• Title, Summary, Keyword: minimal reduction.

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ON CERTAIN GRADED RINGS WITH MINIMAL MULTIPLICITY

  • Kim, Mee-Kyoung
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.887-893
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    • 1996
  • Let (R,m) be a Cohen-Macaulay local ring with an infinite residue field and let $J = (a_1, \cdots, a_l)$ be a minimal reduction of an equimultiple ideal I of R. In this paper we shall prove that the following conditions are equivalent: (1) $I^2 = JI$. (2) $gr_I(R)/mgr_I(R)$ is Cohen-Macaulay with minimal multiplicity at its maximal homogeneous ideal N. (3) $N^2 = (a'_1, \cdots, a'_l)N$, where $a'_i$ denotes the images of $a_i$ in I/mI for $i = 1, \cdots, l$.

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A Study on Minimal Characteristics of Korean Traditional Architecture (한국전통건축에서 나타나는 미니멀리즘적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 배준현;권성진
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • no.25
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    • pp.169-175
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    • 2000
  • Since the late 19th Century, modern architecture of definite figure and form shared similar concepts on space and from with the abstract art, pursuing the geometric purity and the abstraction. So the reductive approach had been taken in modern architecture as well as on modern art. The 1960 minimal art had experimented an extreme reduction with the cubic forms and the plane canvases, embodying so called minimal-art content, it was just another version of modernism art interpreted by the extreme reduction. The reduction is a characteristics of modernism adopted in every art field, including architecture. Not from the apparent, but from the essential quality of architectural form, figure and space resulting from the reductive approach, a building in this trend schould be judged and appreciated. In many aspects, Korean traditional architecture has been shown the characteristics of Minimal Architecture. With these points of view, this study analyzes characteristics of Korean traditional architecture with above contents through the form and space.

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ON THE FIRST GENERALIZED HILBERT COEFFICIENT AND DEPTH OF ASSOCIATED GRADED RINGS

  • Mafi, Amir;Naderi, Dler
    • Bulletin of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.407-417
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    • 2020
  • Let (R, m) be a d-dimensional Cohen-Macaulay local ring with infinite residue field. Let I be an ideal of R that has analytic spread ℓ(I) = d, satisfies the Gd condition, the weak Artin-Nagata property AN-d-2 and m is not an associated prime of R/I. In this paper, we show that if j1(I) = λ(I/J) + λ[R/(Jd-1 :RI+(Jd-2 :RI+I):R m)] + 1, then I has almost minimal j-multiplicity, G(I) is Cohen-Macaulay and rJ(I) is at most 2, where J = (x1, , xd) is a general minimal reduction of I and Ji = (x1, , xi). In addition, the last theorem is in the spirit of a result of Sally who has studied the depth of associated graded rings and minimal reductions for m-primary ideals.

Development and Implementation of Measures for Structural and Reliability Importance by Using Minimal Cut Sets and Minimal Path Sets (최소절단집합과 최소경로집합을 이용한 구조 및 신뢰성 중요도 척도의 개발 및 적용)

  • Choi, Sung-Woon
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management & Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 2012
  • The research discusses interrelationship of structural and reliability importance measures which used in the probabilistic safety assessment. The most frequently used component importance measures, such as Birnbaum's Importance (BI), Risk Reduction (RR), Risk Reduction Worth (RRW), RA (Risk Achievement), Risk Achievement Worth (RAW), Fussel Vesely (FV) and Critically Importance (CI) can be derived from two structure importance measures that are developed based on the size and the number of Minimal Path Set (MPS) and Minimal Cut Set (MCS). In order to show an effectiveness of importance measures which is developed in this paper, the three representative functional structures, such as series-parallel, k out of n and bridge are used to compare with Birnbaum's Importance measure. In addition, the study presents the implementation examples of Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) metrics and alternating renewal process models with exponential distribution to calculate the availability and unavailability of component facility for improving system performances. System state structure functions in terms of component states can be converted into the system availability (unavailability) functions by substituting the component reliabilities (unavailabilities) for the component states. The applicable examples are presented in order to help the understanding of practitioners.

REDUCTIONS OF IDEALS IN COMMUTATIVE NOETHERIAN SEMI-LOCAL RINGS

  • Song, Yeong-Moo;Kim, Se-Gyeong
    • Communications of the Korean Mathematical Society
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.539-546
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this paper is to show that the Noetherian semi-local property of the underlying ring enables us to develope a setisfactory concep of the theory of reduction of ideals in a commutative Noetherian ring.

