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A Study on the School Milk Program among Elementary, Middle and High School Students in Korea (전국 초.중.고등학생의 학교우유급식 실태조사)

  • 정인경;권성욱
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.71-81
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out in order to facilitate the consumption of milk which tend to decrease in recent years and to improve the school milk program. The survey by means of prepared questionnaire was conducted to investigate a perception and satisfaction of school milk program, and milk intake at home and school with elementary, middle, and high school students. Most of the subjects thought drinking milk is important for their health but only 50.2% of them were actually drinking milk everyday. In particular, the frequency of consuming milk at home was significantly lower in students being provided with school milk program than the students without school milk program. Most of the students commonly drunk plain milk rather than flavored milk, however actually they preferred flavored milk to plain milk. The frequency of consuming milk and the degree of satisfaction for milk being served in the school milk program was lowered. The major reason of disliking milk being served in school milk program was ‘poor taste’. And to promote milk consumption in school milk program, the subjects anticipated the serving of various milk and dairy products, flavored milk and yogurt etc. Thus, it was suggested that to improve the school milk program and promote milk consumption among the students, serving various products that can satisfy their preferences and demands and the proper food guide and education on nutrition are called for.

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Milk and Dairy Intake and Acceptability in Fifth- and Sixth-graders in Hwaseong, Korea (초등학생의 우유와 유제품 섭취와 기호도 -경기도 화성시 일부 초등학생 5~6학년 대상으로)

  • Rhie, Seung Gyo;Lee, Eun Kyoung
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.499-509
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    • 2015
  • Efforts to have children consume milk continue across the world for the sufficient supply of calcium and protein. This study examines the frequency and amount of dairy milk and the recognition, acceptability, and knowledge of milk and dairy products by considering fifth- and sixth-graders in Hwaseong, Korea. The acceptability of milk and dairy products measured based on a five-point Likert-type scale was assessed to determine its correlations with breakfast frequency, the frequency of milk intake, and milk knowledge. According to descriptive statistics, 47% and 53% of the subjects were fifth- and sixth-graders, respectively, 53% and 47% were male and female, respectively, 45.3% and 51.2% had mothers in their thirties and forties, respectively, and 57% had working mothers. Breakfast frequency was 5.2 and 5.3 times per week, and milk and dairy intake was 4.6 times. The milk knowledge score was 5.3 out of 10 points. The average daily intake of milk was a cup (55.1%), and a vast majority preferred white milk (68.6%). Ice cream bar type (4.49 points) and cone type (4.48 points) showed the highest acceptability, and breakfast frequency was positively correlated with white milk and cheddar cheese (p<0.01). Daily milk intake frequency was positively correlated with white milk and fortified milk. Milk knowledge was positively correlation with white milk, fortified milk, functional yogurt (p <0.05), fermented milk, and cheese (p<0.01). The higher the breakfast frequency, the more likely the intake of white milk (p<0.01). An increase in milk intake increased milk knowledge (p<0.05). The higher the level of knowledge, the more likely the intake of fortified milk and the frequency of milk intake. These results suggest that school lunch milk may increase awareness and milk intake through continuing education in milk knowledge. High acceptability scores for white milk, fortified milk, and fermented milk indicate their suitability for school milk consumption.

A Study on Knowledges and Attitudes about Breast Milk Feeding and Needs for Breast Milk Feeding Education among High School Students (고교생의 모유영양 지식과 태도 및 모유수유 영양교육 요구)

  • Choi Kyung-Suk;Lee Hee-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.191-204
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the experiences of breast milk feeding information and education, breast milk feeding knowledge and attitude and needs for breast milk feeding nutrition education of high school students to encourage breast milk feeding. The subjects were 565 (male: 250, female: 315) high school students from first to third grade. The results obtained were as follows: In this survey, only 30.0% of subjects experienced breast milk feeding information and only 6.1% of subjects had breast milk feeding education. And the subjects showed the average scores of knowledge of breast milk feeding were 0.29 points of 1 point. Subjects knew well about ingredients of breast milk but they didn't know well about the physiology and method of breast milk feeding and benefits of breast milk feeding for mothers. The average scores of attitude of breast milk feeding were 3.03 points of 4 points, showed slight positive attitudes of breast milk feeding, but they had negative attitudes of emotional and practical aspects. The future plan of feeding practices was breast milk feeding 35.9% and 60.0% of formula milk feeding. A concern was that the students showed high ratio of formula milk feeding plan and they decided by incorrect knowledge of breast milk feeding. The 33.5% of students answered high school students will need breast milk feeding nutrition education, and they thought hospital faculties were the proper educators of breast milk feeding education, but dietitians were recomended as educators because of easy access at school and good knowledge of life-cycle nutrition. Therefore, to encourage breast milk feeding by mothers and supporters of breast milk feeding, breast milk feeding nutrition education is needed urgently among high school male and female students. And nutrition education programs will have to contain benefits of breast milk for babies and mothers and physiology and practical methods of breast milk feeding to improve emotional and practical attitudes for breast milk feeding. Nationwide campaign to promote breast milk feeding at public areas will be needed.

