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Scientific Analysis and Conservation Treatment of the Kettle Excavated from Hwangnam-dong, Gyeongju (경주(慶州) 황남동(皇南洞) 출토(出土) 철부(鐵釜)의 보존처리(保存處理) 및 과학적분석(科學的分析))

  • Moon, Sunyoung;Jeon, Ikhwan;Yu, Heisun
    • Conservation Science in Museum
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    • v.4
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    • pp.23-32
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    • 2003
  • As the kettle excavated from a site in Hwangnam-dong, Gyeongju was presumed to have been used as a melting crucible in a glass production workplace, we decided to prove its usage by scientific analysis. First, we performed conservation treatment to find the original status of the kettle, and then SEM-EDS and XRD analysis of the five corrosions created on the surface of the kettle. The fragment of the spout, which played a crucial role for the kettle to be considered as a melting crucible, was discovered during the conservation treatment. So the mouth rim of the kettle was restored to perfection. When we observed the microstructure of the metal sample, it was proved to be cast iron gradually cooled without heat treatment. In the corrosion products, the main components were Fe and O and other components such as P, Si, Ca, and S were found. The main compounds were quartz, vivianite, goetheite, akaganite, lepidocrocite, hematite, etc. Although these components were used as raw materials for making glass, these were found not in the melting status but mere raw materials. This can be an evidence to show these site where the kettle was excavated had been a glass production workplace. However, it is not sure that the kettle was used as a melting crucible. Moreover, if we consider the organic mold and sand clay accumulated in the well site when the kettle was excavated at first, we can see this as a formative factor of the corrosions of the kettle. Therefore, we concluded that the kettle is a typical cast iron and was not used as a melting crucible of glass.

A Study on Gilded Ornamental Shoes Excavated from Beopcheon-ri, Wonju (원주(原州) 법천리출토(法泉里出土) 금동식리(金銅飾履)에 대한 연구(硏究))

  • Kwon, Hyuk-nam;Yu, Hei-sun
    • Conservation Science in Museum
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    • v.3
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    • pp.65-69
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    • 2001
  • Scientific analysis are carried on gilded ornamental shoes, which have been excavated from tomb No 1. and No 4. in Beopcheon-ri, Wonju dated from Baekje Period. This object is a very important because it provides valuable information on the development of metal-making techniques of that period. Thus, this article illustrates the investigation conducted to reveal how the object was created using what materials and techniques. Instead of the spikes-attached to the bottom plate of the object-that couldn't be sampled, a sample of a decorative rivet showing a similar structure to the spikes-attached to the other parts of the shoes-was prepared for a cross-section examination. Using radiography and microscopes, it was found that the head of a spike was placed and then punched to the gilded plate, so it can be held to the shoes. Under the SEM-EDS, the cross-section of the rivet shows that the gilding layer was applied before the attachment of the rivets. It also shows that the gilding layer is distributed unevenly and there are empty spaces indicating amalgam gilding was employed. This was confirmed as Mercury was detected on the SEM-EDS analysis of the object. The examination of the microstructure of the plate using the SEM-EDS revealed that the object is made of a single copper alloy plate with recrystallized twining and non-metallic white inclusions, which found to be lead in this case.

Evaluation of Thermal Durability for Thermal Barrier Coatings with Gradient Coating Thickness (경사화 두께를 갖는 열차폐 코팅의 열적 내구성 평가)

  • Lee, Seoung Soo;Kim, Jun Seong;Jung, Yeon-Gil
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.8
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    • pp.248-255
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    • 2020
  • The effects of the coating thickness on the thermal durability and thermal stability of thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) with a gradient coating thickness were investigated using a flame thermal fatigue (FTF) test and thermal shock (TS) test. The bond and topcoats were deposited on the Ni-based super-alloy (GTD-111) using an air plasma spray (APS) method with Ni-Cr based MCrAlY feedstock powder and yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ), respectively. After the FTF test at 1100 ℃ for 1429 cycles, the bond coat was oxidized partially and the thermally grown oxide (TGO) layer was observed at the interface between the topcoat and bond coat. On the other hand, the interface microstructure of each part in the TBC specimen showed a good condition without cracking or delamination. As a result of the TS test at 1100 ℃, the TBC with gradient coating thickness was initially delaminated at a thin part of the coating layer after 37 cycles, and the TBC was delaminated by more than 50% after 98 cycles. The TBCs of the thin part showed more oxidation of the bond coat with the delamination of topcoat than the thick part. The thick part of the TBC thickness showed good thermal stability and oxidation resistance of the bond coat due to the increased thermal barrier effect.

Metamorphic P-T Paths from Devonian Pelitic Schists from the Pelham Dome, Massachusetts, USA (뉴잉글랜드 펠암돔 주변부 데본기 변성 이질암의 변성 온도-압력 경로)

  • 김형수
    • The Journal of the Petrological Society of Korea
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.211-237
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    • 2000
  • Major element zoning has been analyzed in garnet porphroblasts obtained from the Grt-St and Ky-Grt-St grade assemblages in Zones I on the northern flank of the Pelham Dome, north central Massachusetts. These porphyroblasts grew during multiple phases of deformation and meta-morphism revealed by the inclusion trail geometry plus the chemical zoning patterns within garnet porphyroblasts. Unusual zoning patterns, including zoning reversals and gradient changes in XMn, zlgzag patterns in Fe/(Fe +Mg) and staircase-shaped patterns in XCa, are coincident with textural truncations and other changes in microstructure within the garnet porphrublasts. Chemical variations in plagioclase, biotite, muscovite and staurolite combined with inclusion trail geometry and petrography reveal that the garnet zoning patterns are modified by combinations of the following. (1) Uni-and divariant reactions involving garnet consumption(Grt+ Chl+Ms=St+Bt+Qtz + $H_2$O) and production(St+Ms + Qtz= Bt+ Grt +A1$_2$$SiO_{5}$ + $H_2$O). (2) Deformation induced episudic ionit dissolution, preferential diffusion and re-distribution during foliation development. (3) P-T changes during growth of the porphyroblasts. The P-T paths combined with petrographic and inclusion trail morphology observations consist of two pattens; (1) heating/compression during NW-SE shortening; and (2) decompression with cooling during NNW-SSE shortening. Based on temperature-time(T-t) geochronological data and late-Paleozoic tectonic model, Alleghanian metamorphism, which is the result of heterogeneous shearing concentrated along the boundary between the Abalone Terrane(Pelham dome) and cover rocks(Bronson Hill Terrane), has produced Ky-St-Ms mineral assemblage during Pennsylvanian(290-300 Ma) in Shutesbury area. However, temperature of alleghanian metamorphism was not high enough to form garnet and staurolite in the Northfiled syncline area. Alleghanian metamorphism has affected only the matrix due to heterogeneous shearing in the study area.

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Effects of Natural Complex Food on Specific Enzymes of Serum and Liver and Liver Microstructure of Rats Fed a High Fat Diet (지방간 환자를 위한 생식용 천연복합식품이 고지방식이를 급여한 흰쥐의 혈청, 간장의 효소 및 간조직 구조에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Eun;Kim, Wan-Jae;Lee, Young-Joo;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Kim, Pan-Gu;Park, Yeon-Jung;Kim, Soo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.256-262
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    • 2003
  • In order to design and develop a product that can treat the fatty liver, natural complex food with all natural ingredients was developed and supplemented to rats with high fat diet to induce fatty liver. As a result, when the amount of natural complex food was increased in diet of subjects, the activities of the blood serum AST, ALT, ALP, 3-GT and LDH were decreased. The total protein concentration levels of the 30% and the 50% natural complex food groups did not show changes in respect to the control group, but the 100% natural complex food groups showed significant decrease (p<0.05). Likewise, the amount of blood serum albumin in the 30% and the 50% natural complex food groups did not show improvement, but the 100% natural complex food did showed significant changes (p<0.05). The amount of blood serum triglyceride decreased as the amount of natural complex food was increased. In order to investigate the appearances of the accumulated fat in the liver, the animals were dissected. Livers of the control group (no natural complex food) were appeared as a white color, which means serious fat accumulation. However, all the natural complex food groups (30,50 and 100% natural complex food) showed noticeable decrease of fat content. Even the histology showed that livers of the control group had expansion of the fat, but a11 the natural complex food groups had e decreased as the contents and continued to show destroyed fatty cells. By observing the biological numeric data, the physical appearance and the history of the fatty liver, it is highly expected that natural complex food is very effective in treating the liver damaged -by the to fat and the cholesterol.

