• Title, Summary, Keyword: mitochondrial membrane potential

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Multi-walled Carbon Nanotubes Affect the Morphology and Membrane Potential of Mitochondria in HeLa Cell

  • Lee, Wonwoo;Cho, Hyo Min;Oh, Chung Seok;Kim, Eun Hae;Sun, Woong
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.68-73
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    • 2014
  • With wide use of nano-materials, it is increasingly important to address their potential toxicity to mammalian cells. However, toxic effects of these materials have been mainly assessed by the cell survival assays. Considering that mitochondrial morphology and quality are highly sensitive to the condition of the cells, and the impairment of mitochondrial function greatly affect the survival of cells, here we tested the impact of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT) on the survival, mitochondrial morphology, and their membrane potential in HeLa cells. Interestingly, although MWNT did not induce cell death until 24 hours as assessed by pyknotic cell assay, mitochondrial length was elongated and the mitochondrial membrane potential was significantly reduced by exposure of HeLa cells to MWNT. These results suggest that MWNT exposure is potentially harmful to the cell, and the mechanism how MWNT alters mitochondrial quality should be further explored to assess the safety of MWNT use.

Uncoupling Protein, UCP-4 May Be Involved in Neuronal Defects During Aging and Resistance to Pathogens in Caenorhabditis elegans

  • Cho, Injeong;Hwang, Gyu Jin;Cho, Jeong Hoon
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.39 no.9
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    • pp.680-686
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    • 2016
  • Uncoupling proteins (UCPs) are mitochondrial inner membrane proteins that function to dissipate proton motive force and mitochondrial membrane potential. One UCP has been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans), namely UCP-4. In this study, we examined its expression and localization using a GFP marker in C. elegans. ucp-4 was expressed throughout the body from early embryo to aged adult and UCP-4 was localized in the mitochondria. It is known that increased mitochondrial membrane protential leads to a reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase, which is associated with age-related diseases, including neurodegenerative diseases in humans. A ucp-4 mutant showed increased mitochondrial membrane protential in association with increased neuronal defects during aging, and the neurons of ucp-4 overexpressing animals showed decreased neuronal defects during aging. These results suggest that UCP-4 may be involved in neuroprotection during aging via relieving mitochondrial membrane protential. We also investigated the relationship between UCP-4 and innate immunity because increased ROS can affect innate immunity. ucp-4 mutant displayed increased resistance to the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus compared to wild type. The enhanced immunity in the ucp-4 mutant could be related to increased mitochondrial membrane protential, presumably followed by increased ROS. In summary, UCP-4 might have an important role in neuronal aging and innate immune responses through mediating mitochondrial membrane protential.

Effect of Dioxin on the Change of Mitochondrial Inner Membrane Potential and the Induction of ROS (다이옥신이 미토콘드리아 내막의 전위차 변화 및 ROS 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Il-Young;Sheen, Yhun-Yhong
    • Environmental health and toxicology
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.33-41
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    • 2009
  • Among the toxicants in the environment dioxin-like compounds, including TCDD(2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin), are well known as carcinogen and teratogen. TCDD the most toxic of these compounds, may result in a wide variety of adverse health effects in humans and environment, including carconogenesis, hepatotoxicity, teratogenesis, and immunotoxicity. Also TCDD increases superoxide, peroxide radicals and induces oxidative stress that leads to breakage of DNA single-strand and mitochondrial dysfunction. Recently, there have been reports that persistent organic pollutants(POPs) may be causing metabolic disease through mitochondrial toxicity. In order to examine if dioxin brings about toxicity on mitochondria directly, we measured the change of the mitochondrial membrane potential after exposure to TCDD using JC-1 dye. After short time exposure of dioxin, mitochondrial depolarization was observed but it recovered to the control level immediately. This TCDD effect on mitochondrial membrane potential was not correlated either to the production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) or extracellular $Ca^{2+}$ by TCDD. Less than 2 hours exposure of TCDD did not show any change in ROS production but 0.25 nM TCDD for 48 hours or 0.5 nM TCDD for 12 hours exposure did increase in ROS production. Under these conditions of ROS production by TCDD, no changes in the mitochondrial membrane potential by TCDD was observed.

