• Title, Summary, Keyword: microbial safety

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Occurrence of Toxigenic Fusarium vorosii among Small Grain Cereals in Korea

  • Lee, Theresa;Paek, Ji-Seon;Lee, Kyung Ah;Lee, Soohyung;Choi, Jung-Hye;Ham, Hyeonheui;Hong, Sung Kee;Ryu, Jae-Gee
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.32 no.5
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    • pp.407-413
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    • 2016
  • Fusarium graminearum species complex (FGSC) causes Fusarium head blight in small grain cereals. To date, four species (F. graminearum, F. asiaticum, F. boothii, and F. meridionale ) belonging to FGSC frequently occur in Korean cereals. In addition, we first reported the occurrence of additional species (F. vorosii ) within FGSC, which was isolated from barley, corn, and rice in Korea. Phylogenetic analysis of the Fusarium isolates of this group using combined multigene sequences confirmed species identification. Moreover, the macroconidia produced by these isolates were morphologically similar to those of the F. vorosii holotype. Chemical analysis indicated that the F. vorosii isolates produced various trichothecenes such as nivalenol and deoxynivalenol with their acetyl derivatives along with zearalenone. Pathogenicity tests demonstrated that all of the F. vorosii isolates examined were pathogenic on barley, corn, and rice with variation in aggressiveness. This study is the first report of F. vorosii in Korean cereals, their pathogenicity towards barley and corn, and their ability to produce trichothecenes and zearalenone.

Investigation of Microbial Contamination Level during Production of Baby Leafy Vegetables (어린잎채소 생산 농장의 위생지표세균과 병원성미생물 오염도 조사)

  • Lee, Eun-Sun;Kwak, Min-Gyu;Kim, Won-Il;An, Hyun Mi;Lee, Hyo-Sup;Ryu, Song-Hee;Kim, Hwang-Yong;Ryu, Jae-Gee;Kim, Se-Ri
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.264-271
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate contamination sources of baby leafy vegetables by assessing microbial loads on baby leafy vegetables and agricultural inputs contacted with the vegetables. To estimate microbial loads, fecal indicators (coliform and Escherichia coli) and foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus) were examined. A total of 126 samples including eleven kinds of leafy vegetables, irrigation water, media, and tools were tested, resulting in coliform contamination observed from most of samples. For E. coli, 10.3% (13/126) of the samples were positive including irrigation water, knife, handler, media, tools, and three kinds of leafy vegetables. B. cereus was detected from 38% (48/126) of the samples including media, tools and three kinds of leafy vegetables. No E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and L. monocytogenes was detected. This result implies that contacting with agricultural inputs could explain microbial load of baby leafy vegetables.

Nondestructive sensing technologies for food safety

  • Kim, M.S.;Chao, K.;Chan, D.E.;Jun, W.;Lee, K.;Kang, S.;Yang, C.C.;Lefcourt, A.M.
    • 한국환경농학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2009
  • In recent years, research at the Environmental Microbial and Food Safety Laboratory (EMFSL), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) has focused on the development of novel image-based sensing technologies to address agro-food safety concerns, and transformation of these novel technologies into practical instrumentation for industrial implementations. The line-scan-based hyperspectral imaging techniques have often served as a research tool to develop rapid multispectral methods based on only a few spectral bands for rapid online applications. We developed a newer line-scan hyperspectral imaging platform for high-speed inspection on high-throughput processing lines, capable of simultaneous multiple inspection algorithms for different agro-food safety problems such as poultry carcass inspection for wholesomeness and apple inspection for fecal contamination and defect detection. In addition, portable imaging devices were developed for in situ identification of contamination sites and for use by agrofood producer and processor operations for cleaning and sanitation inspection of food processing surfaces. The aim of this presentation is to illustrate recent advances in the above agro.food safety sensing technologies.

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The Microbiological Safety Evaluation of Foodservice Facilities and Side Dishes in Elementary Schools and Universities in the Jeolla-do Region

  • Lee, Byung-Doo;Kim, Du-Woon;Kim, Jang-Ho;Kim, Jeong-Mok;Rhee, Chong-Ouk;Eun, Jong-Bang
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.920-924
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    • 2006
  • The microbiological safety of foodservice facilities and side dishes in 6 elementary schools and 6 universities in the Jeolla-do region was evaluated. The micro-aerosol evaluation of foodservice facilities including the kitchen, refrigerators, and freezers showed a comparatively high level of microbial contamination. In the microbial safety evaluation of cooking utensils and appliances, the total plate counts of serving tables, cutting boards, and food plates were comparatively high, but did not reveal significant counts of coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli were both below the general limit of microbial contamination. The microbiological safety of the cooking utensils and appliances were satisfactory. In the microbiological safety evaluation of side dishes served at these foodservice facilities, microbial counts were generally below the limit of microbial contamination.

