• Title, Summary, Keyword: milling method

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Milling Characteristics of Milled Rice According to Milling Ratio of Friction and Abrasive Milling (마찰과 연삭 도정배분에 의한 쌀의 도정특성)

  • Kim, Hoon;Kim, Dong-Chul;Lee, Se-Eun;Kim, Oui-Woung
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.439-445
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to investigate the optimum abrasive and friction milling ratio. This was accomplished by determining changes in the quality, such as whiteness, moisture content, broken kernel, unstripped embryo rate, and surface characteristics or milling difference, during an abrasive and friction based milling process. When only abrasive was milled, the increase of whiteness was fast in the first milling, whereas the increasing rate of whiteness was small in the latter milling. The decreasing rate of moisture content and broken kernel increased as the friction milling ratio was increased. Combining with the friction milling was considered a suitable method because the unstripped embryo rate was high only when abrasive milling was used. In the case of a high abrasive milling ratio, a significant milling difference was observed in the initial milling. This indicated that the milling difference was not completely eliminated despite using friction milling in the latter milling. Consequently, it was necessary to minimize the milling difference in the initial milling. When milling quality was synthetically considered, the abrasive milling ratio was varied from 20~50%. When the abrasive milling ratio was greater than 40%, the external quality of the rice milled deteriorated since holes and defects generated on the surface in the initial milling were not removed. Due to this deterioration in surface characteristics, an abrasive milling ratio of 30% was identified as a suitable level.

Comparative clinical study of the marginal discrepancy of fixed dental prosthesis fabricated by the milling-sintering method using a presintered alloy

  • Kim, Mijoo;Kim, Jaewon;Mai, Hang-Nga;Kwon, Tae-Yub;Choi, Yong-Do;Lee, Cheong-Hee;Lee, Du-Hyeong
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.280-285
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    • 2019
  • PURPOSE. The present study was designed to examine the clinical fit of fixed dental prosthesis fabricated by the milling-sintering method using a presintered cobalt-chromium alloy. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Two single metal-ceramic crowns were fabricated via milling-sintering method and casting method in each of the twelve consecutive patients who required an implant-supported fixed prosthesis. In the milling-sintering method, the prosthetic coping was designed in computer software, and the design was converted to a non-precious alloy coping using milling and post-sintering process. In the casting method, the conventional manual fabrication process was applied. The absolute marginal discrepancy of the prostheses was evaluated intraorally using the triple-scan technique. Statistical analysis was conducted using Mann-Whitney U test (${\alpha}=.05$). RESULTS. Eight patients (66.7%) showed a lower marginal discrepancy of the prostheses made using the milling-sintering method than that of the prosthesis made by the casting method. Statistically, the misfit of the prosthesis fabricated using the milling-sintering method was not significantly different from that fabricated using the casting method (P=.782). There was no tendency between the amount of marginal discrepancy and the measurement point. CONCLUSION. The overall marginal fit of prosthesis fabricated by milling-sintering using a presintered alloy was comparable to that of the prosthesis fabricated by the conventional casting method in clinical use.

Accuracy evaluation of dental models manufactured by CAD/CAM milling method and 3D printing method

  • Jeong, Yoo-Geum;Lee, Wan-Sun;Lee, Kyu-Bok
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.245-251
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    • 2018
  • PURPOSE. To evaluate the accuracy of a model made using the computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) milling method and 3D printing method and to confirm its applicability as a work model for dental prosthesis production. MATERIALS AND METHODS. First, a natural tooth model (ANA-4, Frasaco, Germany) was scanned using an oral scanner. The obtained scan data were then used as a CAD reference model (CRM), to produce a total of 10 models each, either using the milling method or the 3D printing method. The 20 models were then scanned using a desktop scanner and the CAD test model was formed. The accuracy of the two groups was compared using dedicated software to calculate the root mean square (RMS) value after superimposing CRM and CAD test model (CTM). RESULTS. The RMS value ($152{\pm}52{\mu}m$) of the model manufactured by the milling method was significantly higher than the RMS value ($52{\pm}9{\mu}m$) of the model produced by the 3D printing method. CONCLUSION. The accuracy of the 3D printing method is superior to that of the milling method, but at present, both methods are limited in their application as a work model for prosthesis manufacture.

