• Title, Summary, Keyword: metalaxyl resistance

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Variation in Metalaxyl and Streptomycin Sulfate Resistance of Isolates Formed from Single Sporangium of Phytophora infestans (감자역병균(Phytophthora infestans)의 단일 포자낭으로부터 형성된 균총의 Metalaxyl과 Streptomycin Sulfate 내성 변화)

  • Lee, Yong-Hoon;Lee, Wang-Hyu;Lee, Doo-Ku;Shim, Hyeong-Kwon
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.212-215
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    • 1997
  • Parent isolates and $first-generation(F_1)$ progenies from single-sporangium of Phytophthora infestans were investigated for the acqusition of metalaxyl and streptomycin sulfate(SM) resistance. The parent isolates, KM10, U6, CDB6 showed resistance to metalaxyl, and F817, DNC303, DN107 to SM. Especially, the average mycelial growth of $F_1$ progenies of F817, CDB6, JD1 was more than 51% than parent isolates on 25ppm metalaxyl added V-8 juice agar, whereas those of KM10, U6, JD1 were extended more than 51% similar on 200ppm SM treatment. They acquired resistance on the basis of the standard in this experiment. There were positive correlations between parent isolates and $F_1$colonies in resistance. The $F_1$ colonies obtained from parent isolates showing above interinediate resistance on metalaxyl amended agar acquired much resistance.

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Changes in Frequencies and Distribution of A2 Mating Type and Metalaxyl-Resistant Isolates of Phytophthora infestans in Korea (우라나라 감자 역병균 A2 교배형 및 Metalaxyl 저항성균의 빈도 및 분포의 변화)

  • ;;W. E. Fry
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.92-98
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    • 1994
  • Phytophthora infestans populations collected from various geographical locations of Korea in 1991 and 1993 were analyzed for mating types and responses to metalaxyl. Both A1 and A2 mating type isolates were detected in 1991. The majority of the isolates were A2 mating type, but no A1 mating type was detected in 1993. About 40% of the isolates collected in 1991 were resistant to metalaxyl, and the distribution of metalaxyl-resistant isolates of P. infestans was strongly associated with their geographic origins in Korea. Metalaxyl-resistant isolates with EC50 values > 50$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml were collected from the northern provinces of Kangwon, Kyungbuk, and Chonbuk, but not from the southern provinces of Kyungnam, Chonnam, and Jeju in 1991. The drastic increase in the degree of quantitative resistance to metalaxyl was detected among the isolates from the southern provinces during 1991~1993. More than 50% of the isolates collected from the southern provinces of Kyungnam and Chonnam in 1993 had EC50 values >50$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml. The province of Kangwon had isolates with the greatest resistance to metalaxyl. this alpine areas might be the origin of metalaxyl-resistant isolates of P. infestans in Korea. The A2 genotype with metalaxyl resistance appears to be displacing the A1 genotype which is presently the predominant genotype in Korea.

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The Change of Resistance of Phytophthora infestans to Metalaxyl and the Relationship with the Pathogenicity on Pepper Plants (국내 고추 역병균의 metalaxyl 저항성 변화 및 metalaxyl 저항성과 고추에 대한 병원성과의 상관 관계)

  • Yeon, Cho-Long;Lee, Soo-Min;Kim, Sun-Bo;Min, Gi-Young;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.270-276
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    • 2008
  • Through the agar dilution method on V-8 juice agar, sensitivity of Phytophthora capsici causing pepper Phytophthora blight to metalaxyl was investigated by using isolates obtained from infected pepper plants during 3 years from 2005 to 2007. By the lapse of time, $EC_{50}$ value to metalaxyl was decreased, showing 1.45, 0.83, and $0.32{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ in 2005, 2006, and 2007. None of 2007 isolates was found to be resistant to metalaxyl. Compared the sensitivity of P. capsici isolates to metalaxyl with those to mandipropamid and dimethomorph, there is not a cross resistance response between metalaxyl and mandipropamid/dimethomorph. The resistance to metalaxyl in pepper Phytophthora blight pathogen was not related with the mycelial growth on V-8 agar medium and the pathogenicity on pepper plants.

Sensitivity of Phytophthora infestans Isolates to Fungicides Metalaxyl and Ethaboxam in Korea

