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Residual Characteristics and Safety Assessments of Bifenthrin, Carbendazim and Metconazole in Angelica gigas Nakai (당귀 중 bifenthrin, carbendazim, metconazole의 잔류 특성 및 안전성 평가)

  • Jeong, Hye Rim;Noh, Hyun Ho;Lee, Jae Yun;Park, Hyo Kyoung;Jin, Me Jee;Kim, Jin Chan;Hong, Su Myeong;Kyung, Kee Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 2017
  • This study was carried out to determine residual characteristics and to evaluate safety of bifenthrin, carbendazim and metconazole in minor crop, Angelica gigas Nakai. The test pesticides were sprayed onto the crop according to the combinations of spray days before harvest and frequency and then sampling was performed at the harvest day. Non-systemic pesticide bifenthrin was not detected in all samples, whereas systemic pesticides, carbendazim and metconazole, were detected from the crop in the range of from 0.14 to 0.49 and from 0.19 to 0.26, respectively. These results indicated that residual characteristics of the test pesticides in Angelica gigas Nakai were affected by their systemic properties. Also, residual concentration of carbendazim and metconazole in the crop was increased as more spraying frequency and spraying more closer to harvest day. And residual concentration of carbendazim in the crop on the last spraying day was 2.1 times higher than that of metconazole because nominal spraying dose of carbendazim was higher than that of metconazole by 1.9 times. The residue levels of the test pesticides in the crop were evaluated to be safe, considering their %ADIs were less than 0.9%.

Dissipation Patterns of Triazole Fungicides Estimated from Kinetic Models in Apple (Triazole계 살균제의 사과 중 잔류양상의 Kinetic Model 적용)

  • Kim, Ji-Hwan;Hwang, Jeong-In;Jeon, Young-Hwan;Kim, Hyo-Young;Ahn, Ji-Woon;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.55 no.4
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    • pp.235-239
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    • 2012
  • While cultivating crops, it is important to predict the biological half-lives of applied pesticides to ensure the safety of agricultural products. Dissipation patterns of the triazole fungicides, such as diniconazole and metconazole, during the cultivation of apple were established by utilizing the dissipation curve. As well as, the biological half-lives of the pesticides in apples were calculated using the residue amounts of them. The apples were harvested from 0 to 14 days after spraying diniconazole (WP) and metconazole (SC) at a recommended and three times of the recommended dose. Initial concentrations of diniconazole in apple were 0.09 and 0.15 mg/kg at a recommended and three times of the recommended dose, respectively, which were below MRL 1.0 mg/kg established by KFDA. The equations of biological half-life were $C_t=0.0811e^{-0.179x}$(half life: 3.9 days) and $C_t=0.1451e^{-0.148x}$ (half life: 4.7 days), respectively. In case of metconazole, initial concentrations in apple were 0.10 and 0.25 mg/kg, below MRL 1.0mg/kg, and biological half-life equations were $C_t=0.0857e^{-0.055x}$ (half life: 12.6 days) and $C_t=0.2304e^{-0.052x}$ (half life: 13.3 days), respectively. Therefore, when triazole fungicides were applied during the cultivation of apple, the biological half-life need to be calculated with the optimal equation model.

Residual Patterns of Fungicides Fludioxonil and Metconazole in Different Parts of Wheat (살균제 Fludioxonil 및 Metconazole의 밀 부위별 잔류 양상)

  • Kang, Ja-Gun;Hwang, Jeong-In;Lee, Sang-Hyeob;Jeon, Sang-Oh;Kwak, Se-Yeon;Park, Jun-Hong;Kim, Jang-Eok
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.341-348
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    • 2016
  • Residual patterns of fungicides fludioxonil and metconazole applied 2 or 3 times on wheat were investigated with consideration for their distribution rates in each compartment of wheat. Wheat samples collected at harvesting day were divided into three compartments such as grain, hull and straw, and the pesticide residue analysis was individually carried out to such compartments of wheat. The analytical methods of fungicide residues in wheat were acceptable, with recoveries of 84.3 to 113.3% and correlation coefficients of 0.1 to 4.7%. Due to the systemic characteristics, the residual amounts of metconazole in the grain part of wheat were greater as 0.13~0.17 mg/kg than those amounts (0.01-0.03 mg/kg) for fludioxonil. To absolute residue amounts of the fungicides in one wheat plant, their distribution rates in each compartment of wheat were the highest in straws (68.5-70.7%), followed by hulls (29.0-31.0%) and grains (0.2-0.8%).