Cutting Condition Selection for Geometrical Accuracy Improvement in End Milling (엔드밀 가공에서 형상 정밀도 향상을 위한 절삭 조건 선정)

  • 류시형;최덕기;주종남
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.1784-1788
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    • 2003
  • For the improvement of geometrical accuracy in end milling, cutting method and cutting condition selection are investigated in this paper. As machining processes are composed of several steps such as roughing, semi-finishing. and finishing, cutting forces and tool deflection are calculated considering surface shape generated by the previous cutting. The effects of tool teeth numbers, tool geometry, and cutting conditions on the form error are analyzed. Using the from error prediction method from tool deflection, cutting condition for geometrical accuracy improvement is discussed. The characteristics and the difference of generated surface shape in up and down milling are dealt with and over-cut free condition in up milling is presented. The form error reduction method by alternating up and down milling is also suggested. The effectiveness of the presented method is examined from a set of cutting tests under various cutting conditions. This research contributes to cutting process optimization for the geometrical accuracy improvement in die and mold manufacture.

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Multi-axis Milling for Micro-texturing

  • Kobayashi, Yoshikazu;Shirai, Kenji
    • International Journal of Precision Engineering and Manufacturing
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.34-38
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    • 2008
  • The surface texture of a product is generally produced by etching or sandblasting. However, these techniques have problems related to repeatability and environmental pollution. Since current milling machines can produce small parts at the micrometer or nanometer level, the resolution of milling exceeds the manufactured dimensions of the surface texture produced by etching or sand-blasting. A method for generating surface texture by milling is proposed and demonstrated. The proposed method was demonstrated by actual milling using a three- or five-axis control machine, and the machined surface texture was measured with an interferometer to allow comparison with the designed shape. The measurement results demonstrate that the proposed method can generate a wide-area surface texture with good machining repeatability.

Determination of Whiteness Condition for Efficient Milling in Rice Processing Complex (RPC에서 효율적인 도정을 위한 백도조건 결정)

  • Kim O. W.;Kim H.;Kim D. C.;Kim S. S.
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.242-248
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    • 2005
  • There was no useful milling standard to produce high quality milled rice efficiently and adequately in Rice Processing Complex. Therefore, the whiteness of milled rice produced Rice Processing Complexes were different according to Rice Processing Complexes and milling periods at the same Rice Processing Complex. This research was carried out to contribute the production and distribution of high quality milled rice through determination of whiteness condition of milled rice as a milling stndard based on degree of bran removal using New $May-Gr\ddot{u}wald$ reagent dyeing method and taste of cooked rice. The optimum whiteness value of milled rice for efficient milling in Rice Processing Complex was found to be from 40 to 41, while the degree of milling was from $8.9\%\;to\;9.2\%.$ At this whiteness condition, the first derivative of whiteness value according to degree of milling was higher than the average value from brown rice to well milled rice, and the broken kernel ratio was from $3.0\%\;to\;3.4\%.$ This whiteness condition ($40\~41$) could be considered as a milling condition in Rice Processing Complex.

The Manufacturing Technique of Metal Rapid Products by the Milling Process (절삭가공에 의한 금속 쾌속 시작품 제작기술)

  • 신보성;최두선;이응숙;이동주;이종현
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
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    • pp.759-762
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    • 2000
  • In order to reduce lead-time and cost, recently the technology of Rapid Prototyping and Manufacturing (PR/M) has been used widely. So various RP/M methods have been developed and these systems commercialized several years ago. But we have carried out rapid product, such as sphere, by the milling process instead of RP system. in the case of sphere with three-dimensional shape. the machining method using conventional milling machine has resulted in some troubles because of its deformation and lack of stiffness which is due to usual work piece set up method. In this paper, the feasibility of milling process which is divided into two steps such as the-upper-and-1ower-face milling process using supporting material were investigated and suggested.