Evaluation of SERS Nanoparticles to Detect Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis

  • Hong, Jeehwa;Qin, Jianwei;Van Kessel, Jo Ann S.;Oh, Mirae;Dhakal, Sagar;Lee, Hoonsoo;Hwang, Chansong;Chan, Diane E.;Kim, Dongho;Cho, Hyunjeong;Kim, Moon S.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.43 no.4
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    • pp.394-400
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: This research evaluated five types of nanoparticles to develop a surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) method for the rapid detection of two Bacillus species (Bacillus cereus and Bacillus thuringiensis) that are commonly found on fresh produce, which can cause food poisoning. Methods: Bacterial concentrations were adjusted to a constant turbidity, and a total of $30{\mu}L$ of each Bacillus cell suspension was prepared for each nanoparticle. A point-scan Raman system with laser light source of wavelength 785 nm was used to obtain SERS data. Results: There was no qualitative difference in the SERS data of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis for any of the five nanoparticles. Three gold nanoparticles, stabilized in either citrate buffer or ethanol, showed subtle differences in Raman intensities of two Bacillus species at $877.7cm^{-1}$. Conclusions: Among the three types of nanoparticles, the gold nanoparticles stabilized in citrate buffer showed the lowest standard deviation, followed by gold nanoparticles stabilized in ethanol. This result supports the potential application of gold nanoparticles for SERS-based detection of B. cereus and B. thuringiensis.

Population changes and growth modeling of Salmonella enterica during alfalfa seed germination and early sprout development

  • Kim, Won-Il;Ryu, Sang Don;Kim, Se-Ri;Kim, Hyun-Ju;Lee, Seungdon;Kim, Jinwoo
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.1865-1869
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    • 2018
  • This study examined the effects of alfalfa seed germination on growth of Salmonella enterica. We investigated the population changes of S. enterica during early sprout development. We found that the population density of S. enterica, which was inoculated on alfalfa seeds was increased during sprout development under all experimental temperatures, whereas a significant reduction was observed when S. enterica was inoculated on fully germinated sprouts. To establish a model for predicting S. enterica growth during alfalfa sprout development, the kinetic growth data under isothermal conditions were collected and evaluated based on Baranyi model as a primary model for growth data. To elucidate the influence of temperature on S. enterica growth rates, three secondary models were compared and found that the Arrhenius-type model was more suitable than others. We believe that our model can be utilized to predict S. enterica behavior in alfalfa sprout and to conduct microbial risk assessments.

Effects of Small Scale Post-Harvest Facility and Hygiene Education on the Level of Microbial Safety in Korean Leeks Production (영양부추 생산농가의 소규모 수확후 처리시설 적용과 위생교육에 따른 미생물학적 안전성 향상 효과)

  • Kim, Se-Ri;Kim, Jin-Bae;Lee, Hyo-Sup;Lee, Eun-Sun;Kim, Won-Il;Ryu, Song-Hee;Ha, Jihyung;Kim, Hwang-Yong;Ryu, Jae-Gee
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.249-257
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    • 2015
  • The purposes of this study were to develop a small scale post-harvest facility, and consequently to evaluate the effects of applying the facility along with hygiene education on the level of microbial safety in Korean leeks production. A total of 135 samples were collected at three Korean leeks farms in Yangju, Gyeonggi province. Food safety indicators (Aerobic plate count (APC), coliform count, and Escherichia coli) and foodborne pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus) on/in the samples were assessed. The microbial load measured as APC with harvesting tools such as comb, chopping board, and knife, at the farms where the small scale post-harvest facility had been operated (Farms A and B) was lower than that at another farm having no post-harvest facility (Farm C) by 1.44~2.33 log CFU / $100cm^2$. Moreover, the chopping board from Farm C was observed being contaminated with B. cereus at 6.03 log CFU / $100cm^2$. The coliform counts from the samples increased by 0.57~1.89 log CFU/g after leeks was submerged in ground water for washing. E. coli was recovered from leeks, soil, and the ground water used in the washing process, while no E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and L. monocytogenes was detected. Our results indicated that the small scale post-harvest facility developed in this study as well as the hygiene education played an important role in enhancing the level of microbial food safety in the leeks production environment. However, a disinfection technique could be needed during the washing step in order to prevent a potential contamination.

Investigation of Microbial Contamination in Oenanthe javanica at Postharvest Environments (미나리(Oenanthe javanica) 수확 후 처리 환경에서의 위생지표세균 및 병원성 미생물 오염도 조사)

  • Kim, Yeon Rok;Lee, Kyoung Ah;Choi, In-Wook;Lee, Young-Ha;Kim, Se-Ri;Kim, Won-Il;Ryu, Song Hee;Lee, Hyo Sub;Ryu, Jae-Gee;Kim, Hwang-Yong
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.268-277
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    • 2014
  • This study assessed microbiological hazards at postharvest stage of dropwort farms (A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I) located in 4 different areas in Korea. The samples were assessed for sanitary indication bacteria (total aerobic bacteria, coliform, and Escherichia coli) and pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus). Total aerobic bacteria and coliform in 9 dropwort farms were detected at the levels of 0~7.00 and 0~4.25 log CFU/g, mL, of $100cm^2$. In particular, microbial contamination in worker's hand showed higher than cultivation environment factors. Escherichia coli was detected in several farms of soil, irrigation water, washing water and worker's hand and also, dropwort in these farms was contaminated with E. coli (positive reaction). In case of pathogenic bacteria, B. cereus was detected at the highest levels in soil. S. aureus was detected qualitatively from only one sample of dropwort washed by water. E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes were not detected. Although dropwort pass through 2 process (trimming and washing), the microbial contamination was not differ significantly before and after which indicates that current washing system was not effect on reduction of microorganism. From these results, the postharvest environment and workers have been considered as cross-contamination factors. Thus, processing equipments and personal hygiene should be managed to reduce the microbial contamination of dropwort. Accordingly management system such as good agricultural practices (GAP) criteria is needed for the safety of dropwort