• Title, Summary, Keyword: microbial fungicides

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Comparison of Microbial Fungicides in Antagonistic Activities Related to the Biological Control of Phytophthora Blight in Chili Pepper Caused by Phytophthora capsici

  • Kim, Sang-Gyu;Jang, Ye-Lim;Kim, Hye-Young;Koh, Young-Jin;Kim, Young-Ho
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.340-345
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    • 2010
  • Two similar microbial fungicides (termed as MA and MB) developed in a Korean biopesticide company were analyzed and compared each other in their biocontrol activities against the phytophthora blight of chili pepper caused by Phytophthora capsici. MA and MB contained the microbe Paenibacillus polymyxa and Bacillus subtilis, respectively, with concentrations over those posted on the microbial products. In comparison of the isolated microbes (termed as MAP from MA and MBB from MB) in the antagonistic activities against P. capsici was effective, prominently against zoospore germination, while MBB only significantly inhibited the mycelia growth of the pathogen. Some effectiveness of MAP and MBB was noted in the inhibition of zoosporangium formation and zoospore release from zoosporangia; however, no such large difference between MAP and MBB was noted. In a pot experiment, MA reduced the severity of the phytophthora blight more than MB, suggesting that the disease control efficacy would be more attributable to the inhibition of zoospore germination than mycelia growth of P. capsici. These results also suggest that the similar microbes MA and MB targeting different points in the life cycle of the pathogen differ in the disease control efficacies. Therefore, to develop microbial fungicides it is required to examine the targeting points in the pathogen's life cycle as well as the action mode of antagonistic microorganisms.

Control Efficacy of Mixed Application of Microbial and Chemical fungicides against Powdery mildew of red-pepper (미생물 농약과 유기합성 살균제 혼용에 따른 고추 흰가루병 방제 효과)

  • Hong, Sung-Jun;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Yong-Ki;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Goo, Hyung-Jin;Choi, Kwang-Young
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.409-416
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    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to reduce the using amount of chemical fungicides for the control of red-pepper powdery mildew. Effect of combined application of three microbial fungicides and six chemical fungicides for the control of red-pepper powdery mildew was examined in vitro, in pot assay and under field condition. One chemical fungicide (Azoxystrobin+Chlorothalonil) among six chemical fungicides significantly suppressed three microbial fungicides (Bacillus subtilis Y1336, Bacillus subtilis DBB1501, Bacillus subtilis QST-713) registered for the control of pepper powdery mildew in vitro. In the pot assay, two mixed application such as B. subtilis DBB1501+Trifloxystrobin, B. subtilis QST713+Trifloxystrobin among nine mixed applications of three microbial fungicides and three chemical fungicides showed the highest suppressive effect against red pepper powdery mildew. Also, suppressive effect of the mixed application of B. subtilis QST713 and Trifloxystrobin was similar to that of single application of three chemical fungicides(Myclobutanil, Trifloxystrobin, Hexaconazole). In the field test, when the microbial fungicides (B. subtilis DBB1501, B. subtilis QST713) and the chemical fungicide (Trifloxystrobin) for the control of powdery mildew of red pepper were mixed foliar sprayed four times at 7 day-intervals, the control values were in the range of 70.3% to 70.9%. On the other hand, when each of the chemical fungicide (Trifloxystrobin) was foliar sprayed four times at 7 day-intervals, the control value was 72.7%. Consequently, the mixed application of the microbial fungicides and chemical fungicides could be recommended as a one of control measures for reducing the using amount of chemical fungicides.