Effect of Temperature on the Deposition Rate and Bending Strength Characteristics of Chemical Vapor Deposited Silicon Carbide Using Methyltrichlorosilane (메틸트리클로로실란을 이용한 화학증착 탄화규소의 증착율 및 굽힘강도 특성에 미치는 온도의 영향)

  • Song, Jun-Baek;Im, Hangjoon;Kim, Young-Ju;Jung, Youn-Woong;Ryu, Hee-Beom;Lee, Ju-Ho
    • Composites Research
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.43-50
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    • 2018
  • The effects of deposition temperature on chemical vapor deposited silicon carbide (CVD-SiC) were studied to obtain high deposition rates and excellent bending strength characteristics. Silicon carbide prepared at $1250{\sim}1400^{\circ}C$ using methyltrichlorosilane(MTS : $CH_3SiCl_3$) by hot-wall CVD showed deposition rates of $95.7{\sim}117.2{\mu}m/hr$. The rate-limiting reaction showed the surface reaction at less than $1300^{\circ}C$, and the mass transfer dominant region at higher temperature. The activation energies calculated by Arrhenius plot were 11.26 kcal/mole and 4.47 kcal/mole, respectively. The surface morphology by the deposition temperature changed from $1250^{\circ}C$ pebble to $1300^{\circ}C$ facet structure and multi-facet structure at above $1350^{\circ}C$. The cross sectional microstructures were columnar at below $1300^{\circ}C$ and isometric at above $1350^{\circ}C$. The crystal phases were all identified as ${\beta}$-SiC, but (220) peak was observed from $1300^{\circ}C$ or higher at $1250^{\circ}C$ (111) and completely changed to (220) at $1400^{\circ}C$. The bending strength showed the maximum value at $1350^{\circ}C$ as densification increased at high temperatures and the microstructure changed from columnar to isometric. On the other hand, at $1400^{\circ}C$, the increasing of grain size and the direction of crystal growth were completely changed from (111) to (220), which is the closest packing face, so the bending strength value seems to have decreased.

Taxonomic Characteristics of Korean-native Anacardiaceae (한국산(韓國産) 옻나무과(科)의 분류학적(分類學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Sam Sik;Chung, Jae Min
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.84 no.2
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    • pp.151-165
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to establish a systematized taxonomic problems of through the leaf morphological characters and leaf venation patterns, and stomatal cell patterns and cell characteristics of abaxial and adaxial surface of the leaflets by SEM, of 6 native species in Korea and 2 foreign species of the Genus Rhus in the Family Anacardiaceae. The results obtained from this study are summarized as followings: 1. Morphological study measured 32 characters of leaves from herbarium specimen and field-collected samples for each species. The results of cluster analysis based on the Euclidean distance showed that the species could be classified into 3 groups: R. sylvestris. R. typhina, R. succedanea: R. trichocarpa. R. chinensis. R. verniciflua: and R. ambigua. R. radicans subsp. orientale, Analysis of principal components showed 5 groups: The major factors in the first principal component group was length of petiole of the terminal leaflets, that in the second group angle of left side in the terminal leaflet bash, that in the third group area ratio between first and terminal leaflets, that in the forth group angle ratio between right and left side in the terminal leaflet base, and that in the fifth group was angle of main and secondary vein at midrib of terminal leaflet. Cumulative contribution by the first, second and third principal component group was explained with 82.6%, a large percent of all information. 2. The leaf venation pattern investigated using soft X-ray photography revealed clado-and reticulo-camptodromous types according to branching angle of the secondary vein. And three groups by the developing degree of secondary vein were R. trichocarpa, R. ambigua. R. chinensis, R. typhina; R. radicans subsp. onentale, R. succedanea, R. verniciflua: and R. sylvestris. Classification key for the Rhus of Korean-native Anacardiaceae was made by the venation pattern and devevoping degree of the secondary vein. 3. The stomatal cell patterns were greatly classified into paracytic and anomocytic types, specific among species according to stomatal and subsidiary cell patterns, and various differences among the species was determined. Microstructure of the adaxial and abaxial surfaces could be divided into synclinal and anticlinal cell wall patterns, and were specific-species. Stomatal cells of R. chinensis were surrounded with characterized villus-like cells.

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Fabrication and Characterization of $CuInSe_2$Thin Films from $In_2Se_3$ and$Cu_2Se$Precursors ($In_2Se_3$$Cu_2Se$를 이용한 $CuInSe_2$박막제조 및 특성분석)

