• Title, Summary, Keyword: milling corn

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The Effect of Corn Bran as a Fiber Source on the Utilization of Thiamin Niacin and Pantothenic Acid in Humans (옥수수겨가 티아민, 나이아신, 판토텐산의 생체이용율에 미치는 영향)

  • Yu, Bog-Hieu;Kies, Constance
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.450-460
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    • 1992
  • The study was performed to investigate the effect of corn bran as a fiber source on the utilization of thiamin niacin and pantothenic acid in human subjects for 8 weeks. Four different corn bran diets were fed : dry milled fine(DF) dry milled coarse(DC) wet milled fine(WF) and wet milled coarse(WC) Basal diet no corn bran bread added was employed as a control Apparent recovery of each B complex vitamin in urine was estimated to evaluate the vitamin and compared. The utilziation of three B vitamins was affected by the corn bran treatment. Dry milled corn bran had a higher recovery rate of thiamin(dry milled : 233% wet milled : 1.70%) than those receiving wet milled corn bran. Similar recovery pattern of niacin(dry milled : 1.94% wet milled : 1.50%) to that of thiamin was also observed. Particle size seemed to affect the vitamin utilization regardless of type of corn bran. Coarse bran gave a lower recovery value than fine corn bran in genreral. For pantothenic acid the recovery of the vitamin was affected to a greater extent by particle size of corn bran than by type of corn bran milling(fine: 60.22% coarse : 51.51%) Groups consuming wet milled corn bran\ulcorner(5`.57%) excreted more NDF than those fed dry milled corn bran(42.29%) Dry milled corn bran showed little or no water holding capacity poor fecal bulking properties and increased fecal transit time. The results suggest that corn bran supplementation exerts an negative effect on three B vitamin utilization.

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Influence of Replacing Corn Grain by Enzose (Corn Dextrose) on Nutrient Utilization, Thyroid Hormones, Plasma Metabolites, and Weight Gain in Growing Lambs

  • Shahzad, M. Aasif;Nisa, M.;Sarwar, M.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.24 no.7
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    • pp.946-951
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    • 2011
  • The study was conducted to evaluate enzose (corn dextrose), a corn milling byproduct, as substitute for corn grain as energy in growing lambs. Five iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated. The control diet (E0) had no enzose whereas enzose replaced 20, 40, 60 and 80% corn grain in E20, E40, E60 and E80 diets on the basis of energy supply, respectively. Fifty growing lambs were divided into 5 groups, 10 animals in each, in a randomized complete block design. Nutrients (dry matter, crude protein, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fibre) intake and digestibilities increased with gradual replacement of corn grain by enzose. Lambs fed E80 diet also retained higher nitrogen (N) than those fed E0 diet. Plasma glucose, $T_3$ and $T_4$ increased while urea N decreased in lambs receiving higher enzose content. Maximum weight gain was recorded in lambs fed diets containing maximum concentration of E as a replacement for corn grains. A better feed conversion ratio was recorded in lambs fed E80 compared with those fed E0 diet. The study suggests that enzose can be used as an economical feed ingredient to replace corn grain upto 80%, without any adverse effects on growth performance of growing lambs.

A Novel saccharification method of uncooked concentrated corn starch using an agitated bead reaction system (분쇄마찰매체 함유 반응계를 이용한 무증자 Corn starch의 고농도 당화와 당화액의 조성에 관한 연구)

  • 이용현;조구형
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.399-405
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    • 1986
  • Corn starch was saccharified without cooking in an agitated bead reaction system. Uncooked corn starch was effectively hydrolyzed even at the concentration as high as 39%(w/v). After 24 hours. the extent of saccharification reached at 92%, which corresponds glucose concentration of 425g/L. Fed-batch feeding of starch was more effective than batch feeding for saccharification of uncooked corn starch. The composition of hydrolysated of uncooked starch was analyzed. which was composed of 95% glucose, 0.7% of maltose, and 4.5% of high saccharide, similar with that of cooked starch. The hydrolysate can be successfully utilized for HFCS manufacture. The starch liquefying and saccharifying enzyme was relatively stable even be the physical impact of the attrition-milling media. The enzyme stabilizer, $Ca^{++}$, played an essential role in preventing the enzyme deactivation caused by the physical impact.

