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Progesterone assays as an aid for improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle I. Use of milk progesterone profiles in the confirmation of estrus detection and early pregnancy diagnosis (Progesterone 농도측정(濃度測定)에 의한 유우(乳牛)의 번식효율증진(繁殖效率增進)에 관한 연구(硏究) I. 유즙(乳汁)중 progesterone 농도측정(濃度測定)에 의한 발정확인(發情確認) 및 조기임신진단(早期姙娠診斷))

  • Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun;Choi, Sang-gong;Son, Chang-ho
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 1994
  • Milk progesterone concentrations were measured in 111 dairy cows for confirming the estrus observation and for the early pregnancy diagnosis. Of the 56 cows inseminated, 52 cows(92.8%) were an ovulatory estrus, 2 cows(3.6%) were an unovulatory estrus, and 2 cows(3.6%) were the error of estrus observation, respectively. Milk progesterone concentrations at 21 and 24 days after artificial insemination were significantly higher in 23 pregnant cows compared with those in 5 non-pregnant cows(P<0.05). The accuracy rate for early pregnancy diagnosis in 27 cows achieved when the discriminatory concentration at 21 days after artificial insemination was placed at 2.0 ng/ml skim milk, was 91.3% for positive diagnosis and 100% for negative diagnosis, respectively. These results indicated that milk progesterone determination at 0, 6 and 21 days after artificial insemination can be utilized for confirming the estrus observation and for early pregnancy diagnosis. In conclusion, milk progesterone determination is useful diagnostic tool for monitoring the reproductive performance.

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PLASMA AND MILK PROGESTERONE CONCENTRATIONS AND EARLY PREGNANCY IN ZEBU COWS

  • Alam, M.G.S.;Ghosh, A.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.131-136
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    • 1994
  • In an effort to confirm true oestrus and to detect early pregnancy in Zebu cows (Bos indicus), sequential blood and milk samples were collected at the day of imsemination (Day 0) and days 14, 20 and 24 after insemination. Progesterone was determined in skimmed milk and plasma by solid phase radioimmunoassay (RIA). Of the cows thought to be in oestrus plasma, (n = 46) and milk (n = 58) samples demonstrated low progesterone concentrations ($0.99{\pm}0.11$ and $2.02{\pm}0.14nmol/l$) in 42 (91%) and 52 (90%) cases respectively. Thirty two (76%) and 30 (71%) cows were thought to be pregnant by plasma progesterone RIA ($20.23{\pm}1.03$ and $20.48{\pm}1.01nmol/l$) at days 20 and 24 respectively. At the same period, 40 (77%) and 37 (71%) cows were thought to be pregnant by milk progesterone RIA ($27.82{\pm}1.28$and $28.02{\pm}1.27nmol/l$). Assuming 100% accuracy for rectal examination of pregnancy diagnosis between days 60-65 postservice, the RIA was found to be 84% and 90% accurate for plasma and 84% and 92% accurate for milk at day 20 and 24, respectively. All cows thought to be non pregnant by progesterone measurement were correctly diagnosed. Progesterone assay at 24 days after oestrus may therefore be accurate for early diagnosis of pregnancy in Zebu cows.

Progesterone assays as an aid for improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle III. Milk progesterone profiles in repeat-breeder dairy cows (Progesterone 농도측정(濃度測定)에 의한 유우(乳牛)의 번식효율증진(繁殖效率增進)에 관한 연구(硏究) III. 저수태우(低受胎牛)에서 유즙(乳汁)중 progesterone 농도변화(濃度變化))

  • Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun;Choi, Sang-gong;Son, Chang-ho;Chon, Hong-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.189-193
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    • 1994
  • This study was undertaken to clarify the relationship between the cause of repeat-breeder and the luteal dysfunction in repeat-breeder dairy cows that failed to conceive to three or more artificial insemination(AI) at a regular interval. Progesterone concentrations were measured in milk fat for 20 to 22 days after AI. From the 15 repeat-breeder dairy cows, six cows had a normal progesterone profiles. Five cows showed a delayed rise of the progesterone concentrations until 7 to 10 days after AI, two cows had a comparatively low concentration of milk progesterone below 150 ng/ml through most of the luteal phase, and two cows had a combined pattern of a delayed rise and a low concentration of milk progesterone during luteal phase. It is suggest that luteal dysfunction as indicated by progesterone profiles is one of the causes of repeat-breeder in dairy cows.

