• Title, Summary, Keyword: migration

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Family Migration Characteristics and Types of North Korean Defectors (북한이탈주민의 가족이주 특성과 유형)

  • Chin, Meejung;Kim, Sangha
    • Family and Environment Research
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    • v.56 no.3
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    • pp.317-330
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    • 2018
  • Objectives: This study explores the characteristics of family migration for North Korean defectors and classifies family migration by examining who initiated the migration and who followed. Method: We analyzed the family migration using detailed stories from fifty-five North Korean defectors who were interviewed between 2005 and 2011. Results: We found that 43 out of 55 cases were family migration and the remaining 12 cases were single person migration. We also found several characteristics typical of migration. First, family migration followed the process of step migration, which indicated a serial migration in numbers. Second, migration relied heavily on informal social networks. Finally, the process of earlier migration by North Koreans was incidental and unexpected; however, unexpectedness has diminished in recent migration. Looking at who initiated the migration, the most common type was 'mother-initiated' cases (14 cases) followed by 'child-initiated' cases (10 cases). The third most common type was 'mother-child accompanied' cases (7 cases). The migration process was various; however the most common type was when a married woman initiated the family migration process. This is most likely because married women have the responsibility to support families in the informal economy of North Korea. According to the range of family migrated, the most common type was 'nuclear-family only' cases (22 cases) followed by 'maternal extended family migration' cases (12 cases). Conclusions: The findings of this study provide information on the family dynamics of North Korean defectors.

Quantitative Measure of the Changes of Migration Patterns Using Cosine Similarity (코사인 유사도를 이용한 이주패턴 변화의 정량적 측정)

  • Han, Yicheol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.67-74
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    • 2017
  • Migration is defined as the movement of people between residential places, and represents interactions between regions. Changes in migration involve changes in both the number of migrants toward/from regions and migration patterns across regions. However, most migration studies have focused only on the change in migrants, while no empirical study captures changes in migration patterns. In this paper, I present a function using the cosine similarity to measure changes in migration patterns, and apply it to 2001-2016 migration data of Korea. The results show that the migration patterns of Korea shifted in 2007, resulting in two distinct clusters. Local areas experienced various migration pattern changes despite few changes in the number of migrants.

Up and Down Flows of Migration in National-Space Hierarchy Over Time (국토공간계층에서 상방 및 하방 이주 흐름 변화 분석)

  • Han, Yicheol
    • Journal of Korean Society of Rural Planning
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.49-56
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    • 2016
  • Throughout the economic development era of Korea, migration occurred within a spatial hierarchy, with upward flows from rural areas to urban. The concept of step migration is a typical theory to explain these upward migration flows. Recent migration data and trends, however, indicate that migration-pattern regime shows strongly opposite-direction flows, with many of the major migration flowing downward on this national-spatial hierarchy, away from urban areas. In this study, we examine the most recent structure of migration flows up and down within the national-spatial hierarchy. We define seven tiers to tabulate origin-destination migration flows from population density of local administrative districts for the period 2001-2014, and then analyze the migration patterns between the tiers over time. The results show differentiated patterns of migration within the national-spatial hierarchy over time including specific states of migrants' life cycles.

Migration Method for Efficient Management of Temporal Data (시간지원 데이터의 효율적인 관리를 위한 이동 방법)

  • Yun, Hong-Won
    • The KIPS Transactions:PartD
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    • v.8D no.6
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    • pp.813-822
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    • 2001
  • In this paper we proposed four data migration methods based on time segmented storage structure including past segment, current segment, and future segment. The migration methods proposed in this paper are the Time Granularity migration method, the LST-GET (Least valid Start Time-Greatest valid End Time) migration method, the AST-AET (Average valid Start Time-Average valid End Time) migration method, and the Min-Overlap migration method. In the each data migration method we define the dividing criterion among segments and entity versions to store on each segment. We measured the response time of queries for the proposed migration methods. When there are no LLTs (Long Lived Tuples), the average response time of AST-AET migration method and LST-GET migration method are smaller than that of Time Granularity migration method. In case of existing LLT, the performance of the LST-GET migration method decreased. The AST-AET migration method resulted in better performance for queries than the Time Granularity migration method and the LST-GET migration method. The Min-Overlap migration method resulted in the almost equal performance for queries compared with the AST-AET migration method, in case of storage utilization more efficient than the AST-AET.

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A Conceptual Analysis of Household Migration Decisions (가구의 이동결정에 관한 개념적고찰)

  • 김헌민
    • Korea journal of population studies
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.26-34
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    • 1991
  • Migration studies that assume that decision making is done on an individual basis is overlooking the importance of the family factor. Considering that must people belong to families, it is more appropriate to view migration decision from the perspective of the family. This study analyzes the household migration decision whereby the alternatives are to stay, 10 undertake family migration or to undertake single migration of a member. In developing a conceptual model of household migration decision, it is assumed that the household's objective is to maximize household income which is a function of individual members' earnings. The benefits and costs of household migration and individual migration are identified and the household chooses the migration strategy that maximizes expected household income. When household members have conflicting earning prospects in the potential destination, the household considers single migration of the member with the best earning potentials. However, lone migration by a household member involves cost of family separation which is both monetary and psychic, and this study shows that lone migration is undertaken only when its net gains to the family are greater than the separation cost of the family. The major benefit of choosing single migration is the retention of home base in the place of origin which can serve as an insurance against the uncertainty of obtaining a job in the destination, the benefit that is unavailable in family migration. The conceptual analysis shows how a household's migration decision would depend on its members' economic roles and prospects in the destination. Besides the economic variables, social and life cycle variables of the family translate into separation costs and benefits of migration. This study indicates that one - earner family in low economic status but with good earning prospects and high separation costs is more likely to choose family migration over single migration.

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Theoretical Initial Modulus of Yarns with Fiber Migration (섬유의 Migration이 실의 역학적 성질에 미치는 영향)

  • 전붕수
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.54-61
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    • 1991
  • The orientation density functions of the fibers in the yarn were newly defined and derived for the four different migration structures, i.e., idealized helical, ideal migration, Treloar's theoretical migration, and conical migration structures. The relative initial moduli of the yarns having the migration structures were calculated and compared with each other at the several surface twist anglect. The initial moduli of the yarn decrease as the decree of migration increases for all migration structures studied.

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Analysis of the Spatio-temporal Migration and Degree Centrality of Migration Network (지역 간 시계열 인구이동의 정량적 특징 분석 및 인구이동 네트워크의 연결중심성 분석)

  • Lee, Sang-Hyun;Oh, Yun-Gyeong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.59 no.5
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    • pp.1-15
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    • 2017
  • In this study, we visualized the regional migration in Korea from 2001 to 2015 using the Chord diagram which can represents amount of migration and flows at the same time. In addition, we constructed a migration network and analyzed the degree centrality of each region for identifying the main regions linking to various regions. In 2001~2005, most of population moved into Geonggi from various regions. However, the capital function was transferred to Sejong in 2011~2015, and population moving into Sejong and Chungnam was increased significantly. The main outflow of population in migration network were shown at the regions in Jeonbuk and Gyeongbuk province in 2001~2004, and recently the regions in Gyeongnam, Gyeonggi, and Seoul were identified as the main nodes in terms of outflow of population. We also focused on migration in rural area through degree centrality, and cord diagram in Chungnam, Jeonbuk, and Jeonnam where include the representative crop area. In 2015. there was the significant increase of migration from Gyeonggi to Chungnam, and internal migration within Jeonbuk increased rather than cross-border migration. In addition, migration from Jeonam to capital area decreased in 2015 but migration among cities within Jeonman increased. In particular, Yesan-gun showed the significant migration to other cities in Jeonnam. Population is necessary to develop community and sustain economic growth in rural regions. Therefore, migration is important for the transfer of manpower. The strength of this study is to approach the temporal change of migration from the viewpoint on quantitative and structural characteristics.