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Comparison on Physicochemical and Cooking Properties of Milled Kernel in Waxy Corn Hybrids (찰옥수수쌀의 품종별 이화학특성 및 취반특성)

  • Lee, Yu Young;Lee, Choon-Ki;Lee, Jin-Suk;Kim, Mi-Jung;Kim, Sun-Lim;Kim, Yul-Ho;Park, Hyang Mi;Kim, Wook-Han;Kwon, Young-Up;Kim, Sung Kook
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.4
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    • pp.424-431
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    • 2013
  • Consumption of waxy corn is steadily increasing due to consumer preference for natural food. However, availability of waxy corn is limited because most of them are used for steamed waxy corn. It is therefore important to create new demands of waxy corn using food processing technology. There is little prior research about characteristics of milled kernel in waxy corn. This study examined the physicochemical and cooking properties of milled kernel using nine waxy corn hybrids. Colored hybrids (Heukjinju, Miheukchal, and Eolrukchal1) showed high milling yield and low change of grain length after milling process compared to other hybrids. The total starch content ranged from 62.1 to 68.4% and the gelatinization temperature of starch was lowest in Yeonnong1 ($69.9^{\circ}C$). The breakdown viscosity of Yeonnong1, Miheukchal and Heukjinju was higher than those of tested hybrids, whereas setback viscosity of those hybrids was lower. In cooking properties of milled waxy corn, water absorption and volume expansion rate were high in Yeonnong2 (84.9, 219.3%), Miheukchal (85.9, 211.4%), and Heukjinju (80.9, 203.7%). In the sensory test, the overall preference was significantly higher in Heukjinju and Miheukchal. Thus, Heukjinju, Yeonnong2, and Miheukchal showed good scores in milling yield, cooking properties, and the preference of sensory test. These results will provide fundamental information to extend milled waxy corns usage.

Evaluation of Operational Conditions and Power Consumption of a Bioattritor for Enzymatic Saccharification of Uncooked Starch (무증자 전분당화용 분쇄마찰매체 함유 효소반응기의 조작조건과 동력소모의 검토)

  • 이용현;박진서
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.349-357
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    • 1989
  • Uncooked starch can be effectively saccharified in an enzyme reaction system containing attrition-milling media. To develope the high efficiency bioattritor, an agitated bead type bioreactor was constructed, and its effectiveness was evaluated. The optimal operation condition of bioattritor was found to be 300 g glass bead/L, 200 rpm, standard type impeller for 220 g/L of uncooked corn starch. The torque under the various operational conditions were also measured. The interrelation-ship between energy consumption for agitation of attrition-milling media and enhanced extent of saccharification of uncooked starch was evaluated, Power consumption was measured to be around 1.53 watt/L under the optimal operation condition. The attrition coupled enzyme reaction system is identified to tie a very excellent energy saying process for saccharification of uncooked starch, and seems to have a bright prospect of industrial application.

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Current Status and Prospect of Qauality Evaluation in Maize (옥수수의 품질평가 현황과 전망)

  • 김선림;문현귀;류용환
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.47
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    • pp.107-123
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    • 2002
  • This paper is intented to present a information of various aspects of quality related characteristics and standards for grades in maize. Maize is world's one of the three most popular cereal crops and a primary energy supplement and can contribute up to 30, 60, and 98% of the dairy diet's protein, net energy, and starch, respectively. Maize is also processed into industrial goods by wet or dry milling. Sweet corn is a leader among vegetable crops and its production for fresh or processing markets is a major industry in many countries. Over the years, the combined efforts of breeders and geneticists, biochemists, food scientists, and others have helped bring us to the point where we understand issues related to sweet corn quality. Traditional criteria for selecting corn hybrids have been based primarily on agronomic factors, including grain production, disease resistance, drought tolerance, and storage characteristics. Little emphasis has been placed on the quality and nutritional values of corn. Although there is widespread interest for value-enhanced corns have increased tremendously in the last five years, there is limited information available on the production and comparing the quality attributes of specialty grains with those of normal yellow dent corn. Most countries have developed national maize standards, aiming to provide a framework for trade, both internal and external. Where trading involves direct choice and price negotiation in front of the commodity, grading standards are rarely employed; quality is assessed visually and is influenced by end-use, and the price is determined more by local rather than national factors. The use of an agreed standard will provide an unambiguous description of the quality of the consignment and assist in the formation of a legally-binding contract. Standards can also be seen to protect consumers rights through setting limits to the amount of unsuitable or noxious material.

The Nutritive Values and Manufacture of Total Mixed Fermentation Feeds using Green Forage Crops and RiCE-straw (청예 사료작물과 볏짚을 이용한 완전배합발효사료의 제조와 영양적가치)