  • Kim, Byung-Sup;Zhang, Xuan-Zhe;Chung, Eun-Kyoung;Kim, Dal-Soo;Chun, Sam-Jae;Park, Woo-Bong
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.143-147
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    • 2003
  • Sensitivity of Phytophthora infestans isolates to fungicides metalaxyl and ethaboxam in Korea was examined with 260 isolates for 3 years (9 isolates in 2000,93 isolates in 2001, and 158 isolates in 2002). Both Al and A2 mating types were found from the isolates collected for 3 years. Al mating type was dominant in the population with 8 isolates (88.9%) in 2000, 84 isolates (89.4%) in 2001, and 138 isolates (87.3%) in 2002. Only some isolates from diseased tomatoes in Buyergun and diseased potatoes in Pyeongchanggun were of the A2 mating type. As for metalaxyl sensitivity, 77.0% of the isolates were moderately resistant with 8 isolates (88.9%) in 2000, 73 isolates (77.7%) in 2001, and 120 isolates (75.9%) in 2002. Meanwhile, those found resistant were 1 isolate (11.1%) in 2000, 16 isolates (17.0%) in 2001, and 33 isolates (20.9%) in 2002. Only 5 isolates (3.2%) were sensitive to metalaxyl in 2002. There was no significant difference in the sensitivity among years. As for ethaboxam, no isolate was able to grow at 5.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$ /ml, and only four isolates (1.5 %) grew at 1.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$ /ml with heavy retardation compared with the untreated control. Based on these 3-year results, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ethaboxam to p. infestans was determined to be 0.2-1.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$ /ml. Results indicate that resistance development by p. infestans to ethaboxam is not likely to occur in the natural condition. furthermore, there was no indication of cross resistance between metalaxyl and ethaboxam because all the isolates, regardless of classification for their sensitivity to metalaxyl, were not able to grow at 5.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$ /ml of ethaboxam.

Chemical screening for control of Metalaxyl-resistant tobacco black shank disease (Metalaxyl 저항성 담배역병균(Phytophthora nicotianae) 방제를 위한 약제 선발)

  • Kang, Yue-Gyu;Chung, Yun-Hwa
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.224-228
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    • 2003
  • Five commercial chemicals, Dimethomorph, Foseyl-Al, Oxadixyl + Mancozeb, Propamocarb hydrochloride, and Metalaxyl, were tested for control of tobacco black shank (Phytophthora nicotianae) and/or delaying buildup of the resistant population to Metalaxyl which has been used for control of the disease in Korean tobacco farms. Propamocarb hydrochloride seemed to have a cross-resistance to the Metalaxyl resistant isolates showing similar response with Metalaxyl in vitro. Meanwhile, Dimethomorph+Mancozeb and Oxadixyl+Mancozeb were selected to be the promising chemicals which are able to be alternative to Metalaxyl for the black shank control in accordance with in vitro and in field trial.

Response to metalaxyl of Phytophthora capsici isolates collected in 2005 and 2006 (2005년과 2006년에 채집한 고추 역병균(Phytophthora capsici)의 Metalaxyl에 대한 약제 반응)

  • Kim, Sun-Bo;Lee, Soo-Min;Min, Gi-Young;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.305-312
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    • 2007
  • It was the investigated the response to metalaxyl of Phytophthora capsici isolates collected in 2005 and 2006. With effective concentrations ($EC_{50}$) of metalaxyl causing 50% growth inhibition, resistance baseline was determined as more than $1.0\;{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$. Based on the resistance baseline, isolation frequency (%) of P. capsici resistant to metalaxyl was 29.0% and 218% in 2005 and 2006, respectively. Among the isolates of P. capsici obtained in 2006, the isolation was variable; 33.3% in Chungnam, 26.3% in Chungbuk and 11.1% in Gyeongbuk. Two isolates of metalaxyl-sensitive (MS) and too isolates of metalaxyl-resistant (MR) P. capsici were selected and then used to investigate the activity of metalaxyl to their development stages. Even though there was a difference in mycelial growth inhibition by metalaxyl between MS and MR isolates, the fungicide was not active or nearly to sporangium germination, zoospore release, and zoospore germination of both MS and MR isolates. However, the fungicide showed weak activity against sporangium germination and zoospore release of P. capsici, not related with its resistance. Also, it was not inhibitory to zoospore germination of both resistant and sensitive isolates. In a greenhouse test, it showed 100% of control value against P. capsici 06-86 sensitive to metalaxyl, when it was applied by soil-drenching at $25\;{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$. However, 06-130 and 16-155 resistant to metalaxyl showed less than 20% of control value.

Changes in the Sensitivity to Metalaxyl, Dimethomorph and Ethaboxam of Phytophthora infestans in Korea

