• Title, Summary, Keyword: milling degree

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The Effect of Milling on the Nutrients of Raw and Parboiled Rices (파보일미(parboiled rice)의 이화학적 특성 1. 추청벼 파보일미의 도정 및 영양특성)

  • 양미옥;조은자
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.51-57
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    • 1995
  • The effect of milling on the nutrients of raw and parboiled rice grain samples was investigated. Parboiling treatments of choo chung paddy decreased head rice yields and pressure parboiling proved to be more beneficial in reducing white belly rice. Except PP sample mean length/width ratio of parboiled milled rice kernels(8% milling degree) were more larger than raw milled rice and the extent depended on severity of parboil heat treatment. Parboiling had no effect on the protein content of browm rice(0% milling degree) but increased in 4%, 8% milling degree and in PL40 sample. Parboiled rice had a lower fat and the extent depended on degree of milling. Ash content of parboiled brown rice decreasd compared to raw brown rice and generally decreased according to milling degrees were high. Nevertheless, PP, PT40 and PL40 parboiled milled rice samples(0% milling degree) contained more ash than raw milled rice. Parboiling increased total sugar and reducing sugar and increased according to milling degrees were high. Parboiled rice had a high reducing sugar content than raw rice except for PT sample, and more contained as higher milling degree. Total amino acid content of parboiled brown rice increased compared to raw brown rice except for PL40 sample. Parboiled rice of 4% milling degree had a lower total amino acid content and then 8% milling degree had a higher than raw rice. Ca content of parboiled rice was lower than raw rice and tended to have lower as milling degree were high. Parboiled rice of 0 and 4% milling degree had a lower Fe content degree but higher in 8% milling degree. PP and PT40 samples contained more Fe than any other parboiled rice. Parboiled milled rice contained more thiamin than raw milled rice. Rice of milling degree 6% and PL sample contained most thiamin.

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Modeling of Milling Degree for Milled Rice using NMG Dying and Image Processing (NMG 염색법과 화상처리를 이용한 도정도 모델링)

  • Yoon, D.H.;Kim, O.W.;Kim, H.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.524-528
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    • 2006
  • This study was performed to develop experimental model for milling degree and whiteness from analysis the CBB (colored bran balance) index using NMG dying and image processing. The endosperm layer increased and the pericarp, aleurone layer and CBB index decreased as the milling degree and whiteness increased. So, CBB index was closely linked to milling degree and whiteness. A empirical CBB index model was developed according to the milling degree and whiteness. The model were found to fit adequately to all test data with a coefficient of determination of 0.99, and therefore the CBB model proved to be quite applicable.

Discrimination of Rice Volatile Compounds under Different Milling Degrees and Storage Time Using an Electronic Nose (전자코를 이용한 도정 및 저장에 따른 쌀의 휘발성분 패턴 판별)

  • Han, Hyun Jung;Dong, Hyemin;Noh, Bong Soo
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.2
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    • pp.187-191
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to analyze the volatile compounds in rice under various milling degrees using a mass spectrometry-based electronic nose and discriminant function analysis (DFA). Less volatile components were more frequently found in rice with a lower milling degree. Milling degree resulted in a shift of DF1 to the left side of the DFA plot. This indicated that the DF1 scores were correlated with the milling degree of rice. Brown rice was found to have more volatile components regardless of the milling degree. Thus, rice prepared at different milling degrees could be effectively discriminated with electronic nose analysis. Moreover, more volatile components were detected with an increase in storage time. A slight change in volatile components was found with an increase in the milling degree. The electronic nose could predict the milling degree and storage time of rice.

Determination of Whiteness Condition for Efficient Milling in Rice Processing Complex (RPC에서 효율적인 도정을 위한 백도조건 결정)

  • Kim O. W.;Kim H.;Kim D. C.;Kim S. S.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.242-248
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    • 2005
  • There was no useful milling standard to produce high quality milled rice efficiently and adequately in Rice Processing Complex. Therefore, the whiteness of milled rice produced Rice Processing Complexes were different according to Rice Processing Complexes and milling periods at the same Rice Processing Complex. This research was carried out to contribute the production and distribution of high quality milled rice through determination of whiteness condition of milled rice as a milling stndard based on degree of bran removal using New $May-Gr\ddot{u}wald$ reagent dyeing method and taste of cooked rice. The optimum whiteness value of milled rice for efficient milling in Rice Processing Complex was found to be from 40 to 41, while the degree of milling was from $8.9\%\;to\;9.2\%.$ At this whiteness condition, the first derivative of whiteness value according to degree of milling was higher than the average value from brown rice to well milled rice, and the broken kernel ratio was from $3.0\%\;to\;3.4\%.$ This whiteness condition ($40\~41$) could be considered as a milling condition in Rice Processing Complex.

