• Title, Summary, Keyword: middle slab

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Characteristics of Middle Slab Stresses in Double-Deck Tunnel During Maintenance (복층터널 중간슬래브 유지관리에 따른 응력분포 특성 분석)

  • Cho, Young Kyo;Lee, Young Hoon;Park, Beom Keun;Kim, Seong-Min
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to investigate the stresses of the middle slab in a double-deck tunnel owing to the slab lift to replace the underlying elastic pads during maintenance work. METHODS : The middle slab was divided into three different sections: typical section, expansion joint section, and emergency passageway section. Finite element analysis models of these three sections of middle slab were developed, and the stress distribution and maximum stresses were obtained using the models when the middle slab was lifted to replace the underlying elastic pads. Various slab lifting methods were examined in this study such as one-, two-, and multiple-point lifts, distributed lifts, and one or both slab side edge lifts. RESULTS : When the slab side edge is lifted, the longitudinal stresses of the slab are almost the same as the principal stresses. This implies that the governing stresses are the longitudinal stresses. The maximum stresses with both-edge lifts are generally smaller than those with one-edge lifts at all three sections of middle slab. CONCLUSIONS : If the middle slab in a double-deck tunnel is lifted for maintenance, the slab should be lifted at multiple points along the longitudinal direction to reduce the tensile stresses.

Analysis of the Fundamental Behaviors of the Middle Slab in a Double-Deck Tunnel for Design Guide Development (복층터널 중간슬래브 설계 기준 마련을 위한 기본 거동 특성 분석)

  • Park, Hee Beom;Cho, Young Kyo;Lee, Young Hoon;Kim, Seong-Min
    • International Journal of Highway Engineering
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSES : The purpose of this study is to investigate the fundamental behaviors such as stresses and deflections of the middle slab in a double-deck tunnel for the development of a middle slab design guide. METHODS : The middle slab has been divided into the following three different sections as according to its structural differences: the normal section, expansion joint section, and emergency passageway section. The normal section of middle slab represents the slab supported by brackets installed continuously along the longitudinal direction of tunnel lining. The expansion joint section refers to a discontinuity of middle slab due to the existence of a transverse expansion joint. The emergency passageway section has an empty rectangular space in the middle slab that acts as an exit in an emergency. The finite element analysis models of these three sections of middle slab have been developed to analyze their respective behaviors. RESULTS : The stresses and deflections of middle slab at the three different sections decrease as the slab thickness increases. The emergency passageway section yields the largest stresses and deflections, with the normal section yielding the smallest. CONCLUSIONS : The stress concentrations at the corners of the passageway rectangular space can be reduced by creating hunch areas at the corners. The stresses and deflections in the emergency passageway section can be significantly decreased by attaching beams under the middle slab in the passageway area.

Dynamic response of middle slab in double-deck tunnel due to vehicle load (차량하중에 의한 복층터널 중간슬래브의 동적 응답)

  • Kim, Hyo-Beom;Kwak, Chang-Won;Park, Inn-Joon
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.717-732
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    • 2017
  • Recently, the construction of underground structure such as a double-deck tunnel is increasing to manage rapid growth of roadway traffic volume. Double-deck tunnel includes middle slab to separate upper and lower road inside, and various sources affect the dynamic behaviour of middle slab due to dynamic loading of vehicle. Therefore, it is important to investigate the dynamic response of middle slab precisely to apply it to design and analysis of double-deck tunnel. In this study, dynamic analysis model of middle slab considering structural type, design velocity, vehicle load, and surface roughness, etc. is built. 3-dimensional dynamic analysis is performed to assess dynamic response of middle slab. Consequently, Dynamic Magnification Factor which represents dynamic response of middle slab shows maximum in case of elastomeric bearings (EB) and average roughness (Grade C). It is also expected that dynamic response can be reduced under the condition of good roughness (Grade B) and fixed bearings (FB).

A Study of Net Type External Prestress Strengthening Method for Slab Bridges (네트형 슬래브교 외부강선 보강 공법 연구)

  • 한만엽;황태정
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.475-480
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    • 2002
  • This study is to develop a strengthening method for slab bridges with external prestressing. There are so many different strengthening methods for damaged slab bridges, external prestressing method is the most effective, economical and durable strengthening method among them. But, its problem lies in anchoring devices, so recently, an effective anchoring method was developed and showed its improvements. In this study, a more improved method is suggested. Longitudinal tendons placed on both side of slab strengthens the whole bridge, and lateral tendons placed under the slab strengthens the middle of slab, and conveys the load at middle slab to both sides. Structural analysis for the tensile force for strengthening were analysed. Generally, 200-280tons for longitudinal tendon and 130-190 tons for lateral tendons are good enough to strengthen the damaged slab. This method has no upward roof work, so it is very convenient for installing. And no spaces under the slab are need, so it is good for shallow slabs which has less space under the slab.

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An Experimental Study on the Net Type Prestress Strengthening Method for Slab Bridges (네트형 슬래브교 외부강선 보강공법의 실험적 연구)

  • 한만엽;황태정
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.363-366
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    • 2003
  • This study is to develop a strengthening method for RC slab bridges and rigid-frame bridges with external prestressing. In this study, we design the slab specimen that have a strengthening of the DB-13 and set up the longitudinal tendons placed on both side of slab strengthens the whole bridge, and lateral tendons placed under the slab strengthens the middle of slab, and conveys the load at middle slab to both sides. Structural analysis for the tensile force for strengthening were analysed and we know that displacement and strain was improved from this test. This method has no upward roof work, so it is very convenient for installing. And no spaces under the slab are need, so it is good for shallow slabs which has less space inder the slab.