Quantitative Detection of Cow Milk in Goat Milk Mixtures by Real-Time PCR

  • Jung, Yu-Kyung;Jhon, Deok-Young;Kim, Kang-Hwa;Hong, Youn-Ho
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.827-833
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    • 2011
  • The objective of this study was to develop a fluorogenic real-time PCR-based assay for detecting and quantifying amounts of cow milk in cow/goat milk mixtures or goat milk products. In order to quantify the exact amount of cow milk in cow/goat raw milk mixtures and commercial goat milk products, it was necessary to achieve quantitative extraction of total genomic DNA from the raw milk matrix. Both mammalian-specific PCR and cow-specific PCR were performed. A cow-specific 252 bp band obtained from the raw cow milk and raw goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified, along with the relationship between the cow milk amount and band intensity of the electrophoresis image. The detection threshold was found to be 0.1%. The expression of cow's 12S rRNA in the cow/goat milk mixtures, commercial goat milk, and two goat milk powders was identified. The expression quantity of the milk 12S rRNA increased with increasing ratios of the cow/goat milk mixtures. Using these calibrated relative expression levels as a standard curve in the cow/goat raw milk mixtures, the contents of cow milk were 1.8% in the commercial goat milk, 9.6% in goat milk powder A, and 11.6% in goat milk powder C. However, cow milk was not detected in goat milk powder B.

Study on Nutrition Knowledge, Perception, and Intake Frequency of Milk and Milk Products among Middle School Students in Chuncheon Area (춘천지역 중학교 학생들의 우유와 유제품에 관한 영양지식·인식 및 섭취빈도 조사)

  • Han, Ji Min;Min, Sung Hee;Lee, Min June
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.205-212
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutrition knowledge, perception, and intake frequency of milk and milk products among middle school students as well as provide the basic data needed for increasing milk and milk product consumption. To achieve the purpose of this study, a survey with 385 students of four middle schools located in Chuncheon was conducted. The level of nutrition knowledge of milk and milk products in females was slightly higher than that in males (p<0.01). Flavored milk and ice cream were preferred the most in each category, and 'taste' influenced the selection of milk and milk products the most. The intake frequency of whole milk was the highest, and that of flavored milk was lowest among various milks. Ice cream showed the highest intake frequency while cheese showed the lowest among milk products. Male students showed higher intake frequency of milk and milk products. Groups having high level of nutrition knowledge showed the highest intake of whole milk, whereas groups having a low level of nutrition knowledge preferred processed milk, low fat or non-fat milk, and cheese the lowest.

Characteristics of Goat Milk and Current Utilizing Trends in Korea (산양유의 특성 및 국내 이용 현황)

  • Im, Yeong-Sun;Gwak, Hae-Su;Lee, Si-Gyeong
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2006
  • Goat milk is digested better than cow milk, because the fat globules in goat milk are smaller and the protein is similar to human milk, and assimilated easily. Goat milk is particularly rich in taurine (4.7mg/100mL) and retinol (40mg/100mL). Therefore, it might be recommened to heal dyspepsia and infants allergy by cow milk. However, during winter, supply of goat milk products are unsteady in Korea, because unbalance of demand and supply is resulted from seasonal breeding. Dairy industry for goat milk will be able to grow much more, if goat milk products can keep steady supply without changing by season. This review includes the physicochemical characteristics of goat milk, domestic production of goat milk, domestic goat milk products and future development.

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Effects of Commercial Soy Milk and Cow Milk on Iron Status and Work Capacity of Rats (시판 두유 및 우유가 흰쥐의 체내 철분 영양상태와 운동능력에 미치는 영향)

  • 이윤복
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.8
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    • pp.904-910
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    • 1997
  • Evaluation of soy milk as an iron-rich milk substitute was conducted by feeding commercial soy milk , cow milk and mixed formula(soy and cow milk) to Wistar rats for 8 weeks. Body weight gains were significantly lower in the soy milk and mixed formula groups. Hematocrit, serum iron concentration and TIBC (total iron binding capacity) were measured to determine the iron status of the rats. In these respects, the iron status of the soy milk group was normal. Both serum iron concentration and TIBC as well as hematocrit were abnormal in the cow milk group , which is indictive of severe iron deficiency . Although hematocrit was normal in the mixed formula group, serum iron concentration was lightly low. The work capacities of each group were correlated with serum iron concentration and tIBC rather than hematocrit. The running distance of the soy milk group was about 10 -fold longer than that of the cow milk group. Soy milk may be considered an iron- rich substitute for cow milk due to its higher iron content and bioavailability.

