• Title, Summary, Keyword: methemoglobin

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Studies on the Pharmacodynamic Action of Methemoglobin (Methemoglobind의 약력학적(藥力學的) 작용(作用)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Kwang-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.49-69
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    • 1966
  • For the purpose of stydying the pharmacodynamic action of methemoglobin, the author made the following experiments: 1. Preparation of hemoglobin and methemoglobin solutions: Red cell suspension from rabbit blood was hemolysed with distilled water and then divided into two portions. One portion was dialysed through cellophane paper and made isotonic with the proper amount of sodium chloride. The second portion was treated with sodium nitrite to convert hemoglobin to methemoglobin, dialysed through cellophane paper and made isotonic. 2. The concentration of methemoglobin in solution, plasma and urine was determined by Horecker and Brackette's method, and that of hemoglobin by the cyanmethemoglobin method. 3. The concentration of methemoglobin and hemoglobin in the plasma and urine of rabbits was measured at several intervals of time after infusion of the above samples. 4. The blood pressure and respiration of rabbits were recorded on a kymograph, and the effects of the samples on them were observed. 5. The effects of the samples on the movements of the in-situ heart and the isolated intestine of rabbits were studied. 6. The kidneys of rabbits were excised 4 to 5 hours after injection of the samples, and histopathological examinations were made. These experiments revealed the following results: 1. When methemoglobin solution was allowed to stand in room air, there was no decrease in the concentration of methemoglobin. 2. When methemoglobin solution was mixed with whole blood and incubated at $37^{\circ}C$, the concentration of methemoglobin decteased gradually. 3. After the infusion of methemoglobin and hemoglobin solutions, the rate of disappearance of methemoglobin in the plasma was more rapid than that of hemoglobin in the plasma. The higher the initial concentration in the plasma, the larger was the rate of disappearance of methemoglobin. 4. The rate of disappearance of methemoglobin was exceedingly rapid for 30 minutes after the infusion. 5. The urinary excretion of methemoglobin was more rapid than that of hemoglobin. 6. It would seem that the circulating blood contains substances which are promptly mobilized in the plasma to reduce methemoglobin to hemoglobin. 7. Moderate amounts of methemoglobin solution caused some rise in the blood pressure and a transient acceleration of the respiration of the rabbits. These effects of methemoglobin were milder than those of hemoglobin. 8. The movements of the in-situ heart and the isolated intestine of rabbits were accelerated by methemoglobin. These accelerating effects were milder than those of hemoglobin. 9. In the kidneys of rabbits treated with methemoglobin solution, hyperemia of the glomeruli, cloudy swelling and hemoglobin deposit in the tubular epithelium, hemoglobin casts in the tubular lumina of the proximal tubules, and interstitial congestion were constantly observed. There was no definite difference between the histological findings in the rabbit kidneys injected with methemoglobin, and those injected with hemoglobin solutions.

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Protective influence of selenium on nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia in rabbits (가토(家兎)에서 nitrite에 의한 methemoglobinemia에 미치는 selenium의 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Jin-sang;Han, Jeong-hee;Kim, Kye-soo
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.41-47
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    • 1991
  • The protective of influences of sodium selenitc ($Na_2SeO_3$) against the methemoglobinemia with sodium nitrite were investigated on hemoglobin, methemoglobin, glutathione peroxidase and NADH-methemoglobin reductase activity in rabbits which were given 0,1,3 and 9ppm sodium selenite of drinking water for a week. Dietary selenium did not alter total hemoglobin in the blood of rabbits. Selenium was found to decrease nitrite-induced methemoglobin in a dose-dependent manner. The glutathione peroxidase activity was also increased by selenium in all the experimental groups. However, the NADH-methemoglobin reductase activity by selenite did not show significant differences as concerns the methemoglobinemia. These results showed that selenium could inhibit nitrite-induced methemoglobinemia. Its influence of inhibition is suggested that the effect of the reduction of methemoglobin was greatly stimulated by glutathione peroxidase activity.

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The Distribution of Methemoglobin in the Blood (혈액 중에서 Methemoglobin의 분포에 관하여)

  • Seo, Baeseck;Kim, Namyee;Park, Sungwoo
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.416-419
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    • 1996
  • We performed a comparative study of analysis methods of Methemoglobin with a CO-Oximeter and an UV/Vis(SATO's Methd). The correlation coefficient of two method for the MetHb% determinations was estimated to be 0.9575. The concentrations of MetHb on most of the dead burn victims(87%) were shown below 10%. The concentrations of COHb were rang between 15% and 85%.