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A study on the concentrations of milk progesterone in dairy cattle with ovarian reproductive disorders (젖소의 난소질환별 Milk Progesterone 수준에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Jung-yun;Lee, Byeong-han;Kang, Young-sun;Kim, Jin-young;Yook, Soon-hak;Choi, Soek-hwa;Kim, Jong-bae;Yoon, Hwa-joong;Chung, Byung-hyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.159-167
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    • 1995
  • The relationship between palpable ovarian structure and milk progesterone levels were determined in 144 dairy cows. Depending on the ovarian structure and diseases were divided into two groups, Group I (absence of functional luteal tissue in ovary and <2ng/ml in milk progesterone levels) and Group II(presence of functional luteal tissue in ovary and ${\geq}2ng/ml$ in milk progesterone levels) 1. Among 69 cows of group I, dysfunction of ovary, atropy of ovary, follicle is ovary, follicular cyst and corpus luteum albicans were 17(11.8%), 19(13.2%), 14(9.7%), 3(2.1%) and 16 cows(11.1%), and among 75 cows of group II, corpus luteum A, B and C were 16(11.1%), 17(11.8%) and 42 cows(29.2%), respectively. 2. In Group I, milk progesterone concentrations were <1ng/ml in 55 cows(79.9%). Conversely in Ggroup II, milk progesterone concentrations were ${\geq}4ng/ml$ in 55 cows(73.3%). 3. The mean(${\pm}SE$) concentrations of milk progestsrone in the Group I and II were $1.62{\pm}0.45$ and $7.64{\pm}0.68ng/ml$, respectively, and CR test showed the difference in milk progesterone concentrations between the two groups to be statistically significant(p<0.01). 4. The mean(${\pm}SE$) concentration of milk progesterone in cows with corpus luteum A, B and C were $8.11{\pm}1.83$, $8.48{\pm}1.30$ and $7.12{\pm}0.82ng/ml$, respectively, there was no significant relationship between palpable corpora luteum structure and milk progesterone concentration. 5. The accuracy of ovarian diagnosis was 82.6 and 20.2% in the Group I and II, respectively, and Chi-square test showed the difference in accuracy between the two groups to be statistically significant (p<0.001). 6. The agreement between the rectal palpation and milk progesterone concentrations in ovarian disease was 50%.

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Relationship between corpus luteum size as determined by ultrasonography and milk progesterone concentration during the estrous cycle in dairy cows (젖소에서 발정주기중 초음파 진단장치로 측정된 황체의 크기와 progesterone 농도와의 관계)

  • Son, Chang-ho;Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.4
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    • pp.833-841
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    • 1995
  • Ultrasonography was used to measure the corpus luteum area for determining the relationships between corpus luteum size and milk progesterone concentration during the estrous cycle in 16 dairy cows. Cows were classified retrospectively into cows that had corpus luteum with(n=P) and without(n=7) cavity. Ultrasound examination and collection of milk samples for progesterone assay were performed with 2 day intervals from Days 0 to 12, and then daily from Day 14 to the day of the next ovulation. The means for corpus luteum area and for milk progesterone concentration during the estrous cycle were not significantly different between cows that had corpus luteum with and without cavity. The correlation coefficients between corpus luteum area and milk progesterone concentration during luteal development (Days 2 to 8) were 0.71(p<0.0001) and 0.74(p<0.0001) for corpus luteum with and without cavity, respectively, during luteal regression(Days -6 to 0 relative to the next ovulation) 0.73(p<0.0001) and 0.76(p<0.0001), respectively. The correlation coefficients combined fur both stages of estrous cycle and both luteal statuses were 0.70(p<0.0001). These results indicate that corpus luteum area is significantly correlated to milk progesterone concentration, and ultrasonographic assessment of the corpus luteum is a reliable method fur estimating peripheral progesterone concentrations during the estrous cycle in cows.

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Establishment for Improving Productivity of Cattle by Fecal Steroid and Milk Urea Nitrogen Analysis - I. Development of Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay for Progesterone and Milk Urea Nitrogen Analysis in Cattle

  • Chung-Boo Kang;Woo-Song Ha;Ji-In Kwon;Young-Sang Yu;Chul-Ho Kim;Soo-Dong Kwak
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.235-244
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    • 2002
  • This study was carried out to determine the blood and milk progesterone by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) in cows. MUN and protein concentration were determined using automated infared procedures. The optimum conditions of ELISA system was investigated including the first and second antibody titres, bound percent, and enzyme conjugate and also the factors on MUN and protein concentration by sampling procedures and addition of preservatives. Progesterone antibodies did not react to pregnenlone, testosterone, estrone, estradiol-l7$\beta$, aldosterone, cortisol, corticosterone and 11$\alpha$-dehydroxycortisone (DOC), but reacted with only progesterone. The intra and inter-assay coefficient of variation 4.5%, 6.1~9.4% when used of bovine serum. The morning, MUN concentration (17.6$\pm$2.8 mg/100 ml) in the 13 herds was similar to that of evening MUN concentration of the lactating cows from the same herd. A significant relationship between morning and evening milk samples of upper parameters was found r=0.93. Difference in MUN concentration with sampling procedures and using of preservatives were investigated.