  • Zhang, Xuan-Zhe;Ryu, Kyoung-Yul;Kim, Jeom-Soon;Cheon, Jung-Uk;Kim, Byung-Sup
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.33-38
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    • 2005
  • Changes of control efficacy of chemical to potato late blight caused by Phytophthora infestans in potato fields from 2001 to 2004 were examined. Control efficacy of metalaxyl was suddenly decreased from 100% in 2002 to 50% in 2004 and that of dimethomorph also was similar to those of metalaxyl. However, the control efficacy of ethaboxam no great change. Both A1 and A2 mating type isolates were isolated from 2001 to 2004 in several areas in Korea. The majority of the P. infestans isolates were A1 mating type. Total 939 isolates of P. infestans obtained from several areas in Korea from 2001 to 2004 were examined for changes of sensitivity to metalaxyl. Frequencies of metalaxyl resistance isolates were gradually increased from 17% in 2001 to 84.2% in 2004, but isolation frequencies of metalaxyl sensitive and intermediate resistant isolate were decreased. Cause of decreasing control efficacy of metalaxyl was thought by increase of resistance isolates in A1 mating type population according to increasing metalaxyl use. Most isolates were grown at 0.5 ${\mu}g/ml of dimethomorph and isolates grown at 1 ${\mu}g/ml of dimethomorph were approximately 10.2-22.9%. However, no isolate was able to grow at 5.0 ${\mu}g/ml. Based on these results, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of dimethomorph to P. infestans were determined to be 0.5-1.0 ${\mu}g/ml. Our results indicated that the reason decreasing control efficacy of dimethomorph was not caused by occurrence of resistant isolates. About 5% and 12.1% isolates among the total isolates collected in 2003 and 2004 were grown on V-8 juice rye agar containing 1.0 ${\mu}g/ml ethaboxam. The 2.1 and 25.4% isolates had MICs of 0.2-0.4 ${\mu}g/ml, and MIC values of 87.9% and 74.3% isolates were less than 0.2 ${\mu}g/ml concentrations of ethaboxam. Therefore, resistance development by P. infestans to ethaboxam is not likely to occur in the natural condition.

Fungicide-Resistance and Mating Type of Phytophthora infestans Causing Potato Late Blight (감자역병균(Phytophthora infestans De Bary)의 약제저항성 및 교배형)

  • 이왕휴;소만서;최인영
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.192-196
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    • 1994
  • Two hundred and fourty-seven isolates of Phytophthora infestans obtained from infested potato leaves from the spring of 1991 to the fall of 1993 from potato fields in various regions of Korea were tested for their fungicides resistances. A total of 20.9% isolates were not suppressed at 50 ppm of metalaxyl in 1991, but isolates from 1993 were suppressed at 50 ppm of metalaxyl. Ten resistant isolates and 10 susceptible isolates to metalaxyl were selected and tested against oxadixyl, fosetyl-Al, and phosphorous acid. Effectiveness of these chemicals were no better than that of metalaxyl. Dimethomorph suppressed all isolates at 1 $\mu\textrm{g}$/ml suggesting that it might be a potential chemical to control Phytophthora infestans. Mating types of all isolates from diseased leaves in 1993 turned out to be A2 type.

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In Vitro Sensitivity to Metalaxyl of Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae Isolates from Burley Tobacco in Korea

  • Kang, Yue-Gyu
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.222-226
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    • 2000
  • In disease surveys from 1986 ti 1998, disease incidence of tobacco black shank was gradually increased in burley tobacco from 1996. To study the causes of the disease occurrence, one hundred and fourteen isolates of Phytophthora parasitica var. nicotianae (Ppn) were collected from burley tobacco-growing areas in the southern part of Korea during 1996-1997, and tested in vitro for meatlaxyl sensitivity which was determined by measuring the mycelial growth on corn meal agar (CMA) amended with metalaxyl. Of the tested isolates, 78.1% showed sensitive to metalaxyl, having $\textrm{ED}_{50}$ values less than 1.0 $\mu\textrm{g}/$\textrm{ml}, while 1.7% was resistant weth $\textrm{ED}_{50}$ greater than 100 $\mu\textrm{g}/$\textrm{ml}. Ppn isolates from three provinces, Chungnam, Chonbuk and Chonnam showed similar distributions of metalaxyl sensitivity. Metalaxyl-resistant isolates were not significantly different from metalaxyl-sensitive ones in mycelial growth rate, chlamydospore formation capacity and size of the spore, and pathogenicity on tobacco plant (cv. Burley 21). These results suggest that the metalaxyl-resistant Ppn in burley tobacco may be one of the major factors to cause the higher occurrence of the tobacco black shank in the burley tobacco-growing area.

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Baseline Sensitivity to Mandipropamid Among Isolates of Phytophthora capsici Causing Phytophthora Blight on Pepper

  • Jang, Ho-Sun;Lee, Soo-Min;Kim, Sun-Bo;Kim, Joo-Hyung;Knight, Susan;Park, Kwee-Doo;McKenzie, Duncan;Kim, Heung-Tae
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.317-321
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    • 2009
  • Sensitivity to the new carboxylic acid amide fungicide, mandipropamid, of Phytophthora capsici causing pepper Phytophthora blight was determined on 187 isolates collected in Korea over 3 years, from 2005 to 2007. All isolates were sensitive to mandipropamid, with $EC_{30}$ values for growth of mycelia ranging from 0.001 to $0.037\;{\mu}g/ml$. Among the isolates, 147 (79.0%) isolates were sensitive to metalaxyl, whereas others were resistant to this fungicide. Mandipropamid had the same effect on mycelium growth of both metalaxyl-sensitive and metalaxyl-resistant isolates, indicating an absence of cross-resistance between these two fungicides. Comparison of the sensitivities of P. capsici isolates showed a positive correlation between sensitivity to mandipropamid and dimethomorph ($r^2$=0.8533). The results of this study indicate that there is no evidence for development of resistance to mandipropamid in this population of P. capsici isolates collected in Korea.