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Behavior of the Segment Lining due to the Middle Slab and the Lateral Pressure Coefficient in Duplex Tunnel (복층터널에서 중간슬래브와 측압계수에 따른 세그먼트 라이닝의 거동분석)

  • Lee, Ho Seong;Moon, Hyun Koo
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.192-200
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    • 2016
  • We analyzed the behavior of the lining segments considering the middle slab and lateral pressure coefficients when planning the construction of a duplex tunnel for the underground network. Reviewed segment lining analysis for research, the analytical model was determined for duplex tunnel. Also reviewed the vertical load, and a load of middle slab is considered the static load and the live load by vehicles. Section force by middle slabs a load applied was mainly generated in the lower tunnel had the greatest effect on the bending moment. In addition, the bending moment acting direction changes appeared with a large variable, and the section force according to the load applied to the middle slab is relatively constant and the effect on the segment lining from the smallest section force of the lateral pressure coefficient of 1.00 was found to occur appears most significantly. As a result of this research to identify the behavior of the slab and the segment lining by the effect of the lateral pressure coefficient (K) of the duplex tunnel will be able to present a method of the duplex tunnel structure is reasonable and economical design.

Development of Mechanical Construction Method of Road Deck Middle Slab of Double Deck Tunnel in Great Depth (대심도 복층터널 중간슬래브의 기계화 시공법 개발)

  • Lee, Doo Sung;Kim, Young Jin;Kim, Tae Kyun;Kim, Chang Yeong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.451-460
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    • 2019
  • It is critical for Korea to make effective use of limited space as it has dense population and high traffic volume compared to its terrestrial area. To resolve this issue, diverse types of underground structures have increasingly been applied so far, and one of the most representative structures is double-deck tunnel. The construction period of the middle slab in the double deck tunnel constructed at the great depth can be considered as an important part after the tunnel lining construction in the whole process. In order to minimize the construction period required for construction of the middle slab in the double deck tunnel, it was proposed a method of the precast intermediate slab. In this study, it is suggested a mechanical construction process with dedicated equipments developed to improve the safety and the workability of erection of the precast middle slab than the current construction method using the existing mobile crane.

Seismic performance evaluation of middle-slab vibration damping rubber bearings in multi-layer tunnel through full-scale shaking table (실대형 진동대 시험을 통한 복층터널 중간 슬래브 진동 감쇠 고무받침 내진성능 평가)

  • Jang, Dongin;Park, Innjoon
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.337-346
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    • 2020
  • Traffic jam and congestion in urban areas has caused the need to improve the utility of underground space. In response, research on underground structures is increasingly being conducted. Notably, a double-deck tunnel is one of the most widely used of all those underground structures. This double-deck tunnel is separated by the middle slab into the upper and lower roadways. Both vehicle load and earthquake load cause the middle slab to exhibit dynamic behavior. Earthquake-related response characteristics, in particular, are highly complex and difficult to interpret in a theoretical context, and thus experimental research is required. The aim of the present study is to assess the stability of a double-deck tunnel's middle slab of the Collapse Prevention Level and Seismic Category 1 with regard to the presence of vibration-damping Rubber Bearings. In vibration table tests, the ratio of similitude was set to 1/4. Linings and vibrating platforms were fixed during scaled model tests to represent the integrated behavior of the ground and the applied models. In doing so, it was possible to minimize relative behavior. The standard TBM cross-section for the virtual double-deck tunnel was selected as a test subject. The level of ground motion exerted on the bedrock was set to 0.154 g (artificial seismic wave, Collapse Prevention Level and Seismic Category 1). A seismic wave with the maximum acceleration of 0.154 g was applied to the vibration table input (bedrock) to analyze resultant amplification in the models. As a result, the seismic stability of the middle slab was evaluated and analyzed with respect to the presence of vibration-damping rubber bearings. It was confirmed that the presence of vibration-damping rubber bearings improved its earthquake acceleration damping performance by up to 40%.

2D Slab Silicon Photonic Crystal for Enhancement of Light Emission in Visible Wavelengths

  • Cui, Yonghao;Lee, Jeong-Bong
    • 한국정보디스플레이학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.887-890
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    • 2008
  • We present 2D slab silicon-based photonic crystal optical insulator to enhance light emission efficiency of light-emitting diode (LED). A 2D slab silicon photonic crystal is designed in such a way that light emitting diode die can be placed in the middle of the silicon photonic crystal. The device creates light propagation forbidden region in horizontal plane for Transverse Electric (TE) light with the wavelength range of 450 nm to 600 nm.

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Seismic response characteristics according to the supporting conditions of middle slab of double-deck undersea tunnel using the centrifuge testing (원심모형 실험을 이용한 해저 복층터널 중간슬래브 지지조건에 따른 지진 응답특성)

  • Um, Ki-Yoon;Park, Inn-Joon;Kwak, Chang-Won;Jang, Dong-In
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.347-360
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    • 2018
  • Due to the concentration and congestion of traffic in Seoul metropolitan area, effective utilization of underground space is required, and construction of various underground structures such as a double deck tunnel is increasing. Double deck tunnels are divided into upper and lower runways, and the most important part is middle slab. To investigate seismic behavior of middle slab, experimental study is required because of the complexity of the load and the mechanism of earthquake. In this study, centrifugal model tests were conducted to investigate the response characteristics of earthquake response according to the support conditions of the middle slab of a double deck tunnel. Artificial, Ofunato (short period) and Hachinohe (long period) seismic waves were employed in the experimental study. As a result, it was confirmed that the acceleration attenuation of elastomeric bearings condition was 10.6% in artificial earthquake, 13.6% in Ofunato earthquake, and 10.3% in Hachinohe earthquake. The results indicate that elastomeric bearings have some advantages in the viewpoint of seismic behaviors.