• Title, Summary, Keyword: metastasis

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Circulating Tumor Cells are Associated with Bone Metastasis of Lung Cancer

  • Cheng, Min;Liu, Lin;Yang, Hai-Shan;Liu, Gui-Feng
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.15
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    • pp.6369-6374
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    • 2014
  • Lung cancer (LC) is the leading cause of cancer mortality worldwide, predominantly due to the difficulty of early diagnosis and its high metastatic potential. Recently, increasing evidence suggests that circulating tumour cells (CTCs) are responsible for cancer metastatic relapse, and CTCs have attracted interest in cancer metastasis detection and quantification. In present study, we collected blood samples from 67 patients with bone metastasis, and 30 patients without such metastasis, and searched for CTCs. Then the association of CTC numbers with bone metastasis and other clinico-pothological variants was analyzed. Results demonstrated that when 5 or 1 was taken as a threshhold for the CTC number, there were significantly higher positivity of CTCs in the bone metastasis group than in the non-metastasis group. While the increase in CTC number was not significantly associated with any other clinicopathological factor, including age, gender, pathological type, intrapulmonary metastasis and lymph node metastasis, the CTC number in patients with positivity of the last above mentioned variants was obviously higher than in patients with negativity of the two variants. Taken together, the CTC number appears to be significantly associated with the bone metastasis from lung cancer.

Bone Metastasis in Gastric Cancer Patients

  • Ahn, Jae-Bong;Ha, Tae-Kyung;Kwon, Sung-Joon
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.38-45
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: Bone metastasis from stomach cancer occurs only rarely and it is known to have a very poor prognosis. This study examined the clinical characteristics and prognosis of patients who were diagnosed with stomach cancer and bone metastasis. Materials and Methods: The subjects were 19 patients who were diagnosed with stomach cancer at Hanyang University Medical Center from June 1992 to August 2010 and they also had bone metastasis. The survival rate according to many clinicopathologic factors was retrospectively analyzed. Results: 11 patients out of 18 patients (61%) who received an operation were in stage IV and the most common bone metastasis location was the spine. Bone scintigraphy was mostly used for diagnosing bone metastasis and PET-CT and magnetic resonance imaging were used singly or together. The serum alkaline phosphatase at the time of diagnosis had increased in 12 cases and there were clinical symptoms (bone pain) in 16 cases. Treatment was given to 14 cases and it was mostly radiotherapy. There were 2 cases of discovering bone metastasis at the time of diagnosing stomach cancer. The interval after operation to the time of diagnosing bone metastasis for the 18 cases that received a stomach cancer operation was on average $14.9{\pm}17.3$ months and the period until death after the diagnosis of bone metastasis was on average $3.8{\pm}2.6$ months. As a result of univariate survival rate analysis, the group that was treated for bone metastasis had a significantly better survival period when the bone metastasis was singular rather than multiple, as compared to the non-treatment group, yet both factors were not independent prognosis factors on multivariate survival analysis. Conclusions: An examination to confirm the status of bone metastasis when conducting a radio-tracer test after the initial diagnosis and also after an operation is needed for stomach cancer patients, and bone scintigraphy is the most helpfully modality. Making the diagnosis at the early stage and suitable treatments are expected to enhance the survival rate and improve the quality of life even for the patients with bone metastasis.

Neck Node Metastasis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Tonsil (편도 편평세포암종의 경부림프절 전이)

  • Lee Sei-Young;Jung Sang-Ho;Rha Keung-Won;Kang Jae-Jung;Shim Jae-Han;Yang Woo-Ick;Lee Seung-Koo;Lee Chang-Geol;Choi Eun-Chang
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.156-160
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    • 2004
  • Background and Objectives: Neck metastasis is one of the most important prognostic factors in treating tonsillar cancer. Incidence and pattern of lymph node metastasis of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma are the basic knowledge of treatment decision. Occult metastasis rate of tonsillar cancer and pattern of metastasis, failure pattern, survival were retrospectively analyzed. Patients and Methods: Seventy six patients who underwent surgery for tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma as an initial treatment from 1992 to 2004 were evaluated. Charts, imaging studies and pathologic reports were reviewed. Results: At the time of surgery, 78% of patients with tonsillar cancer had neck metastasis and 66% had multiple node metastasis. Occult neck metastasis was in 26%. There was high incidence of neck metastasis even in early stage of primary lesion. Conclusion: High incidence of lymph node metastasis was confirmed histopathologically in tonsillar cancer. All tonsillar cancer patients may need elective treatment of the neck. Tonsillar cancer had relatively good prognosis even though its neck metastasis rate is very high.