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Lysozyme Activity in Buffalo Milk: Effect of Lactation Period, Parity, Mastitis, Season in India, pH and Milk Processing Heat Treatment

  • Priyadarshini, Subhadra;Kansal, Vinod K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.895-899
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    • 2002
  • Lysozyme activity in buffalo milk in relation to the period of lactation, parity of animal, weather conditions and udder infections was studied. Effect of storage and heat processing of milk on lysozyme activity was determined. Lysozyme activity was higher in buffalo milk than in cow milk. Buffalo colostrum showed lysozyme activity 5 times of that in mature milk. Lysozyme activity in buffalo milk was not influenced by the parity of animal and the stage of lactation, however, it increased during extreme whether conditions (winter and summer). Lysozyme in both cow and buffalo milk exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.4. Buffalo milk lysozyme was fully stable while the cow milk lysozyme was partly inactivated by pasteurization (low temperature-long time as well as high temperature-short time treatments). Lysozyme in buffalo milk was more stable than in cow milk during storage and heat treatment. A 10 to 50-fold increase in milk lysozyme activity was observed in mastitic cows. An assay of lysozyme activity in milk can be used to diagnose mastitis in cattle but not in buffaloes. Some buffaloes exhibited 1000 fold greater lysozyme activity and moderately raised somatic cell count in milk, but there was no sign of mastitis in these animals. A possible role of milk lysozyme in prevention of mastitis in buffaloes is discussed.

Investigation of Goats' Milk Adulteration with Cows' Milk by PCR

  • Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang;Chen, Su-Der;Weng, Ching-Feng
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.10
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    • pp.1503-1507
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    • 2006
  • Goats' milk adulteration with cows' milk is becoming a big problem. In the past, the urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay with different motility of ${\alpha}S1$-casein has been applied for the identification of cows' milk adulteration. The detection sensitivity is 1.0%. The aim of this study was to develop a faster and more sensitive method to detect cows' milk which may be present in adulterated goats' milk and goats' milk powder. The published primer was targeted at highly conserved regions in bovine mitochondrial DNA (a 271 bp amplicon). This amplicon was cloned and sequenced to further confirm bovine specific sequence. The chelex-100 was used to separate bovine somatic cells from goats' milk or goats' milk powder samples. Random sampling of different brands of goats' milk powder and tablets from various regions of Taiwan showed the adulterated rate was 20 out of 80 (25%) in goats' milk powders and 12 out of 24 (50%) in goats' milk tablets. With this system, as low as 0.1% cows' milk or cows' milk powder in goat milk or goat milk powder could be identified. This chelex DNA isolation approach provides a fast, highly reproducible and sensitive method for detecting the adulteration of goats' milk products.

The Value of Milk and Korean Dietary Life (우유의 진가와 한국인의 식생활)

  • Kim, Sook-He;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • Journal of Dairy Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.16-31
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    • 1999
  • Milk and milk products, especially the cow's milk and cheese, have been used since the ancient time. Because they contains almost all kinds of nutrients that are necessary for human beings except for iron, n-3 fatty acid, and vitamin C. Milk is an excellent dietary source of protein, calcium and phosphorus. The biological value of milk protein is as high as those of red meat and eggs. So cheese, a food processed from concentrated milk protein, is highly recommended food for the patient of diabetes mellitus. Because the major form of milk lipids is n-6 fatty acid, milk and milk products may not be a good food for the patients of cardiovascular disease. But the nutritional quality of milk lipids cannot be inferior to those of margarine, fish oil, and vegetable oil. Milk has been produced commercially since 1936 in Korea. The most popular milk product is a drink milk now in Korea. But according to the change of dietary pattern the consumption of yoghurt and cheese has been enormously increased during the last 20 years. As the soy sauce, tofu, and soy been paste have been the fundamental seasoning and source of protein in Korea, milk and cheese have consisted the essential flavor of western cuisine. But the basic idea for the usage of protein, peptides, and amino acids are the same. We found that milk and milk products can be nicely added in many Korean dishes such as Juk, Mandoo, Jeon, and Bindeatuk for the diversity of traditional flavor.

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