  • Lee, H.J.;Cho, K.K.;Kim, W.H.;Kim, Hyeon-Seop;Kim, J.S.;Hang, S.H.;Woo, J.H.;Lee, H.G.;Choi, Y.J.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.75-86
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    • 2002
  • Adequate forage amounts in ruminant animal are necessary for proper ruminal function in dairy cow. This study was carried out to determine the effect of total mixed fermentation feeds made by different green forage crops and grain processings on chemical compositions, RFV (relative feed value) and ruminal characteristics in sheep. The experiment was arranged in a split plot design with 4 replications. The main plot consisted of 6 kinds of green forages (corn, grass, rye, rape, alfalfa and oat) and the sub plots three different grain processings such as non-milling, half milling (7mm mesh over), and regular milling (7mm mesh below). And the different TMFFs (total mixed fermentation feeds) were analyzed for chemical composition and fed to 8 ruminally fistulated sheep for ruminal charactics and palatability. RFV, daily feed intake, acetate/propionate ratio of the rape-TMFFs were higher compared with the other treatment. Ruminal content of VFA (volatile fatty acid) of corn-TMFF was highest as 90.19 mmol% and pH of the feed was lowest as 3.82. But, acetic acid, propionic acid and butyric acid were no difference among treatments. In conclusion, the effect of grain proceeding was not appeared but if consider of only RFV, palatability and dry matter disappearance, grade of TMFF was improved in order of rape-, corn-, alfalfa-, grass-, oat- and rye-TMFF.

Effects of Korean Leek and Dietary Fat on Plasma Lipids and Platelet Aggregation in Hypercholesteroloemic Rats (부추와 식이지방이 고지혈증 흰쥐의 혈액성상 및 혈소판 응집에 미치는 영향)

  • 홍서아
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.374-385
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of Korea leek on plasm lipids and platelet aggregation in hypercholesterolemic rats fed different dietary fat. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with hyperlipidemic diet for 4 weeks in order to induce hyperlipidemia, followed by the feeding of experimental diets for additonal 4 weeks. We used three kinds of lipid(perilla oil, corn oil and lard). Korean leek of experimental diets was prepared by drying and milling. Powdered Cellulose and powdered Korean leek were added to experimental diets at the level of 5% (w/w). Serum concentrations of total lipid, total triglyceride, total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol decreased in the order of perilla oil, corn oil and lard. Korean leek significantly decreased total lipid, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, platelet count, prothrombin time, and platelet aggregation in rats fed a lard diet. The present observation indicates that Korean leek might be helpful for the prevention and threapy of hyperlipidemia and platelet aggregation.

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Incidence and Predictors of Hand-Arm Musculoskeletal Complaints among Vibration-exposed African Cassava and Corn Millers

  • Mbutshu, Lukuke Hendrick;Malonga, Kaj Francoise;Ngatu, Nlandu Roger;Kanbara, Sakiko;Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin;Suganuma, Narufumi
    • Safety and Health at Work
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.131-135
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    • 2014
  • Background: Cassava and corn milling is a growing small-scale enterprise in Africa. We aimed to determine the incidence of hand-arm musculoskeletal complaints among vibration-exposed Congolese cassava and corn millers in the previous 12 months. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted, prior to a follow-up study, from March to May 2013 among cassava/corn millers in Lubumbashi, Democratic Republic of Congo, in which 365 millers age-matched to 365 civil workers anonymously answered a questionnaire. Results: Overall incidence of hand-arm musculoskeletal complaints was 25.8% in millers (vs. 5.2% in civil workers; p < 0.001). The risk of experiencing musculoskeletal symptoms was seven times higher in millers [vs. civil workers; odds ratio (OR) = 7.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 4.03-12.50; p < 0.0001]; 2.4 times higher in smoking millers (vs. smoking civil office workers; OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.42-3.88; p < 0.001); 3.6 times higher in millers with longer daily exposure (> 8 hours; vs. those working ${\leq}8$ hours; OR = 3.56; 95% CI: 1.93-3.61; p = 0.026); and 7.4 times higher in young millers (vs. older millers, OR = 7.39; 95% CI: 1.29-75.52; p < 0.001). Smoking, number of cigarettes, and daily exposure duration were positively correlated with musculoskeletal complaints. Conclusion: This study revealed a relatively high incidence of musculoskeletal complaints among African cassava and corn millers. The use of anti-vibration protective equipment and the regulation of this hazardous occupation may reduce the burden of musculoskeletal disorders in millers.

Studies on the production of Starch of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (보리(Hordeum vulgare L.)의 전분생산에 관한 연구)

  • 서호찬
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.185-190
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    • 1999
  • In order to develop the techniques for isolation and production of barley starch from Youngsan variety, optimum conditions of isolation processes of barley starch was investigated. The effect of steeping temperature and time in wet-milling process was examined and the results showed that optimal steeping temperature and time were 30$^{\circ}C$ and 12 hr. The barley starch isolated under these conditions contained 5.7% crude protein, 69% starch content and 83% white value by 100 mesh process. The optimum condition of alkali treatment was showed that concentration of NaOH and treating time were 0.2% and 6 hr, respectively. To remove the fat content of barley starch, after alkali process obtained barley starch with the addition of 10% (v/v) EtOH was attempted. As the result, the barley starch contained 0.1% of crude fat. Under the optimized isolation conditions, the barley starch finally contained 0.1% protein and 95% starch content. The isolated barley starch were superior to commercial corn starch in purity and white value.

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