Exploring Factors Related to Metastasis Free Survival in Breast Cancer Patients Using Bayesian Cure Models

  • Jafari-Koshki, Tohid;Mansourian, Marjan;Mokarian, Fariborz
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.22
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    • pp.9673-9678
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    • 2014
  • Background: Breast cancer is a fatal disease and the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women with an increasing pattern worldwide. The burden is mostly attributed to metastatic cancers that occur in one-third of patients and the treatments are palliative. It is of great interest to determine factors affecting time from cancer diagnosis to secondary metastasis. Materials and Methods: Cure rate models assume a Poisson distribution for the number of unobservable metastatic-component cells that are completely deleted from the non-metastasis patient body but some may remain and result in metastasis. Time to metastasis is defined as a function of the number of these cells and the time for each cell to develop a detectable sign of metastasis. Covariates are introduced to the model via the rate of metastatic-component cells. We used non-mixture cure rate models with Weibull and log-logistic distributions in a Bayesian setting to assess the relationship between metastasis free survival and covariates. Results: The median of metastasis free survival was 76.9 months. Various models showed that from covariates in the study, lymph node involvement ratio and being progesterone receptor positive were significant, with an adverse and a beneficial effect on metastasis free survival, respectively. The estimated fraction of patients cured from metastasis was almost 48%. The Weibull model had a slightly better performance than log-logistic. Conclusions: Cure rate models are popular in survival studies and outperform other models under certain conditions. We explored the prognostic factors of metastatic breast cancer from a different viewpoint. In this study, metastasis sites were analyzed all together. Conducting similar studies in a larger sample of cancer patients as well as evaluating the prognostic value of covariates in metastasis to each site separately are recommended.

Clinical analysis of neck node metastasis in oral cavity cancer

  • Sharma, Aditi;Kim, Jin-Wook;Paeng, Jun-Young
    • Journal of the Korean Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.282-288
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the neck node metastasis pattern and related clinical factors in oral cavity cancer patients. Materials and Methods: In total, 76 patients (47 males, 29 females) with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) who had no previous malignancies and were not undergoing neoadjuvant concomitant chemoradiotherapy or radiotherapy were selected for analysis. Results: Occult metastases were found in 8 of 52 patients with clinically negative nodes (cN0, 15.4%). Neck node metastases were found in 17 patients (22.4%). There was a statistically significant relationship between neck node metastasis and T stage (P=0.014) and between neck node metastasis and distant metastasis (Fisher's exact test, P=0.019). Conclusion: Neck node metastasis was significantly related to tumor size and distant metastasis during follow-up.

Role of GALNT14 in lung metastasis of breast cancer

  • Kim, Mi-Young
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.233-234
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    • 2017
  • Aberrant expression of the polypeptide N-acetyl-galactosaminyltransferase (GALNTs) has been associated with cancer, but their function(s) in metastasis remains elusive. We have recently identified GALNT14, one of the O-GalNAc glycosylation-initiating enzymes, as a prognostic marker for pulmonary relapse in breast cancer patients. Furthermore, we showed that GALNT14 promotes lung metastasis by the following novel mechanisms: 1) enhancing metastasis initiation by inhibiting the anti-metastatic effect of BMP produced from the lung stroma, 2) exploiting growth signals (e.g. FGF) supplied by macrophages, for their growth into macrometastases in the lung environment. These multi-faceted roles of GALNT14 in lung metastasis are achieved by GALNT14-mediated inhibition and activation of the BMP and FGF signaling pathways, respectively. The link among GALNT14, its downstream pathways and lung metastasis, provides us with an opportunity to develop effective therapeutic intervention for breast cancer.

A Study on the principle of Heat and Cold metastasis among the Five Viscera on the Gigualron of Somun(素問·氣厥論) (『소문(素問)·기궐론(氣厥論)』의 오장(五臟)의 한열(寒熱)이 전이(傳移)되는 원리(原理)에 대한 고찰(考察))

  • Jeong, Heon Young
    • Journal of Korean Medical classics
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2014
  • Objectives : The metastasis among the Five Viscera are given, passim, in the Hwangjenaegyeong (黃帝內經). Generally, the metastasis among the Five Viscera followed 'mutual generation' and 'mutual overcoming' of the Five Elements. But, the metastasis among the Five Viscera on the Gi Gual Ron not followed. The metastasis are connected with the Eight Diagrams. The Eight Diagrams are classified 'Earlier Heaven' and 'Later Heaven'. It also be assigned the Five Elements. Results : The metastasis order and the principle of shift its location from 'Earlier Heaven' to 'Later Heaven' are similar. Conclusions : Therefore, the metastasis among the Five Viscera on the Gi Gual Ron is based on the law of shift its location from 'Earlier Heaven' to 'Later Heaven'.