Intracellular pH is a Critical Element in Apoptosis Triggered by GM-CSF Deprivation in TF1 Cells

  • Yoon, Suk Ran;Choi, In Pyo
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.3 no.4
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    • pp.268-275
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    • 2003
  • Background: Hemopoietic cells require the constant presence of growth factors for survival in vitro and in vivo. Caspases have been known as central executors of apoptotic cell death. We have, therefore, investigated the pathways that regulate caspase activity and apoptosis using the $CD34^+$ cell line, TF-1 which requires GM-CSF for survival. Methods: Apoptosis was measured by annexin V staining and mitochondrial membrane potential was measured by DiOC6 labelling. Intracellular pH was measured using pH sensitive fluorochrome, BCECF or SNARF-1, followed by flow cytometry analysis. Caspase activation was analyzed by PARP cleavage using anti-PARP antibody. Results: Removal of GM-CSF induceed PARP cleavage, a hallmark of caspase activity, concomitant with pHi acidification and a drop in mitochondrial potential. Treatment with ZVAD, a competitive inhibitor of caspases, partially rescued cell death without affecting pHi acidification and the reduction of mitochondrial potential, suggesting that both these events act upstream of caspases. Overexpression of Bcl-2 prevented cell death induced by GM-CSF deprivation as well as pHi acidification and the reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential. In parental cells maintained with GM-CSF, EIPA, a competitive inhibitor of $Na^+/H^+$ antiporter induced apoptosis, accompanied by a drastic reduction in mitochondrial potential. In contrast, EIPA induced apoptosis in Bcl-2 transfectants without causing mitochondrial membrane depolarization. Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest that the regulation of $H^+$fluxes, either through a mitochondriondependent or independent pathway, is central to caspase activation and apoptosis.

Up-regulation of Cyelin A-Cdk2 activity is associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential during apoptosis of human hepatoma SK-HEP1 cells induced by treatment with panaxadiol

  • Park, Byoung-Duck;Jin, Ying-Hua;Yim, Hyung-Shin;Lee, Seung-Ki
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.167.1-167
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    • 2003
  • Here we show that panaxadiol, a ginseng saponin with a dammarane skeleton, induces acute apoptotic cell death in human hepatoma SK-HEP-1 cells as evidenced by analysis of DNA fragmentation, caspase activation, and changes in cell morphology. The kinetic study showed that panaxadiol-induced apoptosis is associated with depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. Sequential activations of caspases-depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release. Sequential activations of caspases-9, and -3, or -7, but not of caspase 8 coincide well in a time dependent manner with mitochondrial membrane depolarization and cytochrome c release from mitochondria during apoptosis of SK-HEP-1 cells induced by treatment with panaxadiol. (omitted)

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The coordinated regulation of mitochondrial structure and function by Drp1 for mitochondrial quality surveillance

  • Cho, Hyo Min;Sun, Woong
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.109-110
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    • 2019
  • Mitochondrial morphology is known to be continuously changing via fusion and fission, but it is unclear what the biological importance of this energy-consuming process is and how it develops. Several data have suggested that mitochondrial fission executed by Drp1 is necessary to select out a damaged spot from the interconnected mitochondrial network, but the precise mechanism for the recognition and isolation of a damaged sub-mitochondrial region during mitochondrial fission is yet unclear. Recently, Cho et al. found that the mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) is transiently reduced by the physical interaction of Drp1 and mitochondrial Zinc transporter, Zip1, at the fission site prior to the typical mitochondrial division, and we found that this event is essential for a mitochondrial quality surveillance. In this review, Cho et al. discuss the role of a mitochondrial fission in the mitochondrial quality surveillance system.

Effects of Mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species on Neuronal Excitability in Rat Spinal Substantia Gelatinosa Neurons

  • Lee, Hae-In;Park, A-Reum;Chun, Sang-Woo
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2012
  • Recent studies indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are critically involved in persistent pain primarily through spinal mechanisms, and that mitochondria are the main source of ROS in the spinal dorsal horn. To investigate whether mitochondrial ROS can induce changes in membrane excitability on spinal substantia gelatonosa (SG) neurons, we examined the effects of mitochondrial electron transport complex (ETC) substrates and inhibitors on the membrane potential of SG neurons in spinal slices. Application of ETC inhibitors, rotenone or antimycin A, resulted in a slowly developing and slight membrane depolarization in SG neurons. Also, application of both malate, a complex I substrate, and succinate, a complex II substrate, caused reversible membrane depolarization and enhanced firing activity. Changes in membrane potential after malate exposure were more prominent than succinate exposure. When slices were pretreated with ROS scavengers such as phenyl-N-tert-buthylnitrone (PBN), catalase and 4- hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL), malate-induced depolarization was significantly decreased. Intracellular calcium above $100{\mu}M$ increased malateinduced depolarization, witch was suppressed by cyclosporin A, a mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) inhibitor. These results suggest that enhanced production of spinal mitochondrial ROS can induce nociception through central sensitization.

Anion Transport or Nucleotide Binding by Ucp2 Is Indispensable for Ucp2-Mediated Efferocytosis

  • Lee, Suho;Moon, Hyunji;Kim, Gayoung;Cho, Jeong Hoon;Lee, Dae-Hee;Ye, Michael B.;Park, Daeho
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.38 no.7
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    • pp.657-662
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    • 2015
  • Rapid and efficient engulfment of apoptotic cells is an essential property of phagocytes for removal of the large number of apoptotic cells generated in multicellular organisms. To achieve this, phagocytes need to be able to continuously uptake apoptotic cells. It was recently reported that uncoupling protein 2 (Ucp2) promotes engulfment of apoptotic cells by increasing the phagocytic capacity, thereby allowing cells to continuously ingest apoptotic cells. However, the functions of Ucp2, beyond its possible role in dissipating the mitochondrial membrane potential, that contribute to elevation of the phagocytic capacity have not been determined. Here, we report that the anion transfer or nucleotide binding activity of Ucp2, as well as its dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, is necessary for Ucp2-mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells. To study these properties, we generated Ucp2 mutations that affected three different functions of Ucp2, namely, dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, transfer of anions, and binding of purine nucleotides. Mutations of Ucp2 that affected the proton leak did not enhance the engulfment of apoptotic cells. Although anion transfer and nucleotide binding mutations did not affect the mitochondrial membrane potential, they exerted a dominant-negative effect on Ucp2-mediated engulfment. Furthermore, none of our Ucp2 mutations increased the phagocytic capacity. We conclude that dissipation of the proton gradient by Ucp2 is not the only determinant of the phagocytic capacity and that anion transfer or nucleotide binding by Ucp2 is also essential for Ucp2-mediated engulfment of apoptotic cells.

Differential Effect of Harmalol and Deprenyl on Dopamine-Induced Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability Change in PC12 Cells

  • Lee, Chung-Soo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2004
  • Opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore has been recognized to be involved in cell death. The present study investigated the effect of ${\beta}$-carbolines (harmaline and harmalol) and deprenyl on the dopamine-induced change in the mitochondrial membrane permeability and cell death in differentiated PC12 cells. Cell death due to 250 4{\mu}$M dopamine was inhibited by caspase inhibitors (z-IETD.fmk, z-LEHD.fmk and z-DQMD.fmk) and antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine, ascorbate, superoxide dismutase, catalase and carboxy-PTIO). ${\beta}$-Carbolines prevented the dopamine-induced cell death in PCl2 cells, while deprenyl did not inhibit cell death. ${\beta}$-Carbolines decreased the condensation and fragmentation of nuclei caused by dopamine in PC12 cells. ${\beta}$-Carbolines inhibited the decrease in mitochondrial transmembrane potential, cytochrome c release, formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of GSH caused by dopamine in PC12 cells, whereas deprenyl did not decrease dopamine-induced mitochondrial damage. ${\beta}$-Carbolines, deprenyl and antioxidants depressed the formation of nitric oxide and melanin in dopamine-treated PC12 cells. The results suggest that cell death due to dopamine PC12 cells is mediated by caspase-8, -9 and -3. Unlike deprenyl, ${\beta}$-carbolines may attenuate the dopamineinduced cell death in PC12 cells by suppressing change in the mitochondrial membrane permeability through inhibition of the toxic action of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species.

Inhibition of Glutamate-Induced Change in Mitochondrial Membrane Permeability in PC12 cells by 1-Methylated β-carbolines

  • Han, Eun-Sook;Lee, Chung-Soo
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.112-118
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    • 2003
  • 1-Methylated $\beta$-carbolines (harmaline and harmalol) and antioxidants (N-acetylcysteine and ascorbate) reduced the loss of cell viability in differentiated PC 12 cells treated with 5 mM glutamate. $\beta$-Carbolines prevented the glutamate-induced decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation in PC 12 cells. $\beta$-Carbolines reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species and depletion of glutathione due to glutamate in PC12 cells. $\beta$-Carbolines revealed a scavenging action on hydrogen peroxide and reduced the iron and EDTA-mediated degradation of 2-deoxy-D-ribose. The results suggest that I-methylated $\beta$-carbolines attenuate the cytotoxic effect of glutamate on PC12 cells by reducing the alteration of mitochondrial membrane permeability that seems to be mediated by oxidative stress.