Control Efficacy of Mixing Application of Microbial and Chemical fungicide against Phytophthora blight of red-pepper (미생물농약과 유기합성 살균제 혼용에 따른 고추 역병 방제 효과)

  • Hong, Sung-Jun;Kim, Jung-Hyun;Kim, Yong-Ki;Jee, Hyeong-Jin;Shim, Chang-Ki;Kim, Min-Jeong;Park, Jong-Ho;Han, Eun-Jung;Goo, Hyung-Jin;Choi, Kwang-Young;Yun, Jong-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.460-467
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    • 2013
  • This study was conducted to reduce the using amount of chemical fungicides for the control of red-pepper Phytophthora blight. Effect of combination application of two microbial fungicides and two chemical fungicides for the control of red-pepper Phytophthora blight was examined in vitro, in greenhouse and under field conditions. Each microbial fungicides and chemical fungicides was two-fold diluted and mixed-soil drenched. In the greenhouse pot assay, the mixed application of B. pumilus QST2808 and a mixture of dimethomorph + ethaboxam (De) among four mixed applications of two microbial fungicides (B. pumilus QST2808, P. polymyxa AC-1) and two chemical fungicides showed the highest control effect against Phytophthora blight. Also, control effect of mixed application of B. pumilus QST2808 and De was similar to that of single application of De (dimethomorph + ethaboxam) or Mo (mancozeb + oxadixyl). In the field test, when the microbial fungicides (B. pumilus QST2808, P. polymyxa AC-1) and the chemical fungicide(De) for the control of Phytophthora blight of red pepper were mixed-soil drenched four times at 7~10 day-intervals, the control values were in the range of 78.8% to 82.0%. On the other hand when each of the two chemical fungicides (De, Mo) were soil drenched four times at 7~10 day-intervals, the control value were 65.7% to 85.8%. Consequently, the mixed application of the microbial fungicides and chemical fungicides could be recommended as a control method for reducing the using amount of chemical fungicides.

Integration of Bological and Chemical Methods for the Control of Pepper Gray Mold Rot Under Commercial Greenhouse Conditions

  • Park, Seon-Hee;Bae, Dong-Won;Lee, Joon-Taek;Chung, Sung-Ok;Kim, Hee-Kyu
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.162-167
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    • 1999
  • Integration of microbial antagonists with fungicides was tried to control the gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea on pepper in greenhouse conditions and to reduce fungicide uses. All of the selected bacterial antagonists, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens BL3, Paenibacillus polymyxa BL4, and Pseudomonas putida Cha94, completely inhibited the conidial germination of B. cinerea until 30 days after treatment. However, bacterial colonization of pepper phylloplane was poor in BL4, while the other bacterial isolates and the fungal antagonist Trichoderma harzianum TM colonized well on the phylloplane, maintaining the population density of 104-105 cfu/g until 15 days after microbial treatments. Out of 13 kinds of selected fungicides used for gray mold diseases, polyoxin B and BKF 1995 showed the most discriminatory activity on the fungal growth between B. cinerea and TM. TM grew readily on the media containing those fungicides, while B. cinerea showed poor or no mycelial growth on them. The selected fungicides and antagonists alone reduced incidence of gray mold on pepper, showing disease indices of about 2.4 to 3.0, while its was increased up to 4.2 in the untreated control. Alternate treatments with the antagonists and 2-fold diluted fungicides inhibited the disease incidence as much as the antagonists or fungicides alone, and reduced the secondary inoculum more than the single treatments. This suggests that integration of antagonists and fungicides may be an efficient way to reduce fungicide sprays with reliable control efficacy of the disease. However, there was not much difference in the early and mid-term disease progress among the treatments and the untreated control, probably due to extremely favorable environmental conditions for the disease development in this experiment.