Effect of degree of milling on the chemical composition of rice oil

  • Ha, Tae-Youl;Ko, Soon-Nam;Lee, Sun-Mi;Chung, Soo-Hyun;Kim, Hakryul;Kim, In-Hwan
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.226.2-227
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    • 2003
  • The degree of milling is an important factor in terms of the nutritional value and the economic return of the milled rice. This study was to investigate the changes in compositions of the oils obtained from rice with different degree of milling. The content of total tocols in rice significantly (p<0.05) decreased, as degree of milling increased. The relative % of -tocopherol in brown rice had lower than those in milled rices whereas the relative % of -tocotrienol, and -tocotrienol in brown rice higher than those in milled rices. -Oryzanol content significantly (P<0.05) decreased from 198.5 mg/kg rice for brown rice (0% milling) to 65.5 125.0 mg/kg rice for rice samples with 5.6, 8.0, and 9.6 % milling. -Sitosterol was most abundant sterol representing 50 % - 56% of the total sterol content in all analyzed samples. The content of total sterol as well as each sterol isomers in rice significantly (P<0.05) decreased, as degree of milling increased. A similar trend was observed in changes of octacosanol and squalene.

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Effect of Milling Degree on the Physicochemical and Sensory Quality of Sogokju (도정도에 따른 소곡주의 품질 및 기호도 변이)

  • Chun, A-Reum;Kim, Dae-Jung;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Oh, Sea-Kwan;Choi, Im-Soo;Hong, Ha-Cheol;Kim, Yeon-Gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.136-142
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    • 2012
  • Sogokju, a Korean glutinous rice wine and one of the oldest Korean traditional wines, is famous for its unique taste acquired from a 100-day incomplete fermentation process. This study investigated the effects of the degree of rice milling on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of Sogokju. It evaluated the physicochemical characteristics, pasting and color properties, and structural properties of starch using four different degrees of milled rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar Dongjinchalbyeo. Samples of brown rice with milling yields of 92%, 84%, 76%, and 68% were produced using both abrasive and friction whiteners. This study showed that the protein, lipid, and ash content of milled rice decreased as the degree of milling increased. The lower hardness of the kernel below milling yield 92% suggested that milling may be related to the lower protein content of the kernel. The pasting curve showed a significant increase in viscosity properties as the degree of milling increased. This is due to the decrease in protein and lipid content, the increase in starch content, and the difference in amylopectin chain-length distribution. Further milling of white rice, based on 92% milling yield, had an effect on the amylopectin chain-length distribution due to the degree of polymerization (DPn) of 37~60. The long chain of amylopectin also contributed to the viscosity. The increase in the degree of milling decreased the glucose and total sugar content of Sogokju. However, it increased the total acidity of Sogokju. Moreover, the lightness of Sogokju decreased while its yellowness increased. These results indicate that the degree of milling can alter the taste and color of Sogokju. The sensory evaluation showed that the increase in the degree of milling decreased consumer preference for Sogokju. The sensory score for Sogokju was positively correlated with its brix degree, glucose content, pH, and protein content of raw rice.

Effects of Different Cultivars and Milling Degrees on Quality Characteristics of Barley Makgeolli (보리의 품종 및 도정률이 막걸리의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Hye-Young;Choi, Induck;Oh, Sea Kwan;Woo, Koan Sik;Yoon, Soon Duck;Kim, Hyun-Joo;Sim, Eun-Yeong;Jeong, Seok Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.12
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    • pp.1839-1846
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cultivar and milling degree of barley on quality characteristics of Makgeolli as well as compare differences between barley Makgeolli and rice Makgeolli. Saessal-bori groups (Ss-4, Ss-12, and Ss-18) showed dry lees contents of 92.3 g, 69.4 g, and 63.8 g, respectively, whereas Huinchalssal-bori groups (Hcs-6, Hcs-14, and Hcs-20) showed contents of 62.3 g, 42.2 g, and 32.2 g. There were significant differences in quality characteristics between milling degrees and cultivars (P<0.05). The moisture, ash, crude protein, and crude fat contents of raw materials decreased with elevated milling degree. Especially, ash content of raw materials had a direct effect on Makgeolli. The pH, total acidity, and amino acidity milling with elevated decreased degree. There were no differences in total sugar or alcohol content in Makgeolli according to milling degree of barley, whereas there were significant differences between cultivars. Barley Makgeolli showed total sugar and alcohol contents of $10.7{\sim}11.8^{\circ}Brix$ and 14.07~15.07%, respectively, which were significantly lower than $12.0{\sim}12.2^{\circ}Brix$ and 17.27~17.77% in rice Makgeolli (P<0.05). Differences in colors of raw barley according to milling degree had effects on chromaticity of Makgeolli; as milling degree increased, L and b values increased. Lactic acid bacteria counts were 7.21, 6.99, and 6.67 log CFU/mL in Ss-4, Ss-12, and Ss-18, respectively, as well as 6.14, 5.39, and 5.65 log CFU/mL in Hcs-6, Hcs-14, and Hcs-20, which suggests significant reductions with increased milling degree (P<0.05). The same trend was observed in yeast as a key quality of Makgeolli. Suspension stability differed depending on milling degree, so it is expected that suspension stability can be improved by adjusting milling degree.