On the Processing and Reduction Factors of Several Pesticides with Welsh Onion (건조 대파의 잔류농약 가공 및 감소계수 연구)

  • Park, So-Yeon;Kang, Hye-Rim;Ko, Kang-Young;Gil, Keun-Hwan;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.249-255
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    • 2009
  • In order to calculate the processing and reduction factor between fresh and dry Welsh onion which was widely used as a dried agricultural ingredient of food in Korea. 7 pesticides such as pyridalyl, kresoxim-methyl, spinosad, flufenoxuron, difenoconazole, metconazole, and tebufenozide were tested. After 2 sites field trial conducted and measured water contents by drying at $60^{\circ}C$ and analyzed the pesticide residue. Water contents of fresh and dried Welsh onion are 89.2 and 10.2% respectively. Averages of processing factor showed 7.24 of pyridalyl, 2.85 of kresoxim-methyl, 7.43 of spinosad, 3.17 of flufenoxuron, 4.38 of difenoconazole, 2.40 of metconazole and 8.13 of tebufenozide into 2 field samples. Averages of Reduction factor showed 0.87 of pyridalyl, 0.35 of kresoxim-methyl, 0.88 of spinosad, 0.38 of flufenoxuron, 0.52 of difenoconazole, 0.29 of metconazole and 0.98 of tebufenozide. Residual amounts of pesticides in/on fresh Welsh onion reduced during drying process.

Growth, Lodging Reduction as Affected by Iprobenfos-metconazole(IPM) in Direct-seeded Rice on Flooded Paddy Field (벼 담수직파재배시 Iprobenfos-metconazole(IPM) 처리에 따른 생육과 도복경감효과)

  • Lee, Kyehwan;Choi, Bongsu;Park, Jonghyun;Woo, Sunhee;Lee, Chulwon
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.393-398
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    • 2013
  • Lodging in the direct seeded rice cultivation on flooded paddy is being severe problem due to the lower production and grain quality at ripening stage. This study was conducted to examine the effect of Iprobenfos-metconazole (IPM) treated 50, 40 and 30 days before heading respectively as a plant regulator to reduce the lodging at ripening stage of direct seeding rice cultivation. The culm length treated with IPM, especially the 4th culm internode, was shortened more than with untreated plot, and the most effective time was at 30 days before heading. At 20 days after heading the flag leaves colour showed more greening than in the untreated leaves and the plot with IPM treatment was to be maintained longer compared to the control plot. The Nitrogen concentration of leaves with IPM was lower than in the control plot, and $SiO_2$ contents were higher than in the untreated plot and $SiO_2/N$ ratio was increased more in the IPM plot than in the control plot. The breaking strength of 3rd and 4th culm internode with IPM treatment was higher than in the untreated plot, and the lodging index was reduced in the IPM plot significantly and the field lodging also was reduced. As the results the rice production in the IPM plot was increased more due to be higher ripening ratio and seed grain weight compared to the untreated plot to be occurred the field lodging.

Improvement and Effectiveness for Chemical Control Protocol of Sweet Persimmon Anthracnose Disease (단감 탄저병 방제법 개선을 위한 살균제 선발 및 효과)

  • Jeon, Chang Wook;Kwon, Youngho;Lee, Jung Han;Kwak, Youn-Sig
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.312-316
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    • 2015
  • Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum spp. is the most important and devastating disease in sweet persimmon production in worldwide. There is no alternative control method or resistant cultivar is available. Therefore, chemical controls are widely accepted to control the disease. Three fungicides among 16 fungicides have been selected to apply in field condition. The selected three fungicides (metconazole, dithianon and propineb) showed lower EC50 and reliable control effect in both in vitro and in vivo. According to general guide line of anthracnose disease control method recommended 8 times spay of the fungicide. In this study, we performed 8, 4, and 2 times spay of the fungicides. For 8 times application, practice spray machine has been used and for 4 and 2 time application, a recently invented spray machine was input. The fungicides have been treated from middle of June to end of August in 2014 year. Control effect of among the selected fungicides showed similar result regardless of sort of the fungicide. However, frequency of spray result showed significantly different results, 8 and 4 times fungicide application showed low and similar disease occurrence, but 2 times application showed intermediated disease occurrence between 4 times treatment and untreated control. Taken together, result showed that 4 times application with effective fungicide, mechanically advanced tool can reduced the anthracnose disease damage in sweet persimmon production.

Fusarium Wilt of Winter Daphne (Daphne odora Thunb.) Caused by Fusarium oxysporum

  • Kim, Gyoung-Hee;Hur, Jae-Seoun;Choi, Woo-Bong;Koh, Young-Jin
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.102-105
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    • 2005
  • Severe wilt disease epidemic was found on winter daphnes (Daphne odora Thunb.) cultivated in farmers, nurseries in Suncheon, Jeonnam in 2003. Typical symptoms appeared on the leaves of winter daphne as yellowish wilts and turned brown from the lower leaves on the same plant. Severely infected leaves were defoliated, resulting in blight of stems and eventual death of the entire plant. Black decayed vascular tissues were distinctly observed in a wilted plant. Fusarium sp. was isolated from the diseased plants repeatedly and its pathogenicity was confirmed by artificial inoculation on healthy plants. The fungus was identified as Fusarium oxysporum on the basis of the morphological and cultural characteristics on potato dextrose agar and carnation leaf agar. The optimum temperature for fungal growth was around $25{\circ}C$ and the fungal growth was inhibited by metconazole, triflumizole and trifloxystrobin on potato dextrose agar. This is the first report on the wilt disease of winter daphnes caused by F.oxysporum in Korea.