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Prevention of Cheek Drooping in Intraoral Reduction Malarplasty without Internal Fixation (볼처짐 최소화를 위한 최소절개 및 박리 관골 축소 성형술)

  • Park, Dong-Kwon;Choi, Jae-Hoon;Lee, Jin-Hyo;You, Young-June
    • Archives of Plastic Surgery
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    • v.38 no.6
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    • pp.845-850
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    • 2011
  • Purpose: In general, orientals including Korean, have a mesocephalic face whereas Caucasians, among the western, have a dolichocephalic face. Unlike the western, in orientals including Korean, prominent malar bones are recognized as stubborn and unattractive appearance. That is why reduction malarplasty is one of the most popular aesthetic surgical procedure in Korea. Many surgical methods to reposition prominent malar bones have been performed by means of a coronal incision or a combined incisions, using both the intraoral and the external incision. Bicoronal approach has advantage such as wide operative field, easy to maintain symmetry and possibility of combining facial lift but has shortcoming, such as external scars, long operative time, and the possibility of facial nerve or artery injury. Intraoral approach has advantages of short operative time, simplicity of procedure and no external scar. But this approach is associated with problems of cheek drooping, limited exposure and difficulty in making symmetry. Methods: During 8 years, we performed a reduction malarplasty without internal fixation through an minimal intraoral incision and dissection in 39 patients. Results: The patients were followed for 46 months, with satisfactory results and no cheek drooping. There was no patient who want to revise the inappropriate operative result such as asymmetry and incomplete correction. Conclusion: We conclude that minimal intraoral incision and dissection could acquire satisfactory result of reduction malarplasty along with prevention of cheek drooping.

The pH as a Control Parameter for Oxidation-Reduction Potential on the Denitrification by Ochrobactrum anthropi SY 509

  • Kim, Sung-Hong;Song, Seung-Hoon;Yoo, Young-Je
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.639-642
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    • 2004
  • The pH as a control parameter for oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) was investigated through the denitrification by Ochrobactrum anthropi SY509 under non-growing condition. The optimal pH of nitrate reductase was 7.0, and the minimal ORP level was -250 mV for the denitrification under aerobic condition. In the case of anaerobic condition, the optimal pHs of nitrate and nitrite reductase were shifted to 10.0 and 9.0, respectively, and the minimal ORP levels of nitrate and nitrite reductase were decreased to -370 mV and -340mV, respectively. In the case of alkaline pH and anaerobic condition, the denitrification efficiency of nitrate was increased up to about 2-fold over that of neutral pH and anaerobic condition. Therefore, the combined control of pH and ORP in the anaerobic condition is shown to be an important parameter in the biological denitrification process.

Combined Percutaneous and Minimal on Internal Fixation of Calcaneal Fractures Using Extensile Lateral Approach (광범위 외측 도달법을 이용한 종골 골절의 경피적 및 최소 내고정술)

  • Yu, Sun-O;Kim, Joo-Sung;Kim, Jong-Jin
    • Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 2002
  • Purpose: To present the clinical analysis of the results obtained in 38 cases of displaced intraarticular calcaneal fractures undergone combined percutaneous axial pin fixation of calcaneal body and minimal internal fixation using extensile lateral approach. Materials and Methods: From March 2000 to February 2002, thirty-eight displaced intraarticular fractures of the calcaneus in 35 patients were fixed with 3.5mm cannulated screws and percutaneous 2.5mm K-wires. The extensile lateral approach was used in all cases. The average follow-up period was 16 months. Clinical evaluation was assessed according to the Ankle-Hind Foot Scale of American Orthopedic Foot and Ankle Society. Results: The clinical results were graded as excellent in 8 cases(21%), good in 22 cases(58%), fair in 6 cases(16%), and poor in 2 cases(5%). Two cases of poor result were type IV of Sanders classification. The postoperative reduction status of the articular surface was analyzed by computed tomography in all cases and was found to be less 2mm of step off in 30 cases and between 2 and 4mm in 8 cases. Unsatisfactory results were correlated with severity of articular comminution and failure to obtain accurate reduction of the articular surface. Using early functional postoperative care, all fractures healed without secondary displacement except 1 case on an average of ten weeks. Two cases had superficial necrosis of the wound margins, however, secondary wound healing was uneventful and skin grafting was not needed. Conclusion: Combined minimal internal fixation and percutaneous pin fixation using extensile lateral approach is useful operative method of intraarticular calcaneal fractures because providing enough stability to permit functional aftercare and allowing excellent anatomical reduction. In addition, this method diminishes the risk of lateral soft tissue problems.

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A System Approach to A Bag Filter Failure using Fault Tree Analysis (Fault Tree Analysis을 활용한 집진기(Bag Filter) 고장의 체계적 분석)

  • 이근희;이동형
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.12 no.20
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    • pp.1-24
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    • 1989
  • This paper takes aim at the reliability evaluation by application of Fault Tree Analysis and its computerization. FTA is one of the methods for evaluation of system reliability and safety analysis. The important characteristic of this paper is that computer program is written in the package program(dBaseIII+) by 16Bit/AT personal computer. The program consists of three program segments. (1) The minimal cut sets of the system fault tree are obtained by means of "Fault tree reduction algorithm" (2) The minimal path sets are obtained by inversion of the minimal cut sets determined from fault tree (3) The importance of the basic events which are presented in the minimal cut sets is obtained by means of structural importance analysis. In this paper, a Fault Tree Analysis is applied to a BAG FILTER which is a kind of dust collector.collector.

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