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Studies on the Pregnancy Diagnosis from Monoclonal Antigen of Progesterone (Progesterone Monoclonal Antigen에 의한 임신진단에 관한 연구)

  • ;Ono Hitoshi
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.132-138
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    • 1987
  • This study was carried out to evaluate the ability of clinical application of pregnancy diagnosis based upon the determinatin of progesterone in milk, utilizing a chymosin inhibitor labelled with progesterone and monoclonal antibody to progesterone, and its compared with progesterone concentrations in the milk were assayed by radioimmunoassay. 1. The progesterone concentration of the pregnant cows (2.07$\pm$0.54ng/ml) were significantly higher than those of non-pregnant cows (1.04$\pm$0.19 ng/ml), and thereafter began to increase and maintained high levels. 2. During 20 to 22 days after artificial insemination, the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis from monoclonal antigen of progesterone were 92.9% for non-pregnant cows, and 88.5% for pregnant cows. 3. During 20 to 22 days after artificial inseminatin, the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis from milk progesterone concentrations were 92.9% for non-pregnant cows(<3.4ng/ml), and 92.3% for pregnant cows( 4.0ng/ml). The average overall accuracy of pregnancy prediction for pregnant and non-pregnant cows were 92.6%. 4. Accordingly, the pregnancy diagnosis from monoclonal antigen of progesterone is thought to be recommendable because this early diagnostic means are simple with accurate result.

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Measurement of Progesterone in Plasma and Milk by RIA and CIA (RIA 및 CIA에 의한 혈장과 우유내 Progesterone 측정)

  • 이경찬
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.57-65
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    • 1990
  • These experiment were carried out ; (1) to investigate the changes of progesterone in plasma, whole milk and skim milk during oestrus cycle and pregnancy and ; (20) to evaluate a chemiluminescence Immunoassay(CIA) as an alternative method by measuring the progesterone concentration is skim milk by RIA and CIA. The results obtained in these experiments were summerized as follows ; 1. Plasma progesterone levels in non-pregnant Holstein during oestrus cycle were relatively low until day 8 after oestrus. And then, the progesterone level began to increase and reached a peak with 6.3ng/ml on day 14 and then declined repidly to 1.5ng/ml and 2.2ng/ml on day 18 and 20, respectively. 2. Whole milk progesterone level in pregnant Holstein increased from 1.0ng/ml on oestrus to 16.0ng/ml on day 8 and then remained from 11.0ng/ml on day 10 to 22.0ng/ml on day 22. 3. In non-pregnant Holstein, whole milk pregesterone lev디 was 1.5ng/ml on oestrus and began to increase rapidly from day 6 after oestrus and exhibited a ranged of levels, 17.8~20.0ng/ml from day 6 to day 16 after oestrus. 4. Skim milk progesterone levels in pregnant Holstein were a range of 130~490pg/ml at the time of estrus and began to increase continually till then showing constant levels ranging from 1300pg/ml on day 10 to 1650pg/ml on day 22. 5. In non-pregnant Holstein, skim milk progesterone level was 160pg/ml on oestrus and began to increase from 190pg/ml on day 2 after oestrus to day 8 and then keep constant levels ran ging from 1050 to 1300pg/ml from day 8 to day 16 and then decreased to 240~450pg/ml from day 18 to day 22 after oestrus. 6. The results obtained from CIA for the analysis of skim milk progesterone were in good agreement with the values derived by RIA.(r=0.914)