An Analysis of Satisfaction in the Rural Settlement of Returning Farmers (귀농정착자의 정주만족도 분석)

  • Choi, Yoon Ji;Hwang, Jeong Im;Shin, Hyo Yeon
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.321-338
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    • 2014
  • This study was examined the level of satisfaction in rural settlement and analyzed its differences according to various demographic variables and characteristics of urban-rural migration. The analysis was conducted by considering returning farmers residing in rural areas. A statistical analysis was conducted using t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Duncan's multiple-range test with a total of 210 responses. First, satisfaction with the convenience of living facilities varied significantly according to the occupation before urban-rural migration, responses of family members and friends to urban-rural migration, and the initial capital for urban-rural migration. Second, satisfaction with the natural environment varied significantly according to age and reasons for urban-rural migration. Third, satisfaction with the transportation environment varied significantly according to gender, the period of residence after urban-rural migration, and the employment type of the returning farmer. Fourth, satisfaction with neighborliness varied significantly according to parents' occupation, agricultural experience before urban-rural migration, experience in agriculture-related social life before urban-rural migration, reasons for urban-rural migration, the type of urban-rural migration, and the employment type of the returning farmer. Fifth, satisfaction with the agricultural environment varied significantly according to responses of family members and friends to urban-rural migration, the period of residence after urban-rural migration, and reasons for urban-rural migration. Sixth, satisfaction with the housing environment varied significantly according to the residential area, the agricultural experience before urban-rural migration, and the period of residence after urban-rural migration.

Development a Estimate Model of Migration Using Cohort-Survival Model (집단 생잔 모형을 이용한 인구이동모델 개발)

  • Han, Yi-Cheol;Lee, Jeong-Jae;Jung, Nam-Su
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers Conference
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    • pp.456-460
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to develop a estimation model of migration with only population data using the cohort-survival model which has been used for forecasting future population. The fluctuation of population can be bisected to the natural change which can be occurred by birth and death and the social change which means migration. The factors of the social change are usually very important for establishing rural policies. However, researches using migration data has limitations because the usage of them are restricted. For verifying a estimation model of migration, comparing estimated population in 2000 year and migration quantity between 1996 and 2000 of 25 gu with real values, using population data and death ratio from 1995 to 2000 of the 25 gu in Seoul. Result shows a reliable data that R-square of forecating population model is 0.9755 and migration is 0.9180. So these model are worth to estimate a population and migration quantity to restricted migration data.

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A Resource Reduction Scheme with Low Migration Frequency for Virtual Machines on a Cloud Cluster

  • Kim, Changhyeon;Lee, Wonjoo;Jeon, Changho
    • KSII Transactions on Internet and Information Systems (TIIS)
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.1398-1417
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    • 2013
  • A method is proposed to reduce excess resources from a virtual machine(VM) while avoiding subsequent migrations for a computer cluster that provides cloud service. The proposed scheme cuts down on the resources of a VM based on the probability that migration may occur after a reduction. First, it finds a VM that can be scaled down by analyzing the history of the resource usage. Then, the migration probability is calculated as a function of the VM resource usage trend and the trend error. Finally, the amount of resources needed to eliminate from an underutilized VM is determined such that the migration probability after the resource reduction is less than or equal to an acceptable migration probability. The acceptable migration probability, to be set by the cloud service provider, is a criterion to assign a weight to the resource reduction either to prevent VM migrations or to enhance VM utilization. The results of simulation show that the proposed scheme lowers migration frequency by 31.6~60.8% depending on the consistency of resource demand while losing VM utilization by 9.1~21.5% compared to other known approaches, such as the static and the prediction-based methods. It is also verified that the proposed scheme extends the elapsed time before the first occurrence of migration after resource reduction 1.1~2.3-fold. In addition, changes in migration frequency and VM utilization are analyzed with varying acceptable migration probabilities and the consistency of resource demand patterns. It is expected that the analysis results can help service providers choose a right value of the acceptable migration probability under various environments having different migration costs and operational costs.