Investigation of Fungicides Inhibitory Effect of on Summer Patch Disease, Caused by Magnaporthiopsis poae, in Kentucky bluegrass (여름잎마름병(Summer patch) 병원균에 대한 살균제의 억제효과 조사)

  • Lee, Jung Han;Shim, Gyu Yul;Kim, Jeong Ho;Jeon, Chang Wook;Kwak, Youn-Sig
    • Weed & Turfgrass Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.151-156
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    • 2017
  • Summer patch is the most serious disease at turfgrass field or golf course established with Kentucky bluegrass during high temperature season in Korea. Nevertheless, chemicals for the summer patch control are not yet registered in Korea. We isolated the pathogens from the turfgrass showing typical summer patch symptoms and identified as Magnaporthiopsis poae by using the internal transcribed spacer ITS1 and ITS4 sequences of rDNA. The inhibition rates of the pathogen were investigated for 10 fungicides. As results, the pathogen growth was suppressed when chemicals concentration increased and negatively correlated with incubation period with the chemicals. In triazole group, all chemicals (metconazole, myclobutanil, propiconazole and tebuconazole) treated showed the inhibition rates by 100%. Thiophanate-methyl showed the next highest inhibition effect against a summer patch pathogen. In strobilurin group, pyraclostrobin was the highest suppression effect compared with azoxystrobin and trifloxystrobin. Inhibition effect of fludioxonil and fluxapyroxad on pathogen was similar to the trifloxystrobin. Based on the results, triazole and carboxamide groups are strongly recommended due to the highest inhibition effect on the summer patch pathogen, Magnaporthiopsis poae.

Fungicide Spray Program to Reduce Application in Anthracnose of Strawberry (살균제 살포횟수 감소를 위한 딸기 탄저병 방제프로그램)

  • Nam, Myeong-Hyeon;Kim, Hyeon-Suk;Nam, Yun-Gyu;Peres, N.A.;Kim, Hong-Gi
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.295-301
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    • 2011
  • The effect of various fungicides on anthracnose of strawberry, caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, was determined in vitro, and in greenhouse and field trials. The $EC_{50}$ values of benomyl were clearly different between two sensitive and resistant groups of isolates. Iminoctadine tris had lower $EC_{50}$ values than mancozeb and propineb as protective fungicides and the response of mancozeb, propineb and azoxystrobin was variable depending on the isolate. In the greenhouse, pre- and post- inoculation fungicide applications significantly reduced disease compared to the non-treated control. Propineb, mancozeb and azoxystrobin were effective in controlling the disease when applied prior to inoculation. Metconazole and prochloraz-Mn treatments as ergosterol biosynthesis-inhibiting fungicides had the lowest incidence of anthracnose. In the nursery field trials in 2009 and 2010, the reduced fungicide spray program provided similar levels of disease control compared to the calendar-based applications with captan. A reduced spray program based on efficacious fungicides such as prochloraz-Mn will be useful for strawberry growers and provide more options for controlling anthracnose in Korea.

Genetic Diversity, Pathogenicity, and Fungicide Response of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae Isolated from Strawberry Plants in Korea (국내 딸기 시들음병균 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae의 유전적 다양성, 병원성과 살균제 반응)

  • Nam, Myeong Hyeon;Kim, Hyun Sook;Park, Myung Soo;Min, Ji Young;Kim, Heung Tae
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.79-87
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    • 2020
  • Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof) is the most important diseases of a strawberry field in Korea. We surveyed phylogenetic analysis, pathogenicity test, and fungicide response about Fof isolates isolated from Korea. Twenty-seven isolates of F. oxysporum isolated from strawberry plants were conducted in this study. Specific amplification by Fof specific primer was confirmed in all 26 isolates except Fo080701 isolate. The nuclear ribosomal intergenic spacer region and the translation elongation factor EF-lα gene sequences of isolates revealed three main lineages. Most of all isolates were contained DNA lineage group 1, but 2 and 3 group was shown only one and three isolates, respectively. All isolates were shown in pathogenicity with cv. Seolhyang. The EC50 mean values of prochloraz ranged 0.02-0.1 ㎍/ml except for Fo080701 and effectively inhibited mycelial growth at low concentrations. The EC50 value of metconazole was also 0.04-0.22 ㎍/ml, showing a similar inhibitory effect to that of prochloraz. The EC50 value of pyraclostrobin was 0.23-168.01 ㎍/ml, which was different according to the strain. In the field trial, boscalid+fludioxonil, fluxapyroxad+pyraclostrobin, and prochloraz manganese were selected as the effective fungicides for controlling Fusarium wilt.