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Development of Microbial Bioassay for Detection of Pesticide Residues (미생물을 이용한 농약잔류 분석법 개발)

  • 백수봉;양창술;오연선
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.297-304
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    • 1994
  • This study was carried out to develop bioassay for detection of pesticide residues in agricultural products by using the soil microbial isolates sensitive to pesticides. One hundred bacterial isolates and eighty five fungal isolates were obtained from soil and their sensitivity to 10 ppm of several pesticides was examined in vitro. Five bacterial isolates and three fungal isolates were found sensitive to organochloride fungicide and two fungal isolates sensitive to organocopper fungicide. Among these isolates, B46, B93 and F67 were tested to find out the difference in sensitivity according to the methods of fungicide treatment. All of the isolates were found sensitive to 10 ppm of organochloride fungicides mixed directly in PDA. But they were found insensitive to the fungicide mixed in PDA after filtering through membrane filter. In case of organocopper fungicide, the isolates were found sensitive only when it was treated in PDA. And their sensitivity showed difference among various kinds of organochloride fungicides. B46 and B93 were employed to check the possibility as the agent for detection of the pesticidal residues in twenty eight agricultural products including rice. It was found that all samples had not residues because the samples did not inhibit the growth of isolates. When organochloride fungicides were applied to the above products, it was possible to detect the residues in fruits and vegetables at the concentration of 10 ppm, but not in starch-rich grains. B46 and B93 were identified as Bacillus sp. according to their bacterial characteristics in culture.

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Compatibility of Entomopathogenic fungus Lecanicillium attenuatum and Pesticides to control Cotton Aphid, Aphis gossypii

  • Kim, Jeong-Jun;Kim, Kyu-Chin
    • International Journal of Industrial Entomology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.143-146
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    • 2007
  • Concerns of entomopathogenic fungi as alternative pest control agents are increasing even though chemical pesticides have been used as the main control agents for pests and diseases in crop production. This study was conducted to test the influence of fungicides and insecticides on an isolate of Lecanicillium attenuatum that was reported to have the pathogenicity against cotton aphid, because fungicides and/or insecticides can apply with mycopesticides simultaneous, before and/or after. Fungicides fenbuconazole+thiram and propineb inhibited the spore germination and mycelial growth of L. attenuatum CS625; dimethomorph and procymidone did not affect spore germination or mycelial growth. The insecticide abamectin, deltamethrin, imidachropride, and spinosad had no detrimental effects on spore germination or mycelial growth. Therefore, these results demonstrated that careful selection of pesticides and fungicides can be applied to the integrated pest and disease control with microbial pesticide.

Bacillus sp. BS061 Suppresses Powdery Mildew and Gray Mold

  • Kim, Young-Sook;Song, Ja-Gyeong;Lee, In-Kyoung;Yeo, Woon-Hyung;Yun, Bong-Sik
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.108-111
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    • 2013
  • The use of a microorganism, or its secretions, to prevent plant disease offers an attractive alternative or supplement to synthetic fungicides for the management of plant disease without the negative effects of chemical control mechanisms. During a screening for microorganisms with the potential to be used as microbial fungicides, Bacillus sp. BS061 was isolated from a plant leaf. The strain BS061 potently inhibited the mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea, and significantly reduced disease incidence of powdery mildew in cucumber and strawberry. We also found that the culture filtrate of BS061 inhibited the mycelial growth of various plant pathogens.

Identification of DNA Markers Linked to Metalaxyl Insensitivity Loci in Phytophthora infestans

  • Eom, Seung-Hee;Kim, Kwon-Jong;Jung, Hee-Sun;Lee, Sang-Pyo;Lee, Youn-Su
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2003
  • A total of 24 isolates of Phytophthora infestans were tested and analyzed for their resistance to metalaxyl fungicides. Sensitivity to metalaxyl was determined by growing isolates on 20% V8 medium amended with 0, 5, and 100 ${\mu}g/ml$ metalaxyl. Four isolates among the 24 tested were resistant to metalaxyl. Eleven isolates were intermediate and nine isolates were sensitive. Amplified fragment length polymorphism(AFLP) assay was used to identify the amplification products of resistant isolates. As a result, selected fragments were cloned, sequences and primer pairs were developed which linked to metalaxyl insensitivity in P. infestans using competitive PCR.

