all session, Attention and Memory assessment results showed the improvement of Attention and Memory in intervention line. Assessments conducted before and after the intervention, showed the improvement of Attention and Memory after the evaluation of interventions respectively. Conclusion : The results of this study are expected to be clinically useful. Follow-up studies on smart phone application intervention are needed for more targeted sampling study and conducted over a long period of time.

Rhythmic Initiation in the respect of Information Processing approach (정보처리접근에서의 율동적 개시)

  • Choi, Jae-Won;Chung, Hyun-Ae
    • PNF and Movement
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 2011
  • Purpose : This study was to investigate the application of Rhythmic Initiation(RI) in the respect of information processing in motor learning. Methods : A computer-aided literature search was performed in PubMed and adapted to the other databases and the others were in published books. The following keywords were used: Rhythmic Initiation, attention, memory, motor accuracy, feedback, motor learning, motor control, PNF, cognition. Results : The characterization of RI is rhythmic motion of limb or body through the desired range, starting with passive motion and progressing to active resisted movement. This study suggested that the relationship between of RI and motor learning through the respect of information processing, memory, attention and motor accuracy. Conclusion : Only Rhythmic Initiation, specifically focused on the effects of information processing approach, suggesting that RI can be positively influeced on sensory-perception, attention, memory, motor accuracy. however, it is unclear whether positive effects in the laboratory and field can be generalized to improve. In addition, sustainability of motor learning with RI remains uncertain.

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Effects of Spatial Attention for Words on Implicit Memory (단어에 대한 공각적 주의가 암묵기억에 미치는 영향)

  • 심원목;김민식
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.11 no.3_4
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2000
  • The present study examined the role of spatial attention in implicit memory for words when the word identity processing was not required. Spatial attention to the identity-irrelevant perceptual features of the words was manipulated by using a visual search task (Experiment 1) or a focused attention task (Experiment 2). In two e experiments. a significant priming effect was not found for the target words as well as for the distractor words. Implicit memory for words was not affected by spatial attention on the perceptual properties of the words. indicating that the word identity processing is required to produce priming.

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The Change of 'Attention Resources' and 'Space-Memory' by Lighting focusing on 'Selective Attention (선택적 주의 관점에서 본 조명에 의한 주의 자원과 공간 기억의 변화)

  • Seo, Ji-Eun
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the change and to compare to the difference of 'selective elements' and 'space-memory' focusing on the theory, 'selective attention' through the survey results. In this study, In this study, the lighting is considered a important factor in the change of 'selective elements'. this survey is to find the selective elements of participants and to measure the spatial sensitivity of respondents through 'self- test'. The analysis in this study is conducted by descriptive statistics, t-test and one way ANOVA by SPSS program 22. The results of this study are as following; Firstly, 'attention-element' could be classified with 4 types, 'shape', 'material', 'contrast' and 'combination'. 'shape' could divide into 'structure' and' furniture and object'. In case of 'material', it could section with 'pattern' and 'color'. Secondly, through the results of study, 'attention-element' is different each space during the day in detail. But we could know that 'shape' is the important element of the 'attention-elements' during the day through comparison of this result. That means users consider this as a important factor when they evaluate the space. Therefore, it is effective way designers to consider 'shape' as the first element when they want to conduct the special sensitivity of users in the space through planning. On the other hand, what selective elements of users are different by the lighting situation should be acknowledged by designers. And they should think the kinds of selective elements are more various when lighting turns on than turns off.. Thirdly, through the results such as the meaningful difference of space-memory of users according to the change of 'attention-elements', designers should judge about which kind of feeling of users to the space do you want lead in the design process. For the effective feedback between spaces and users to induce the same emotion of users, designers need to consider the unified design and the individual design both. Also, we will regard the differences in the users' emotion to the space according to the lighting situation when we design the space.

The Investigation of the Relationship between Eye Blink and Visual Attention with Video Clip (영화클립을 이용한 눈깜빡임과 시각적 주의력과의 상관성 연구)

  • Kim, Sung Kyung;Kang, Min;Kang, Geon Ju;Park, Sujie;Shin, Young Seok;Jang, Dong Pyo
    • Journal of Biomedical Engineering Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.99-104
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    • 2014
  • Generally, human eye blinks are closely associated with the cognitive state or visual attention such as attentional requirements on visual stimuli. These previous studies have reported that eye blinks are related to explicit visual attention using blink rate, pattern and blink timing across subjects. However, these results have been obtained in a well-controlled experimental settings. So, it would prove difficult to investigate human's natural response in a continuous and realistic situation. In our study, we measured the eye blink intervals while participants viewed a movie clip. And we analyzed the blink interval data for relationship between visual attention and eye blink intervals. 24 participants took part in two experimental sessions, first session to measure the IEBI while viewing the movie clip and second session to conduct a memory performance test using a self-questionnaire, which were spaced 3 weeks apart. The results indicate significantly higher memory performance at long IEBI period than short IEBI period while watching a movie clip(t = 3.257, df = 17, p < 0.005, 2-tailed). In addition, memory performance score significantly correlated with the IEBI value(spearman's rho = 0.40, N = 36, p < 0.01, 2-tailed). Our results suggest that IEBI is used to measure or assess visual attention while wiewing the movie that it is capable of simulating aspects of real-life experiences by visual attention. Thus, we expect IEBI to be used to measure or assess our visual attention, cognition, further emotion about not only movies, advertisements and other cultural contents but also cognitive science.