• Title, Summary, Keyword: metsulfuron-methyl

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Physiology of Anthocyanin Accumulation in Corn Leaves Treated with Metsulfuron-methyl (Metsulfuron-methyl 처리에 의한 옥수수의 Anthocyanin 축적 생리에 관한 연구)

  • Park, E.Y.;Kim, J.S.;Cho, K.Y.;Pyon, J.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.246-256
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    • 1998
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the cause of anthocyanin accumulation in the corn leaves treated with metsulfuron-methyl. The accumulation of anthocyanin and total sugar was increased with the time after metsulfuron-methyl application and with the greater herbicide concentration as well. The anthocyanin increase was alleviated by the combined treatment of DUMU or the tank-mixture treatment of metsulfuron-methyl, isoleucine and valine. Metsulfuron-methyl could not enhance the anthocyanin formation in the nonchlorophyllous tissue in which photosynthetic carbohydrate production was limited. Upon the exogenous supply of sucrose, however, the contents of anthocyanin was increased in the both chlorophyllous and nonchlorophyllous leaf segment of corn without the herbicide treatment. On the other hand, the herbicide itself did not influence Hill reaction in vitro and photosynthesis electron transport in vivo. The anthocyanin accumulation by metsulfitronmethyl did not occur in the corn mutants deficient in the structural gene of anthocyanin synthesis, but corns deficient in the regulatory gene had the anthocyanin accumulation only in R-r and r-r type. The above results suggest that the purple pigmentation in the corn leaves treated with metsulfuron-methyl is related to the accumulation of photosynthetic carbohydrate which can stimulate the. regulatory gene related to anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway.

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Conformational Studies of Sulfonylurea Herbicides : Bensulfuron Methyl and Metsulfuron Methyl

  • Young Kee Kang;Dae Whang Kim
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.144-149
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    • 1990
  • Conformational free energy calculations using an empirical potential function (ECEPP/2) and the hydration shell model were carried out on the sulfonylurea herbicides of bensulfuron methyl (Londax) and metsulfuron methyl (Ally). The conformational energy was minimized from starting conformations which included possible combinations of torsion angles in the molecule. The conformational entropy of each conformation was computed using a harmonic approximation. To understand the hydration effect on the conformation of the molecule in aqueous solution, the hydration free energy of each group was calculated and compared each other. It was found that the low-free-energy conformations of two molecules in aqueous solution prefer the overall folded structure, in which an interaction between the carbonyl group of ester in aryl ring and the first amido group of urea bridge plays an important role. From the analysis of total free energy, the hydration and conformational entropy are known to be essential in stabilizing low-free-energy conformations of Londax, whereas the conformational energy is proved to be a major contribution to the total free energy of low-free-energy conformations of Ally.

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Acetolactate Synthase Activity Inhibition and Herbicidal Activity of Sulfonylurea and Imidazolinone Herbicides (Sulfonylurea 및 imidazolinone계 제초제(除草劑)의 살초작용(殺草作用)과 acetolactate synthase 활성(活性) 억제작용(抑制作用))

  • Hwang, I.T.;Hong, K.S.;Cho, K.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 1995
  • Acetolactate synthase activity inhibition and herbicidal activities were investigated with 2 sulfonylureas [chlorsulfuron{2-chloro-N-{{(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl) amino} carboxyl} benzenesulfonamide}, metsulfuron-methyl{methyl-2{{{{(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)amino}carbonyl}amino}sulfonyl}benzoic acid}, and 2 imidazoli-nones [imazethapyr{2-{4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl}-5-ethyl-3-pyridinecarboxylicacid}, imazaquin{2-{4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl}-3-quinoline carboxylic acid} herbicides. A broad weeding spectrum was observed with the treated herbicides at low application rates. Both corn(Zea mays L.) and sorghum(Sorghum bicolor Moench) were very sensitive to the two herbicide groups. Although legumes, such as soybean(Glycine max Merr.), clover(Trifolium repense L.), and indian jointvetch(Aeschnomene indica L.) were sensitive to the sulfonylureas, they were tolerant to the imidazolinones. On the contrary, wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) and barley(Hoderum sativum Jess.) showed the reverse responses of the legumes to the two herbicide groups. Quackgrass(Agropyron repens(L.) P. Beauv.). however, was commonly tolerant to the two herbicide groups. Degrees of crop injury and acetolactate synthase inhibition also varied with the crops examined. The 50% inhibition concentrations of sulfonylureas on acetolactate synthase in vitro activity($IC_{50}$) from corn, wheat, and soybean did not relate to the greenhouse herbicidal activities ($GI_{50}$). With chlorsulfuron, for example, wheat had more than 100 times higher $GI_{50}$ than corn and soybean, but the $IC_{50}$ was 4 to 10 times lower. Similar observation was made with metsulfuron-methyl. However, closer relationships between $IC_{50}$ and $GI_{50}$ were found with the imidazolinones. When imazethapyr was applied, the order of $GI_{50}$ values against com, wheat, and soybean was the same as that of $IC_{50}$.