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Studies on use of milk progesterone EIA-kit for diagnosis of reproductive disorders and non-pregnancy in dairy cows (젖소의 번식장애 및 비임신진단을 위한 Milk Progesterone 측정 EIA-kit의 이용에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Byung-hyun;Lee, Byeong-han;Kang, Young-sun;Kim, Jin-young;Nam, Hyoung-young;Lee, Kang-yeol;Hwang, Yoon-sik;Yang, Kwang-hun;Chung, Kil-saeng
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.169-177
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    • 1995
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect, range of practice, and propriety for diagnosis of early non-pregnancies and reproductive disorders by dairy cows' milk progesterone analysis used EIA-kit of home products. The results were summarized as follows : 1. During 2 to 6 months after artificial insemination, the results of milk progesterone measurement by Home-kit and Auto ELISA reader-kit with pregnant dairy cows(152 heads) certified by rectal palpation were revealed, in Home-kit, 145 heads(95.4%) of positive reaction, 7 heads(4.6%) of quasi-positive, and 0 heads(0%) of negative among 152 heads and, in Auto ELISA reader-kit, 152 heads(100%) of positive reaction among 152 heads. 2. During 19 to 22 days after artificial insemination, the results of milk progesterone measurement by Home-kit, and thereafrer during 50 to 90 days after that, the results of pregnant test by rectal palpation were summarized as follows : 147 heads(82.1%) among 179 heads of positive reaction by Home-kit and 5 heads(31.3%) among 16 heads of quasi-positive were revealed pregnant cows by rectal palpation, and 42 heads(100%) among 42 heads of negative were non-pregnant. 3. During 19 to 22 days after artificial insemination, the results of milk progesterone measurement by Auto ELISA reader-kit, and thereafrer during 50 to 90 days after that, the results of pregnant test by rectal palpation were summarized as follows : 146 heads(86.9%) among 168 heads of positive reaction by Auto ELISA reader-kit and 6 heads(28.6%) among 21 heads of quasi-positive were revealed pregnant cows by rectal palpation, and 48 heads (100%) among 48 heads of negative were non-pregnant. 4. For the accuracy of the rectal palpation, Home-kit and Auto ELISA reader-kit were used in the cows of ovarian diseases. The results were following : in the cows of reproductive disorders expected negative milk progesterone, the accuracies of rectal palpation were the same 75.5%(40 heads among 53 heads) by Home-kit and Auto ELISA reader-kit, and in the cows of reproductive disorders expected positive milk progesterone, the accuracies of rectal palpation were 82.6%(19 heads among 23 heads) and 91.3%(21 heads among 23 heads) by Home-kit and Auto ELISA reader-kit, respectively, and the general accuracies of rectal palpation were 77.6%(59 heads among 76 heads) and 80.3%(61 heads among 76 heads) by Home-kit and Auto ELISA reader-kit, respectively.

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Progesterone assays as an aid for improving reproductive efficiency in dairy cattle II. Use of plasma or milk progesterone profiles for differential diagnosis of ovarian cysts (Progesterone 농도측정(濃度測定)에 의한 유우(乳牛)의 번식효율증진(繁殖效率增進)에 관한 연구(硏究) II. 혈액(血液) 및 유즙(乳汁)중 progesterone 농도측정(濃度測定)에 의한 난소낭종(卵巢囊腫)의 감별진단(鑑別診斷))

  • Kang, Byong-kyu;Choi, Han-sun;Choi, Sang-gong;Son, Chang-ho;Chon, Hong-suk
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.181-188
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    • 1994
  • In 60 dairy cows with inactive ovaries, follicular cyst, luteal cyst, persistent corpus luteum and silent heat as diagnosed by rectal palpation, and those that had not resumed ovarian cycles until 60 days postpartum, progesterone concentrations for differential diagnosis of reproductive disorders were measured and were compared in matched plasma, skim milk and milk fat samples at 10 days interval. The incidence rate of reproductive disorders were as follows; inactive ovaries 20(33.3%), silent heat 11(18.3%), follicular cyst 7(11.7%), luteal cyst 7(11.7%), persistent corpus luteum 7(11.7%), pyometra 4(6.7%), vaginitis 2(3.3%), cystic corpus luteum 1(1.7%), and endometritis 1(1.7%), respectively. Cows having a progesterone concentration in plasma and skim milk < 1.0 ng/ml, and in milk fat < 80.0 ng/ml were considered to have inactive ovaries or follicular cyst. Those with concentrations in plasma and skim milk ${\geq}1.0ng/ml$, and in milk fat ${\geq}80.0ng/ml$ were regarded as the cases of luteal cyst or persistent corpus luteum. Progesterone concentrations in above cows did not differ significantly between the time of initial determination and the 10 days after initial determination. But progesterone concentrations in cows with silent heat did differ significantly between the time of initial determination and the 10 days after initial determination(P<0.05). The accuracy of rectal palpation for making a differential diagnosis of ovarian dysfunction, as defined on basis of progesterone concentrations, were as follows; follicular cyst 55.6%, luteal cyst 50.0%, inactive ovaries 90.5% and persistent corpus luteum 60.0%, respectively. It may be concluded that progesterone determinations at 10 days interval is practical as an aid to diagnosing ovarian dysfunction, particularly follicular cyst and luteal cyst.

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