Control of Alternaria Leaf Blight of Ginseng by Microbial Agent and Fungicides (미생물 제제와 살균제에 의한 인삼 점무늬병의 방제)

  • Li, Xiangguo;Han, Jin-Soo;Jin, Xuanji;Yin, Dapeng;Choi, Jae-Eul
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.102-106
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    • 2008
  • The single application of Bacillus subtilis QST713(BS QST713) mixed application with fungicides and alternate application were treated to examine the control of alternaria leaf blight of Panax ginseng. Control value of alternaria leaf blight by single application of BS QST713 at 10 days interval was 83.3%, and those of single application at 10 days interval was $80.4{\sim}83.7%$ by azoxystrobin, chlorothalonil copper sulfate basic, copper sulfate basic, kresoxim-methyl, difenoconazole, mancozeb. When mixture of BS QST713 and fungicides were applied at 14 days interval, the control value of alternaria leaf blight were 83.6% by BS QST713 and mancozeb, and 82.6% by BS QST713 and azoxystrobin. However, mixture of BS QST713 with difenoconazole, kresoxim-methyl, copper sulfate basic and chlorothalonil copper sulfate basic exhibited the disease control values from 61.1% to 76.4%, which showed slightly lower control efficacy. In Daejeon, the alternate application of BS QST713 followed by copper sulfate basic with 14 days interval was 85.9% in control value, which showed the best control efficacy. The alternate application with other tested fungicides slightly decreased to $55.5{\sim}78.2%$ in control value. However, the alternate application of BS QST713 followed by fungicides showed very high control efficacy, which were approximately 90% in Muju, Jeonbuk Province. Consequently, the single, mixed or alternate application of BS QST713 and fungicides could be recommended as a control method to reduce the amount of fungicides.

Chemosensitization of Fusarium graminearum to Chemical Fungicides Using Cyclic Lipopeptides Produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens Strain JCK-12

  • Kim, K.;Lee, Y.;Ha, A.;Kim, Ji-In;Park, A.R.;Yu, N.H.;Son, H.;Choi, G.J.;Park, H.W.;Lee, C.W.;Lee, T.;Lee, Y.W.;Kim, J.C.
    • 한국균학회소식:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.44-44
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    • 2018
  • Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by infection with Fusarium graminearum leads to enormous losses to crop growers, and may contaminate grains with a number of Fusarium mycotoxins that pose serious risks to human and animal health. Antagonistic bacteria that are used to prevent FHB offer attractive alternatives or supplements to synthetic fungicides for controlling FHB without the negative effects of chemical management. Out of 500 bacterial strains isolated from soil, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 showed strong antifungal activity and was considered a potential source for control strategies to reduce FHB. B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 produces several cyclic lipopeptides (CLPs) including iturin A, fengycin, and surfactin. Iturin A inhibits spore germination of F. graminearum. Fengycin or surfactin alone did not display any inhibitory activity against spore germination at concentrations less than 30 ug/ml, but a mixture of iturin A, fengycin, and surfactin showed a remarkable synergistic inhibitory effect on F. graminearum spore germination. The fermentation broth and formulation of B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 strain reduced the disease incidence of FHB in wheat. Furthermore, co-application of B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 and chemical fungicides resulted in synergistic in vitro antifungal effects and significant disease control efficacy against FHB under greenhouse and field conditions, suggesting that B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 has a strong chemosensitizing effect. The synergistic antifungal effect of B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 and chemical fungicides in combination may result from the cell wall damage and altered cell membrane permeability in the phytopathogenic fungi caused by the CLP mixtures and subsequent increased sensitivity of F. graminearum to fungicides. In addition, B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 showed the potential to reduce trichothecenes mycotoxin production. The results of this study indicate that B. amyloliquefaciens JCK-12 could be used as an available biocontrol agent or as a chemosensitizer to chemical fungicides for controlling FHB disease and as a strategy for preventing the contamination of harvested crops with mycotoxins.

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