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Effects of Erythrosine on Murine Immune Functions and Methemoglobin Formation (식품 첨가물의 면역독성 및 혈액독성 - Erythrosine이 마우스의 면역기능과 Methemoglobin형성에 미치는 영향 -)

  • 황미경;윤혜정;유충규;문창규
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.191-196
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    • 1987
  • Erythrosine used as a colouring agent in drugs, cosmetics and foods in Korea, was examined for its effects on murine immune system and methemoglobin formation. As immunotoxicologic assay parameters, we adopted circulating leukocytes and immunoorgan weights for pathotoxicology, IgM plaque forming cells and arthus reaction for humoral immunity, delayed hypersensitivity reaction of cell mediated immunity and carbon clearacnce for macrophage function. Erythrosine's effects were observed as follows; 1. Ery throsine showed no significant effects on circulating leulocyte counts and relative immunoorgan weight. 2. Erythrosine diminished IgM plaque forming cells. 3. Erythrosine decreased arthus reaction, in the dose dependent manner. 4. Erythrosine had no significant effect on delayed hypersensitivity. 5. Phagocytic and corrected phagocytic index were not affected. 6. Methemoglobin content was similar in the test and control groups.

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Health Risk Evaluation of the Vinylhouse Workers with Exposure to Pesticide (비닐하우스 재배농민의 농약에 의한 인체 위해성 연구)

  • Yang, Jae-Ho;Park, Jung-Han
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.107-118
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    • 1994
  • Health effects of pesticide among vinylhouse workers in Sangjoo County, Kyungpook Province were assessed by measuring cholinesterase, glutathion reductase, and methemoglobin. Activities of cholinesterases among vinylhouse workers and general farmers were 3.89U and 3.98U in serum and 5.29U and 5.50U in red blood cells, respectively. While levels of methemoglobin between vinylhouse workers(0.16%) and general farmers(0.17%) were very similar, glutathione reductase among vinylhouse workers were 8% lower than that of general farmers. Inhibition of RBC cholinesterase among vinylhouse workers was two times greater than general farmers, suggesting a greater exposure of vinylhouse workers to the organophosphate pesticides. Methemoglobin level among vinylhouse workers with more than or equal to 10 vinylhouse units was 13% higher than that of the workers with less than 10 units. Vinylhouse workers using protective gears during pesticide spray showed higher level of reduced glutathione and lower level of methemoglobin, as compared to the non-users. This indicates that protective gears play an important role against pesticide exposure. Vinylhouse workers practicing good personal hygiene showed a higher level of reduced glutathione, as compared to those with poor personal hygiene, indicating that personal hygiene is also an important factor in reducing pesticide exposure. The present study represents a first attempt to analyze cholinesterase, methemoglobin and glutathione reductase activities among the vinylhouse workers. While neither vinylhouse workers nor general farmers showed abnormal findings among biochemical parameters used in the present study, increased level of methemoglobin and decrease of glutathione reductase activity among vinylhouse workers suggest that these workers have been subject to a higher exposure of pesticide than general farmers.

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A Patient with Methemoglobinemia after Herbicide Intoxication has Hemolytic Anemia Induced by Methylene Blue (제초제 중독으로 유발된 메트헤모글로빈혈증 환자에서 메틸렌블루 사용 후 발생한 용혈성 빈혈 1례)

  • Kim, Sun-Pyo;Kim, Dong-Hwan;Sun, Kyung-Hoon;Yoon, Dae-Heung;Kim, Seong-Jung;Cho, Soo-Hyeong;Cho, Nam-Soo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.134-137
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    • 2008
  • Methylene blue is the first choice for treating methemoglobinemia, any increase in normal methemoglobin levels. Methemoglobin is an abnormal hemoglobin in which the iron has been oxidized to the ferric(+3) state, making it incapable of oxygen transport. Methemoglobinemia most commonly results from exposure to oxidizing chemicals, but may also arise form genetic, dietary, or even idiopathic etiologies. Patients with low methemoglobin levels are asymptomatic, but high methemoglobin levels can lead to headaches or even death. Methylene blue, the first-line treatment for methemoglobinemia, can also produce hemolytic anemia. Jaundice or dark urine during methylene blue treatment may indicate hemolytic anemia. A 47-year-old female patient with a history of depressive mood disorder developed significant methemoglobinemia after ingesting a Propanil overdose. Twenty-two hours after ingestion, methemoglobin levels in the blood were 73.2%. She was treated with intravenous methylene blue in the therapeutic range (1 mg/kg every 4 h for 3days). The 2nd day after methylene blue use, methemoglobin levels in the blood were 33%, and the 5th day decreased to 10% with better general condition. The patient had hyperbilirubinemia after hemolytic anemia, but she recovered completely.

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Immune Suppression and Stimulation of Antioxidants -Effect of Propyl gallate on Murine Humoral Immune Functions and Methemoglobin Content- (한산화제의 면역억제 및 항진 연구 - 항산화제인 Propyl gallate가 체액성 면역기능과 Aniline 유도 Methemoglobin 함량에 미치는 영향 -)

  • 유충규;황미경
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.83-88
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    • 1988
  • Propyl gallate used as an antioxidant was examined for its effects on murine Immune system and metbemoglobin content treated with anillne. As immunotoxicology assay parameters, we adopted circulating leukocytes and immunoorgan weights for pathtoxicology, IgM plaque forming cells and Artbus reaction for humoral immunity. Propyl gallate's effects were observed as follows; 1. Propyl gallate decreased circulating leukocyte counts, dose dependently. 2. Relative immunoorgan weigbts were not affected. 3. Propyl gallate diminisbed IgM PFCs/spleen cell and IgM PFCs/spleen. 4. Propyl gallate decreased Arthus reaction. 5. Propyl gallate did not affect metbemogiobin content treated wltb aniIIne.

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Oxidants and Antioxidants Associated with Commercial Pickle Products and Ingredients (상업적인 pickle product와 ingredient의 oxidant와 antioxidant로서의 역할)

  • Jang, Mi-Jin;Cho, Il-Young;Joo, Hyun-Kyu
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.408-413
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    • 1995
  • Investigations of the effects of pickle product ingredients on lipoxygenase (LOX) and methemoglobin (MHG, a nonenzymatic oxidant) catalyzing oxidation of linolenic acid were conducted. In addition, activities of LOX, peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in dry spices used in pickle products were determined. Some commercial pickle brines were observed to inhibit oxidation of linolenic acid by LOX and MHG. The ingredients in pickle products, such as dill oil emulsion, onion concentrate, oil cassia, polysorbate 80 and turmeric acid, reduced LOX and MHG catalyzed oxidation. Lipoxygenase activity was present in garlic, mustard seed and red pepper. Only in mustard seed, peroxidase activity was observed. Catalase activity was observed in garlic, black pepper, allspice and red pepper.

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Studies on the Organic Matters in River Sediments (하천저질중의 유기물질에 관한 연구)

  • 나규환
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 1986
  • The writer measured methemoglobin formation with solvent (n-hexane, ethylacetate and methanol) organic extracts from the sediments of the Wonju stream run through Wonju city on Octover 2nd, 1985. Hemoglobin was converted to methemoglobin with the n-hexane extract obtained from the sediment of the St. C and St. D was polluted industrial wastewater, but not with that from the St. B was polluted with the urban wastewater. The formation of methemoglobin was remarkable with the all solvent extracts from the sediment of the uper stream of the Wonju stream. Doses of the solvent extracts for 20% methemoglobin formation in the researched Wonju streams were as follows; 0.095~0.28 mg/m.$\ell$ in n-hexane extract. 0.85-1.3 mg/ m$\ell$ in methanol extract and 1.95~2.80 mg/m$\ell$ in ethylacetate extract.

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Exchange Transfusion Treatment for Dapsone-induced Methemoglobinemia

  • Yi, Hwa-Yoen;Lee, Jang-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Clinical Toxicology
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2008
  • Methemoglobinemia can be caused by dapsone toxicity. We report a case dapsone induced methemoglobinemia unresponsive to methylene blue successfully treated by exchange transfusion. A 52-year-old male ingested a handful of dapsone. He presented with severe peripheral cyanosis in lips and fingertips and his methemoglobin level was found to be 21.9%. After admission, methylene blue (1%) at 1 mg/kg was injected each time peripheral cyanosis and rising serum methemoglobin occurred. Despite methylene blue therapy, the patient‘s methemoglobin level continued to fluctuate. Five days after the injections of methylene blue, many Heinz bodies were visualized in the peripheral blood, suggestive of hemolytic anemia occurrence. By hospital day 6, serum methemoglobine levels were elevated and not measurable (> 50%) and the patient was constantly in a semi-comatose mental state. An exchange transfusion carried out by utilizing 6 units of packed red blood cells and 4 units of fresh frozen plasma was performed. The patient's methemoglobin levels were subsequently kept up below 20% and his peripheral cyanosis receded. Physicians should recognize the important role of exchange transfusion in refractory dapsoneinduced methemoglobinemia.

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