  • Heo, Gyeong-Jae;Gwon, Se-Han;Song, Jin-Su;An, Byeong-Tae
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.5 no.8
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    • pp.988-996
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    • 1995
  • CuInSe$_2$this films as a light absorber layer were fabricated by vacuum evaporation using In$_2$Se$_3$and Cu$_2$Se precursors and their properties were analyzed. Indium selenide films of 0.5${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ thickness were first deposited by vacuum evaporation of In$_2$Se$_3$ on a Corning 7059 glass substrate. The films deposited at suscepor temperature of 40$0^{\circ}C$ showed a flat surface morphology with densely Packed grain structure. CuInSe$_2$films directly formed by evaporating Cu$_2$Se on the predeposited In$_2$Se$_2$films also showed a very flat surface when the susceptor temperature was $700^{\circ}C$. Cu$_2$Se, a second phase in the CuInSe$_2$film, was removed by evaporating additional In$_2$Se$_3$on the CuInSe$_2$film at $700^{\circ}C$. The grain size of 1.2${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ thick CuInSe$_2$, film was about 2${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$ and the film had a (112) preferred orientation. As the amount of deposited In$_2$Se$_3$increased, the electrical resistivity of CuInSe$_2$films increased because of the decrease of hole concentration. But the optical band gap was almost constant at the value of 1.04eV, The CuInSe$_2$film grown on a Mo/glass substrate had a similar smooth microstructure compared to that on a glass substrate. A solar cell with ZnO/CdS/CuInSe$_2$/Mo structure may be realized based on the above CuInSe$_2$films.

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Fabrication and characteristics of modified PZT System doped With $La_2O_3$ ($La_2O_3$가 첨가된 modified PZT계의 제조 및 특성)

  • 황학인;박준식;오근호
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.418-427
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    • 1997
  • The effect of $La_2O_3$ as a dopant on the microstructure structure, crystal structure and electrical properties was studied. $0.05Pb(Sn_{0.5}Sb_{0.5})O_3+0.11PbTiO_3+0.84PbZroO_3+0.4Wt%MnO_2$ (=0.05PSS +0.11PT+0.84PZ+0.4wt%$MnO_2$) systems doped with 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1, 3, 5 mole% $La_2O_3$ were fabricated and investigated sintering density, crystal structure and micro-structure. The sintered 0.05PSS+0.11PT+0.84PZ+0.4wt%$MnO_2$ system doped with $La_2O_3$showed sintering density of the range of 7.683 g/㎤ of 0 mole% doping to 7.815 g/㎤ of 0 mole% doping. The average grain sizes in the range of 0 to 5 mole% $La_2O_3$were decreased from 9.0 $\mu\textrm{m}$ to 1.3 $\mu\textrm{m}$. X-ray diffraction investigation of sintered bodies showed that solid solutions were formed between 0.05PSS+0.11PT+0.84PZ+0.4wt%$MnO_2$ system and $La_2O_3$ in the range of 0 to 1 mole% but second phases were formed in case of 3, 5 mole%. Dielectric constants at 1 kHz were increased with 0 to 3 mlole% $La_2O_3$ before and after poling at the condition of 5 $KV_{DC}$/mm at $120^{\circ}C$ or $140^{\circ}C$ during 20 minutes. All Dielectric losses at 1 kHz were less than 1%, Curie temperatures were $208^{\circ}C$, $183^{\circ}C$, $152^{\circ}C$ and $127^{\circ}C$ at 0, 0.5, 1, 3 mole% $La_2O_3$ respectively. The values of $K_p$ were increased from 0 to 3 mole% $La_2O_3$ after poling at condition of 5 $KV_{DC}$mm at the condition of $120^{\circ}C$ or $140^{\circ}C$. The case of 0.7 mole% $La_2O_3$doped 0.05PSS+0.11PT+0.84PZ+0.4wt%$MnO_2$ system showed $K_p$ of 14.5% by poling at $140^{\circ}C$ during 20 minutes.

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Quality Characteristics of Cuttlefish Inky Tofu Prepared with Various Coagulants (응고제에 따른 오징어 먹물 두부의 품질 특성)

  • Park, Eo-Jin;An, Sang-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.653-660
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    • 2006
  • Some quality characteristics of tofu prepared with cuttlefish ink were investigated to study the effects of various of coagulants. Each concentration of coagulant was determined as 0.2% of GDL, 0.3# of $MgCl_2$, 1%^ of $CaCl_2$, 1.5% of $CaSO_4$ and 0.6% D-gluconic acid calcium by pre-experiment. Also, the optimum concentration of added cuttlefish ink was chosen as 3%(diluted in twenty times). The yield of inky tofu prepared with GDL as coagulant was the highest. According to prepared with $MgCl_2$ was the highest. The result of microstructure was examined by SEM, the particles of inky tofu coagulated with GDL and D-gluconic acid calcium were small and uniformity. In overall acceptability of sensory properties, inky tofu coagulated with GDL was the highest in score. In the color of inky tofu, L value and a value were the highest coagulated with GDL, but that coagulated with $CaCl_2$ had the highest b value. In the texture properties of inky tofu, hardness, gumminess and brittleness were the highest coagulated with D-gluconic acid calcium. A positive correlation was observed between the pH of tofu whey and acidity. Sensory properties of roasted nutty flavor, hardness, cohesiveness and springiness were positively correlated with the acceptability.