Brain Metastasis after a Gastrectomy for Gastric Cancer (위암의 근치적 절제 후 발생한 뇌 전이)

  • Kim, Yong-Il;Lee, Jun-Ho;Yun, Seong-Hyeon;Noh, Sung-Hoon;Min, Jin-Sik
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2001
  • Purpose: The common features of brain metastases from gastric cancer are unknown because brain metastasis is an uncommon pattern of metastasis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical features of and the prognosis for patients with brain metastases after a curative resection for gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Twenty-one (21) cases of patients with brain metastases of gastric cancer, who had been treated at the Department of Surgery, Yonsei University College of Medicine, were assessed retrospectively. Results: The mean age was $55.8\pm9.6$ years (range: $34\~70$ years), and the male-to-female ratio was 2.5 : .1. The most common neurologic symptom was headache ($38.5\%$), and no patient was free from the neurologic symptoms. The incidence of parenchymal metastasis (PM: $76.2\%$) was higher than that of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM: $19.0\%$). Patients with gastric cancer and brain metastasis showed high rates of blood and lymphatic vessel invasion (lymphatic vessel invasion: $85.7\%$; blood vessel invasion: $80.9\%$). According to Lauren's classification, the incidence of intestinal types was 14/21 ($66.7\%$), that of diffuse types was 3/21 ($14.3\%$) and that of mixed types was 4/21 ($19.0\%$). The mean interval between the gastrectomy and the diagnosis of brain metastasis was $24.7\pm4.0$ months (PM: 26.8 months; LM: 20.3 months). The median period of survival after diagnosis of brain metastasis was 2 months for paren chymal metastasis and 0 months for leptomeningeal metastasis. Conclusion:.. During a follow-up period, patients with neurologic symptoms should be suspected of having brain metastasis. Early diagnosis and treatment is the only hope to prolong survival in such patients.

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Patterns of Axillary Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer: A Prospective Single-Center Study

  • Choi, Hee Jun;Kim, Jae-Myung;Ryu, Jai Min;Kim, Isaac;Nam, Seok Jin;Yu, Jonghan;Lee, Se Kyung;Lee, Jeong Eon;Kim, Seok Won
    • Journal of Breast Cancer
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.447-452
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: The recent trend in breast cancer treatment is to minimize axillary dissection. However, no pattern of axillary metastasis has been precisely established. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the metastatic lymphatic pattern using near-infrared fluorescence imaging with indocyanine green (ICG) in breast cancer with cytologically proven axillary metastasis. Methods: This was a prospective single-center study. We evaluated 147 patients with breast cancer involving cytologically proven axillary metastasis, and compared physiological and nonphysiological lymphatic metastasis. Results: We performed lymphatic mapping for 64 patients who exhibited level II lymphatic flow on near-infrared fluorescence imaging with ICG, and found that all had axillary metastasis: 51 patients who did not receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and 13 patients post-NAC. Of patients who did not receive NAC, 32 had physiological lymphatic metastasis and 19 had nonphysiological lymphatic metastasis. The risk factors for nonphysiological lymphatic metastasis were age ${\geq}55$ years, high Ki-67 index (>20%), and perinodal extension in both univariate and multivariate analysis (p<0.05). Conclusion: Patients with identified risk factors in cytologically-proven axillary metastasis who did not receive NAC may have nonphysiological lymphatic metastasis.

Inhibition of Metastatic Lung Cancer in C57BL/6 Mice by Marine Mangrove Rhizophora apiculata

  • Prabhu, V. Vinod;Guruvayoorappan, C.
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.1833-1840
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    • 2013
  • Metastasis is one of the hallmarks of malignant neoplasms and is the leading cause of death in many cancer patients. A major challenge in cancer treatment is to find better ways to specifically target tumor metastasis. In this study, the anti-metastatic potential of the methanolic extract of Rhizophora apiculata (R.apiculata) was evaluated using the B16F-10 melanoma induced lung metastasis model in C57BL/6 mice. Metastasis was induced in C57BL/6 mice by injecting highly metastatic B16F-10 melanoma cells through the lateral tail vein. Simultaneous treatment with R.apiculata extract (10 mg/kg b.wt (intraperitoneal) significantly (p<0.01) inhibited pulmonary tumor nodule formation (41.1 %) and also increased the life span (survival rate) 107.3 % of metastatic tumor bearing animals. The administration of R.apiculata extract significantly (p<0.01) reduced biochemical parameters such as lung collagen hydroxyproline, hexosamine, uronic acid content, serum nitric oxide (NO), ${\gamma}$-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) and sialic acid levels when compared to metastasis controls. These results correlated with lung histopathology analysis of R.apiculata extract treated mice showing reduction in lung metastasis and tumor masses. Taken together, our findings support that R.apiculata extract could be used as a potential anti-metastasis agent against lung cancer.