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Evaluation of internal fit of interim crown fabricated with CAD/CAM milling and 3D printing system

  • Lee, Wan-Sun;Lee, Du-Hyeong;Lee, Kyu-Bok
    • The Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.265-270
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    • 2017
  • PURPOSE. This study is to evaluate the internal fit of the crown manufactured by CAD/CAM milling method and 3D printing method. MATERIALS AND METHODS. The master model was fabricated with stainless steel by using CNC machine and the work model was created from the vinyl-polysiloxane impression. After scanning the working model, the design software is used to design the crown. The saved STL file is used on the CAD/CAM milling method and two types of 3D printing method to produce 10 interim crowns per group. Internal discrepancy measurement uses the silicon replica method and the measured data are analyzed with One-way ANOVA to verify the statistic significance. RESULTS. The discrepancy means (standard deviation) of the 3 groups are $171.6\;(97.4){\mu}m$ for the crown manufactured by the milling system and 149.1 (65.9) and $91.1\;(36.4){\mu}m$, respectively, for the crowns manufactured with the two types of 3D printing system. There was a statistically significant difference and the 3D printing system group showed more outstanding value than the milling system group. CONCLUSION. The marginal and internal fit of the interim restoration has more outstanding 3D printing method than the CAD/CAM milling method. Therefore, the 3D printing method is considered as applicable for not only the interim restoration production, but also in the dental prosthesis production with a higher level of completion.

Synthesis of Nano-Sized Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ Phosphors Prepared by High Energy Beads Milling Process and Their Luminescence Properties

  • Song, Hee-Jo;Kim, Dong-Hoe;Park, Jong-Hoon;Han, Byung-Suh;Hong, Kug-Sun
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.386-386
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    • 2012
  • For white light emitting diode (LED) applications, it has been reported that Y3Al5O12:Ce3+ (YAG:Ce) in nano-sized phosphor performs better than it does in micro-sized particles. This is because nano-sized YAG:Ce can reduce internal light scattering when coated onto a blue LED surface. Recently, there have been many reports on the synthesis of nano-sized YAG particles using bottom-up method, such as co-precipitation method, sol-gel process, hydrothermal method, solvothermal method, and glycothermal method. However, there has been no report using top-down method. Top-down method has advantages than bottom-up method, such as large scale production and easy control of doping concentration and particle size. Therefore, in this study, nano-sized YAG:Ce phosphors were synthesized by a high energy beads milling process with varying beads size, milling time and milling steps. The beads milling process was performed by Laboratory Mill MINICER with ZrO2 beads. The phase identity and morphology of nano-sized YAG:Ce were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), respectively. By controlling beads size, milling time and milling steps, we synthesized a size-tunable and uniform nano-sized YAG:Ce phosphors which average diameters were 100, 85 and 40 nm, respectively. After milling, there was no impurity and all of the peaks were in good agreement with YAG (JCPDS No. 33-0040). Luminescence and quantum efficiency (QE) of nano-sized YAG:Ce phosphors were measured by fluorescence spectrometer and QE measuring instrument, respectively. The synthesized YAG:Ce absorbed light efficiently in the visible region of 400-500 nm, and showed single broadband emission peaked at 550 nm with 50% of QE. As a result, by considering above results, high energy beads milling process could be a facile and reproducible synthesis method for nano-sized YAG:Ce phosphors.

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The Effect of Milling Conditions on Microstructure and Phase Transformation Behavior of Ti-Ni Based Alloy Powders (Ti-Ni계 합금분말의 미세조직 및 상변태거동에 미치는 밀링조건의 영향)

  • 강상호;남태현
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.42-49
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    • 2001
  • Ti-50Ni(at%) and Ti-40Ni-10Cu(at%) alloy powders have been fabricated by ball milling method, and their microstructure and phase transformation behavior were investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive spectrometry, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractions and transmission electron microscopy. In order to investigate the effect of ball milling conditions on transformation behavior, ball milling speed and time were varied. Ti-50Ni alloy powders fabricated with the milling speed more than 250 rpm were amorphous, while those done with the milling speed of 100rpm were crystalline. In contrast to Ti-50Ni alloy powders, Ti-40Ni-10Cu alloy powders were crystalline, irrespective of ball milling conditions. DSC peaks corresponding to martensitic transformation were almost discernable in alloy powders fabricated with the milling speed more than 250 rpm, while those were seen clearly in alloy powders fabricated with the milling speed of 100 rpm. This was attributed to the fact that a strain energy introduced during ball milling suppressed martensitic transformation.

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