• Title, Summary, Keyword: mitochondrial impairment

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Methylglyoxal Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Cell Death in Liver

  • Seo, Kyuhwa;Ki, Sung Hwan;Shin, Sang Mi
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.193-198
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    • 2014
  • Degradation of glucose is aberrantly increased in hyperglycemia, which causes various harmful effects on the liver. Methylglyoxal is produced during glucose degradation and the levels of methylglyoxal are increased in diabetes patients. In this study we investigated whether methylglyoxal induces mitochondrial impairment and apoptosis in HepG2 cells and induces liver toxicity in vivo. Methylglyoxal caused apoptotic cell death in HepG2 cells. Moreover, methylglyoxal significantly promoted the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and depleted glutathione (GSH) content. Pretreatment with antioxidants caused a marked decrease in methylglyoxal-induced apoptosis, indicating that oxidant species are involved in the apoptotic process. Methylglyoxal treatment induced mitochondrial permeability transition, which represents mitochondrial impairment. However, pretreatment with cyclosporin A, an inhibitor of the formation of the permeability transition pore, partially inhibited methylglyoxal-induced cell death. Furthermore, acute treatment of mice with methylglyoxal increased the plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), indicating liver toxicity. Collectively, our results showed that methylglyoxal increases cell death and induces liver toxicity, which results from ROS-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress.

An Association between Mitochondrial Enzyme Activity and Hearing Loss in Patients with Chronic Renal Failure (만성 신부전증 환자에서 미토콘드리아 활성과 청력손실과의 연관성)

  • Kim, Eun-Sook;Ahn, Seon-Ho;Kim, Shin-Moo;So, Hong-Seob;Park, Rae-Kil
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.218-223
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    • 2006
  • Sensorineural hearing loss is frequently found in patients with chronic renal failure (CRF). There have been many efforts to elucidate the etiologic factors of hearing loss in patients with CRF. However, there was not any clear identified cause of hearing loss. This study was undertaken to evaluate the activity of mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) in CRF patients with hearing impairment. To determine MRC activity, peripheral blood cells were obtained from CRF patients with hearing impairment receiving dialysis and normal subjects without any hearing problems. MRC activity of complex I and complex III was measured by the Trounces method. In MRC activities between the normal subjects group and CRF patients with hearing problems, the complex I and III activities of CRF patients with hearing problems were 63% and 85% compared with normal subjects (p<0.01). These results suggest that the activity of MRC may be implicated in the underlying mechanism of the hearing impairment in CRF patients, through mitochondrial DNA mutations at MRC complex I region with a decrement of MRC activity.

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Mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism in acute kidney injury

  • Jang, Hee-Seong;Padanilam, Babu J.
    • The Journal of Medicine and Life Science
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.37-41
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    • 2018
  • Mitochondrial injury in renal tubule has been recognized as a major contributor in acute kidney injury (AKI) pathogenesis. Ischemic insult, nephrotoxin, endotoxin and contrast medium destroy mitochondrial structure and function as well as their biogenesis and dynamics, especially in renal proximal tubule, to elicit ATP depletion. Mitochondrial fatty acid ${\beta}$-oxidation (FAO) is the preferred source of ATP in the kidney, and its impairment is a critical factor in AKI pathogenesis. This review explores current knowledge of mitochondrial dysfunction and energy depletion in AKI and prospective views on developing therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial dysfunction in AKI.

The relationship between muscle mitochondrial nutritional overloading and insulin resistance

  • Jeon, Jae-Han;Moon, Jun-Sung;Won, Kyu-Chang;Lee, In-Kyu
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.19-28
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    • 2017
  • The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance is growing rapidly. Multiple organs including the liver, skeletal muscle and adipose tissue control insulin sensitivity coordinately, but the mechanism of skeletal muscle insulin resistance has not yet been fully elucidated. However, there is a growing body of evidence that lipotoxicity induced by mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle is an important mediator of insulin resistance. However, some recent findings suggest that skeletal mitochondrial dysfunction generated by genetic manipulation is not always correlated with insulin resistance in animal models. A high fat diet can provoke insulin resistance despite a coordinate increase in skeletal muscle mitochondria, which implies that mitochondrial dysfunction is not mandatory in insulin resistance. Furthermore, incomplete fatty acid oxidation by excessive nutrition supply compared to mitochondrial demand can induce insulin resistance without preceding impairment of mitochondrial function. Taken together we suggested that skeletal muscle mitochondrial overloading, not mitochondrial dysfunction, plays a pivotal role in insulin resistance.

Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Affect the Morphology and Membrane Potential of Mitochondria in HeLa Cell

  • Lee, Wonwoo;Cho, Hyo Min;Oh, Chung Seok;Kim, Eun Hae;Sun, Woong
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.68-73
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    • 2014
  • With wide use of nano-materials, it is increasingly important to address their potential toxicity to mammalian cells. However, toxic effects of these materials have been mainly assessed by the cell survival assays. Considering that mitochondrial morphology and quality are highly sensitive to the condition of the cells, and the impairment of mitochondrial function greatly affect the survival of cells, here we tested the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) on the survival, mitochondrial morphology, and their membrane potential in HeLa cells. Interestingly, although MWNT did not induce cell death until 24 hours as assessed by pyknotic cell assay, mitochondrial length was elongated and the mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced by exposure of HeLa cells to MWNT. These results suggest that MWNT exposure is potentially harmful to the cell, and the mechanism how MWNT alters mitochondrial quality should be further explored to assess the safety of MWNT use.

Effects of exercise on obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

  • Heo, Jun-Won;No, Mi-Hyun;Park, Dong-Ho;Kang, Ju-Hee;Seo, Dae Yun;Han, Jin;Neufer, P. Darrell;Kwak, Hyo-Bum
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.21 no.6
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    • pp.567-577
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    • 2017
  • Obesity is known to induce inhibition of glucose uptake, reduction of lipid metabolism, and progressive loss of skeletal muscle function, which are all associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle. Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that regulate cellular metabolism and bioenergetics, including ATP production via oxidative phosphorylation. Due to these critical roles of mitochondria, mitochondrial dysfunction results in various diseases such as obesity and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is associated with impairment of mitochondrial function (e.g., decrease in $O_2$ respiration and increase in oxidative stress) in skeletal muscle. The balance between mitochondrial fusion and fission is critical to maintain mitochondrial homeostasis in skeletal muscle. Obesity impairs mitochondrial dynamics, leading to an unbalance between fusion and fission by favorably shifting fission or reducing fusion proteins. Mitophagy is the catabolic process of damaged or unnecessary mitochondria. Obesity reduces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle and increases accumulation of dysfunctional cellular organelles, suggesting that mitophagy does not work properly in obesity. Mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are reported to trigger apoptosis, and mitochondrial apoptosis is induced by obesity in skeletal muscle. It is well known that exercise is the most effective intervention to protect against obesity. Although the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which exercise protects against obesity-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle are not clearly elucidated, exercise training attenuates mitochondrial dysfunction, allows mitochondria to maintain the balance between mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy, and reduces apoptotic signaling in obese skeletal muscle.

MITOCHONDRIAL DNA DELETION AND IMPAIRMENT OF MITOCHONDRIAL BIOGENESIS ARE MEDIATED BY REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN IONIZING RADIATION-INDUCED PREMATURE SENESCENCE

  • Eom, Hyeon-Soo;Jung, U-Hee;Jo, Sung-Kee;Kim, Young-Sang
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.36 no.3
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    • pp.119-126
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    • 2011
  • Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletion is a well-known marker for oxidative stress and aging, and contributes to harmful effects in cultured cells and animal tissues. mtDNA biogenesis genes (NRF-1, TFAM) are essential for the maintenance of mtDNA, as well as the transcription and replication of mitochondrial genomes. Considering that oxidative stress is known to affect mitochondrial biogenesis, we hypothesized that ionizing radiation (IR)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) causes mtDNA deletion by modulating the mitochondrial biogenesis, thereby leading to cellular senescence. Therefore, we examined the effects of IR on ROS levels, cellular senescence, mitochondrial biogenesis, and mtDNA deletion in IMR-90 human lung fibroblast cells. Young IMR-90 cells at population doubling (PD) 39 were irradiated at 4 or 8 Gy. Old cells at PD55, and H2O2-treated young cells at PD 39, were compared as a positive control. The IR increased the intracellular ROS level, senescence-associated ${\beta}$-galactosidase (SA-${\beta}$-gal) activity, and mtDNA common deletion (4977 bp), and it decreased the mRNA expression of NRF-1 and TFAM in IMR-90 cells. Similar results were also observed in old cells (PD 55) and $H_2O_2$-treated young cells. To confirm that a increase in ROS level is essential for mtDNA deletion and changes of mitochondrial biogenesis in irradiated cells, the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) were examined. In irradiated and $H_2O_2$-treated cells, 5 mM NAC significantly attenuated the increases of ROS, mtDNA deletion, and SA-${\beta}$-gal activity, and recovered from decreased expressions of NRF-1 and TFAM mRNA. These results suggest that ROS is a key cause of IR-induced mtDNA deletion, and the suppression of the mitochondrial biogenesis gene may mediate this process.