Varietal Difference of Eating Quality on Different Milling Degree in Japonica Rice (쌀 도정도에 따른 식미의 품종간 차이)

  • Lee, Jeom-Sig;Won, Yong-Jae;Cho, Jun-Hyeon;Lee, Jong-Hee;Park, Hyang-Mee;Lee, Jeong-Heui;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Kwak, Jieun;Chun, Areum
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.1
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    • pp.47-53
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    • 2014
  • Varietal difference of eating quality by milling degree was investigated for total nine rice varieties comprised of three varieties each as excellent, good, and normal according to sensory evaluation results of cooked rice. Nine varieties were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and for the sensory evaluation according to five different degree of milling(5.5~13.5% based on brown rice). Overall score obtained through sensory evaluation was found the best in the milling degree at 9.5% and 11.5%. The overall score by rice variety was categorized into type A that showed high score at milling degree 9.5%, type B at milling degree 11.5%, and similar type C at both milling degrees 9.5% and 11.5%. The best eating quality was observed in Ilmibyeo and Koshihikari having overall eating quality excellent at milling degree 9.5% and in Chucheongbyeo and Dongjinbyeo having overall eating quality good at milling degree 11.5%. While, Palgongbyeo and Nonghobyeo having eating quality normal showed the best eating quality at milling degree 9.5% and 11.5%. Correlation analysis between overall score and physicochemical properties and five sensory evaluation items by three types of rice showed that Mg content and stickiness of type A, protein content and taste of type B, and K content and appearance of type C were highly significant correlation on overall score by panel test. Therefore, Mg contents might have affected on the stickiness of cooked rice in type A, protein contents on the taste in type B, and K contents on the appearance in type C, respectively.

Milling Characteristics of Milled Rice According to Milling Ratio of Friction and Abrasive Milling (마찰과 연삭 도정배분에 의한 쌀의 도정특성)

  • Kim, Hoon;Kim, Dong-Chul;Lee, Se-Eun;Kim, Oui-Woung
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.439-445
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to investigate the optimum abrasive and friction milling ratio. This was accomplished by determining changes in the quality, such as whiteness, moisture content, broken kernel, unstripped embryo rate, and surface characteristics or milling difference, during an abrasive and friction based milling process. When only abrasive was milled, the increase of whiteness was fast in the first milling, whereas the increasing rate of whiteness was small in the latter milling. The decreasing rate of moisture content and broken kernel increased as the friction milling ratio was increased. Combining with the friction milling was considered a suitable method because the unstripped embryo rate was high only when abrasive milling was used. In the case of a high abrasive milling ratio, a significant milling difference was observed in the initial milling. This indicated that the milling difference was not completely eliminated despite using friction milling in the latter milling. Consequently, it was necessary to minimize the milling difference in the initial milling. When milling quality was synthetically considered, the abrasive milling ratio was varied from 20~50%. When the abrasive milling ratio was greater than 40%, the external quality of the rice milled deteriorated since holes and defects generated on the surface in the initial milling were not removed. Due to this deterioration in surface characteristics, an abrasive milling ratio of 30% was identified as a suitable level.

Optimum Milling Degree for Improving Sensory Quality of Cooked Rice (식미 증진을 위한 최적 도정도 구명)

  • Lee, Jeom-Sig;Park, No-Bong;Lee, Jong-Hee;Cho, Jun-Hyeon;Won, Yong-Jae;Park, Hyang-Mee;Chun, A-Reum;Jang, Jae-Ki;Gwak, Do-Yeon;Song, Yu-Cheon;Hwa, Woon-Gu;Yi, Gi-Hwan;Yeo, Un-Sang
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.359-364
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    • 2012
  • We conducted this study to identify the optimal milling degree for improving sensory quality of cooked rice and minimizing yield loss. The samples were analyzed for their physicochemical properties and sensory qualities using five different degree of milling(5.5~13.5%, based on brown rice). With increasing of milling degree, amylose content, breakdown, adhesiveness of cooked rice increased, whereas protein content, Mg/K equivalence ratio, fat content, setback and hardness of cooked rice decreased. In sensory quality test, the preference was significantly higher in the 9.5% and 11.5% milling degree. However, considering the yield of milled rice, the optimal milling degree for improving sensory quality of cooked rice was 9.5%.