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Effect of mixtures of gibberellic acid and several herbicides on the herbicidal activity against wild oat (Avena fatua L.) (Gibberellic acid와 여러 가지 제초제와의 혼합처리가 메귀리에 대한 제초활성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Seog;Choi, Jung-Sup;Hong, Kyung-Sik;Cho, Kwang-Yun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.107-116
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    • 1998
  • Based on the differential growth response to exogenous gibberellic acid ($GA_{3}$) between semi-dwarf wheat(Triticum aestivum) and wild oat(Avena fatua), we examined the possibility of improving the selective performance of several herbicides by $GA_{3}$ application and the physiological background of $GA_{3}$-induced increase in herbicidal activity. Growth of wild oat was 4 to 5 times higher than that of wheat by $GA_{3}$ treatment. Pretreatment of wild oat seed with 300 ppm $GA_{3}$ increased the herbicidal activities of trifluralin and isoproturon by soil-surface application, but not of alachor and metsulfuron-methyl. $GA_{3}$ applied simultaneously with post-emergence herbicides resulted in a significant or moderate improvement of the efficacy of such herbicides as tralkoxydim, fenoxaprop-ethyl, metsulfuron-methyl, metribuzine and isoproturon, but not in the mixtures of oxyfluorfen or paraquat with $GA_{3}$. In the sequencial treatment of tralkoxydim and $GA_{3}$ at interval of one-day, $GA_{3}$ applied prior to tralkoxydim significantly increased a chlorosis and desiccation of leaf without affecting the growth inhibition by tralkoxydim. Tralkoxydim followed by $GA_{3}$ application had lower herbicidal activity than that of $GA_{3}$ followed by tralkoxydim treatment. Electrolyte leakage response of $GA_{3}$-pretreated or $GA_{3}$-untreated wild oat leaf against several compounds inducing membrane. peroxidation was compared. Differencial responses were observed in oxyfluorfen and isoproturon treatments with an increased electrolyte leakage in $GA_{3}$-pretreated tissue, but not in paraquat and rose bengal treatments. These results suggest that $GA_{3}$-induced increase in herbicidal activity is likely to be dependent on a herbicide type and may be due to activation of a metabolic ability related with herbicidal reponse as well as an increase in the herbicide absorbtion and translocation, rather than due to membrane and cell wall extention induced by $GA_{3}$, which in turn makes the herbicides easily enter.

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Herbicidal Efficacy of Bispyribac-sodium Combined with Other Herbicides for Annual Bluegrass(Poa annua L.) Suppression (새포아풀(Poa annua L.) 방제를 위한 Bispyribac-sodium과 타약제와의 혼합 상호작용)

  • Park, Nam-Il;Lee, In-Yong;Park, Jae-Eup;Kim, Ho-Jun;Chun, Jae-Chul;Ogasawara, Masaru
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.39-49
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    • 2007
  • Bispyribac-sodium is a new-type herbicide that prevents the occurrence of annual bluegrass by the suppression of anthesis and inflorescence emergence on the bent green. The greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate interaction effect of the bispyribac-sodium with 21 soil- and foliar-applied herbicides in regards of herbicidal activity of annual bluegrass. The remarkable synergism was not found on the combination of bispyribac-sodium with benfluralin, pendimethalin, oryzalin, siduron, chlorphtalim, isoxaben, bifenox, tenylchlor, indanofan, bentazone, imazosulfuron, imazaquin, halosulfuron-methyl and limsulfuron. However, mixture of bispyribac-sodium with mecoprop, triclopyr, metsulfuron-methyl, cyclosulfamuron, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl and pyributicarb produced greater synergism of herbicidal activity when compared with unmixed, single application. Phytotoxicity was low on bentgrass green and fast recovery was observed. In future, it would be strongly necessary to do research to Investigate the effect of bispyribac-sodium combination with other herbicides under various environment and management practices on-site bentgrass green.

Differential Effects of herbicidal Compounds on Cytoplasmic Leakages of Green- and White-Maize Leaf Segments

  • Kim, Jin-Seog;Park, Jung-Sup;Kim, Tae-Joon;Yoonkang Hur;Cho, Kwang-Yun
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2001
  • Using maize green- and white-leaf tissue, we have examined the effect of various chemicals on cytoplasmic leakage with respect to the light requirement or chloroplast targeting for their activities. Oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon, diuron, and paraquat, which are known as representative herbicides acting on plant chloroplasts, caused the electrolyte leakage only in the green tissues, whereas 2, 4-dinitrophenol, rose bengal (singlet oxygen producing chemical) and methyl-jasmoante (senscence-stimulating chemical) play a role both in green- and white-tissue. Benzoyl(a) pyrene, generating superoxide radical upon light illumination, functions only in white tissues. Tralkoxydim, metsulfuron-methyl and norflurazon showed no effect in two tested plant samples. In terms of light requirement in electrolyte leakage activity, diuron, oxyfluorfen, oxadiazon, rose bengal, and benzoyl(a) pyrene absolutely require the light for their functions, but other chemicals did not. based on these results, we could classify into four different response types according to whether chemicals require light or chlroplasts for their action. This classification is likely to be applied to simply and rapidly identify the requirement of light and chlroplasts for the actions of chemicals, thereby it makes easy to characterize many new herbicides that their action mechanisms are unclear, and to elucidate the mode of action of them.

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