POSSIBLE INVOLVEMENT OF Fe-S CENTERS AS MAJOR ENDOGENOUS PHOTOSENSITIZERS IN HIGH LIGHT-CAUSED LOSS OF MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF MITOCHONDRIA

  • Kim, Chang-Sook;Jung, Jin
    • Journal of Photoscience
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 1994
  • Exposure of isolated intact mitochondria to near UV to visible light resulted in not only loss of respiration, the most well-documented phenomenon regarding phototoxic effects in the respiring organelles, but also lipid peroxidation of membranes and mitochondrial swelling; these turned out to be O$_2$-dependent and thus prevented by anaerobiosis, enhanced by a partial deuteration of the suspension medium, and suppressed by the presence of a singlet oxygen ($^1O_2$) scavenger. Measurements of the spectral dependence of such detrimental effects of light on mitochondrial structure and function revealed that all the resulting spectra bear a significant resemblance to the action spectrum for photogeneration of $^1O_2$ from mitochondrial membranes, which in turn carries the spectral characteristics of light absorption by mitochondrial Fe-S centers. Futhermore, destructing the Fe-S centers by a mercurial treatment of mitochondria brought about a striking reduction of the light-induced membrane peroxidation and swelling of mitochondria. These results are consistent with the suggestion that the impairment of functional, structural integrity of mitochondria caused by strong irradiation is directly related to the production of $^1O_2$ in mitochondria, photosensitized by the Fe-S centers. This paper also presents kinetic data which indicate that, among various membrane-bound protein systems associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism, the respiratory chain is the primary target for photodamage.

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Association of ND4L gene 10609 mutation and hearing loss in a Korean with ESRD patients

  • Kim, Eun Sook
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.128-135
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    • 2012
  • The kidney and cochlea have similar physiological characteristics, specifically the active transport of fluid and electrolytes, similar effects of aminoglycosides and some immunological factors. Several mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) defects have been identified to be associated with hearing impairment either in syndromic or nonsyndromic forms. Dialysis patients had more oxidative stress than healthy subjects and this elevated oxidative stress leads to alterations of the mtDNA. To generate a more comprehensive analysis of the relationship between mitochondrial variation and hearing loss, two SNPs of 10609, 14668 position showed nominal levels of association with hearing loss. In our result, the mean PTA values in the ESRD patients were $28{\pm}13.9\;(mean{\pm}SD)dB$ and $51.0{\pm}23.2dB$ in low and high frequencies, which were significantly higher than those in the normal controls. 10609T>C and 14668C>T were significantly associated with hearing loss in the ESRD patients. In summary, our results suggest that the polymorphisms of the ND4L subunit gene might be association with ESRD patients and hearing loss.

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miR-24-mediated knockdown of H2AX damages mitochondria and the insulin signaling pathway

  • Jeong, Jae Hoon;Kang, Young Cheol;Piao, Ying;Kang, Sora;Pak, Youngmi Kim
    • Experimental and Molecular Medicine
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.3.1-3.13
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    • 2017
  • Mitochondrial deficits or altered expressions of microRNAs are associated with the pathogenesis of various diseases, and microRNA-operated control of mitochondrial activity has been reported. Using a retrovirus-mediated short-hairpin RNA (shRNA) system, we observed that miR-24-mediated H2AX knockdown (H2AX-KD) impaired both mitochondria and the insulin signaling pathway. The overexpression of miR-24 decreased mitochondrial H2AX and disrupted mitochondrial function, as indicated by the ATP content, membrane potential and oxygen consumption. Similar mitochondrial damage was observed in shH2AX-mediated specific H2AX-KD cells. The H2AX-KD reduced the expression levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) and mitochondrial DNA-dependent transcripts. H2AX-KD mitochondria were swollen, and their cristae were destroyed. H2AX-KD also blocked the import of precursor proteins into mitochondria and the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of IRS-1 (Y632) and Akt (S473 and T308). The rescue of H2AX, but not the nuclear form of ${\Delta}C24$-H2AX, restored all features of miR-24- or shH2AX-mediated impairment of mitochondria. Hepatic miR-24 levels were significantly increased in db/db and ob/ob mice. A strong feedback loop may be present among miR-24, H2AX, mitochondria and the insulin signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that H2AX-targeting miR-24 may be a novel negative regulator of mitochondrial function and is implicated in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance.