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Factors Affecting the Dissolution Behavior of Metals from Binary Alloys

  • Han, Kenneth N.
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.49-55
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    • 2001
  • The strategy of recovering metals from scrap is in general much different from primary sources. One of the main differences between the treatment of scrap and that of primary sources lies with the fact that metals are frequently associated with other met-als to form alloys in scrap, while metals occur in primary sources as oxides or sulfides. In this paper, factors affecting the dis-solution behavior of metals from various alloy systems have been reviewed and discussed. Specific examples have been drawn from Au/Ag, Au/cu and Ag/cu systems. Results of the dissolution behavior of various metals from these alloys have been reviewed and compared to the dissolution behavior of single metal systems in various lixiviants such as acids, cyanide and ammonia. It has been observed that the presence of other metals in alloys would significantly affect the dissolution rate of the metal in question. The leaching behavior of metals from homogeneous alloys relies on the chemical interaction between atoms in the lattice of the alloys, while that from heterogeneous alloys is affected by galvanic interaction established in the solution The manner in which the dissolution of a certain metal is influenced by surrounding metals has been discussed in terms of pas-sive and noble nature of the metal in relation to the neighboring metals. The role of the standard electrochemical Potential of these metals on the selective dissolution for a given lixiviant has also been discussed.

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Cross-sectional Study for Blood Metal Concentration in Patients with Herbal Medicine Intake

  • Park, Yeong-Chul;Lee, Sun-Dong
    • Journal of Society of Preventive Korean Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.93-103
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    • 2009
  • Evidences from various countries suggest that toxic heavy metals in herbal medicine may constitute a serious health problem. In order to evaluate whether the toxic heavy metals caused by herbal medicine intake, blood samples collected from 222 patients taking herbal medicine were analyzed. In average levels of analyzed metals, $0.4{\sim}33.9%$ of total samples for 8 metals such as Cd, Co, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn except Cr and Fe exceeded the upper limit for WHO reference value. In analysis of regression coefficients indicating the levels of metals increased or decreased after taking herbal medicine for one month, however, there were different aspects by intake types for herbal medicine. For example, the metals increased by taking decoction in blood samples were as follows; Cd and Pb whether Mn, Ni and Pb as increased metals were identified in the group taking pill and decoction(combined intake group). The odds ratio showing values higher than 1 indicating that people who take herbal medicine would have possibility higher for metal accumulation in blood than that from people who do not take herbal medicine. The metals showing the odds ratio higher than 1 were Hg and Ni in decoction group, and Cd and Hg in combined intake group. However, eight of the total, 10 metals showed the odds ratios lower than 1 by taking herbal medicine. Thus, this may explain the possible role of herbal medicine as a chelator for heavy metals in body.

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Marble wastes as amendments to stabilize heavy metals in Zn-Electroplating sludge

  • Riahi, Khalifa;Chaabane, Safa;Thayer, Bechir Ben
    • Advances in environmental research
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2017
  • Powdered marble wastes (PMW) generated by Utique marble cutting industries (North of Tunisia) with abundant amounts were used in this study as low-cost materials to investigate the stabilization of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Fe) in sludge generated from a local Zn-Electroplating factory. Powdered marble wastes were evaluated by means of chemical fractions of heavy metals in sludge and concentrations of heavy metals in leachate from columns to determine their ability to stabilize heavy metals in contaminated sludge. Results indicated that chemical fractions of heavy metals in sludge were affected by application of the PMW mineral materials and pH, however, the effects varied with heavy metals. Application of the powdered marble wastes mineral materials reduced exchangeable metals in the sequence of Pb (60.5%)>Fe (40.5%)>Zn (30.1%). X-ray diffraction and hydro-geochemical transport code PHREEQC analysis were successfully carried out to get a better understanding of the mechanisms of reactive mineral phases involved in reduced exchangeable heavy metals in sludge after PMW material amendments. Therefore, metal immobilization using powdered marble wastes materials is an effective stabilization technique for industrial metallic hydroxide sludge.

Recycling of Non-Ferrous Metals (비철금속 리싸이클링 동향)

  • Oh Jae-Hyun;Kim Mi-Sung;Shin Hee-Duck
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Resources Recycling
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.3-19
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    • 2003
  • Prior to discuss on recycling status and future prospects for the non-ferrous metals in the Korea, Japan and U.S.A. respectively, worldwide resources of non-ferrous metals and characteristics with recycling of non-ferrous metals are reviewed. In case of recovery non-ferrous metals, recycling of automobile shredder dust and E.A.F. dust are illustrated. Finally, the problems and technological developments associated with recycling of non-ferrous metals are summarized.

Rejection Characteristics of Various Heavy Metals by Low-pressure Nanofiltration (저압나노여과에 의한 각종 중금속의 제거 특성)

  • Oh, Jeong-Ik;Kim, Han-Seung;Kim, Chung-Hwan
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.493-499
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    • 2004
  • Rejection characteristics of heavy metals by nanofiltration membranes were investigated. Nanofiltration membranes rejected heavy metals much better than chloride, sulfate and TOC, of which concentration in synthetic wastewater was higher than that of heavy metals. To consider rejection characteristics of various metals by nanofiltration membranes, separation coefficient, which is the ratio of the metal permeation rate to the chloride ion or TOC permeation rate, was introduced. In spite of different materials and different nominal salt rejection of nanofiltration membrane used, the separation coefficients of metals were nearly the same. In particular, the separation coefficient of arsenic against chloride ion and TOC was larger than any other separation coefficient of heavy metals. These phenomena were observed in the relationship between the molar conductivity and the separation coefficient for heavy metals.

Status of ITU-T International Standard Development on Rare Metal Recycling (희소금속 재활용을 위한 ITU-T 국제표준 개발현황)

  • Lee, Mi Hye;Choi, Won Jung;Seo, Seok-Jun;Kim, Bum Sung
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.325-330
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    • 2016
  • Owing to increasing demand of rare metals present in ICT products, it is necessary to promote the rare metal recycling industry from an environmental viewpoint and to prevent climate change. Despite the fact that information for toxic substances is partly indicated, a legal basis and an international standard indicating usage of rare metals is insufficient. In order to address this issue, a newly created study group of environment and climate change at the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) is doing research to develop methodologies for recycling rare metals from ICT products in an eco-friendly way. Under this group, the Republic of Korea has established two international standards related to rare metals present in ICT products. The first is 'Release of rare metal information for ICT products (ITU-T L.1100)' and the other is 'Quantitative and qualitative analysis methods for rare metals (ITU-T L.1101)'. A new proposal for recommending the provision of rare metal information through a label by manufacturers and consumer/recycling businesses has been approved recently and is supposed to be published later in 2016. Moreover, these recommendations are also being extended to IEC, ISO and other standardization organizations and a strategy to reinforce the ability for domestic standardization is being established in accordance with industrial requirements. This will promote efficient recycling of rare metals from ICT products and will help improve the domestic supply of rare metals.

Extractable Heavy Metals in Phosphogypsum

  • Chung, Jong-Bae;Cho, Hyun-Jong;Jin, Sun-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.223-228
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    • 2002
  • In addition to supplying the essential elements, Ca and S, phosphogypsum can have profound effect on both the physical and chemical properties of certain soils. However, no widespread use of by-product phosphogypsum will be made unless such uses pose no threat to the public health and soil contamination. In this study, the extractability of As, Cd, Cu, and Pb with water and DTPA solution from phosphogypsum samples of pH 3, 5, and 7 were investigated to estimate the availability of those metals. Contents of water extractable metals in ohosphogypsum were less than 5 mg/kg for all the heavy metals investigated. The extractability of metals in DTPA solution was not quite different but a little higher in comparison to the water extraction. And the extractability was decreased as the pH of phosphogypsum increased. In the phosphogypsum of pH 7, amounts of water extractable metals were nearly zero. There was no significant difference in the amount of extractable metals during the extraction period of 5 weeks. The length of extraction time did not affect heavy metal extractability. Therefore there may be small fractions of easily soluble or extractable forms of metals in the phosphogypsum and most of the metals would be present in very insoluble forms. These results suggest that the application of phosphogypsum at appropriate rates on agricultural lands appears of no concern in terms of hazardous element contamination in soil.

Effect of Rotary Drum on the Speciation of Heavy Metals during Water Hyacinth Composting

  • Singh, Jiwan;Kalamdhad, Ajay S.
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.177-189
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    • 2013
  • Studies were carried out on the speciation of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr) during rotary drum composting of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) for a period of 20 days. Five different proportions of cattle manure, water hyacinth and sawdust were prepared for composting. This study concluded that, rotary drum was very efficient for the degradation of organic matter as well as for the reduction of mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals during water hyacinth composting. The results from the sequential extraction procedure of heavy metals shows that rotary drum composting changed the distribution of five fractions of Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe, Ni, Pb, Cd, and Cr. The highest reduction in the bioavailability factors of Pb and Cd was observed during the process. The total concentration of Cu, Cr, and Cd was very low compared to the other metals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Ni, and Pb); however, the percentage of exchangeable and carbonate fractions of these metals was similar to other metals. These results confirmed that the bioavailability of metals does not depend on the total concentration of metals. From this study, it can be concluded that the addition of an appropriate proportion of cattle manure significantly reduced the mobile and easily available fractions (exchangeable and carbonate fractions) during water hyacinth composting in rotary drum.

Effect of Groundwater Anions and pH on the Sorption Removal of Heavy Metals by Bentonite (벤토나이트의 중금속 흡착제거에 대한 pH와 지하수 음이온의 영향)

  • 정찬호
    • Economic and Environmental Geology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 2000
  • Sorption characteristics of Pb, Cu, Cd, and Zn onto Ca- and Na-bentonites were investigated by the batch experiments in the condition of various pHs and concentrations of groundwater major anions (${So_4}^{2-}$ and ($HCO_3$), which can form a complex with heavy metals. The sorption removal of heavy metals steadily increases as pH increases. The sorption capability about heavy metals of both Ca-bentonite and Na-bentonite is in the order of Pb>Cu>Zn>Cd. The effect of pH and selectivity of heavy metals of bentonites were explained by the change of surface charge of bentonite and the speciation of heavy metals. Na-bentonite has a little higher sorption ability about heavy metals than that of Ca-bentonite. A high sorption removal of Pb in 0.1M sulfate solution may be attributed to the precipitation of $PbSo_4$(anglesite). However, sulfate has a slight effect on the sorption of CU, Cd and Zn. More than 99% of heavy metals were removed from the 0.1 M bicarbonate solution. However, the efficiency of sorption removal of heavy metals highly decreases in the bicarbonate solution of $10^{-2}$M to $10^{-4}$M. The speciation and saturation index calculated by the WATEQ4F program indicate that the sorption of anionic complexes such as ${Pb(CO_3)_2}^{2-}$, ${Cd(CO_3)_2}^{2-}$, ${Zn(CO_3)_2}^{2-}$, ${Cu(CO_3)_2}^{2-}$ and the precipitation of the solid phases such as $PbCO_3$(cerrusite), $ZnCO_3$(smithsonite), $CdCO_3$(obtavite) are involved in sorption removal of heavy metals in bicarbonate solution. The sorption capability about heavy metals of bentonites in the presence of anions shows the following order: Pb>Cu Cd>Zn.

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Speciation and Leaching Potential of Heavy Metals in Sediments of Nakdong River (낙동강 퇴적물 내 중금속 존재 형태 및 용출 가능성)

  • Hwang, Kyung-Yup;Park, Seong-Yeol;Baek, Won Suk;Jung, Je-Ho;Kim, Young-Hun;Shin, Won Sik;Lee, Nam Joo;Hwang, Inseong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.113-122
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    • 2007
  • Experimental studies were performed to investigate speciation and leaching potential of heavy metals(Cu, Cd, Pb Zn, Ni) in ten sediment samples collected from Nakdong River. Acid Volatile Sulfide (AVS) and Simultaneously Extractable Metals (SEM) measurements were used to estimate heavy metals that can be leached under anaerobic conditions. Sequential Extraction Procedure (SEP) and Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) were used to characterize speciation and leaching potential of heavy metals under aerobic conditions. The results show that total concentrations of Cu, Zn and Ni were relatively high in the sediments from points Seongseo industrial complex stream (upper stream) (D), Seongseo industrial complex stream (midstream) (E), Dalseo stream (F), and Nakdong river estuary (J), and that Cd concentrations were higher in all sampling points except for Goriung Bridge (G) and Soosan Bridge (H). SEM and AVS analyses reveal that samples from points Ilsun Bridge (A), Namgumi Bridge (C), and Soosan Bridge (H) have potential of heavy metals leaching, although leachable concentrations are relatively low. The leaching potential of heavy metals in other points was low because of higher concentrations of AVS than SEM. SEP results show that more than 50% of Cu, Zn and Ni were present in residual fraction, which means these metals are less amenable to leaching in anaerobic conditions. On the other hand, more than 50% of Pb and Cd were extracted during the first through third step of the SEP, which means substantial fraction of these metals can be leached upon changing of redox conditions. TCLP tests predict that leaching potential of heavy metals was generally low, which is consistent with the results obtained by AVS and SEM measurements.