• Title, Summary, Keyword: mixture

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Mixture response surface methodology for improving the current operating condition (현재의 공정조건을 향상시키기 위한 혼합물 반응표면 방법론)

  • Lim, Yong-B.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Quality Management
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.413-424
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    • 2010
  • Mixture experiments involve combining ingredients or components of a mixture and the response is a function of the proportions of ingredients which is independent of the total amount of a mixture. The purpose of the mixture experiments is to find the optimum blending at which responses such as the flavor and acceptability are maximized. We assume the quadratic or special cubic canonical polynomial model over the experimental region for a mixture since the current mixture is assumed to be located in the neighborhood of the optimal mixture. The cost of the mixture is proportional to the cost of the ingredients of the mixture and is the linear function of the proportions of the ingredients. In this paper, we propose mixture response surface methods to develop a mixture such that the cost is down more than ten percent as well as mean responses are as good as those from the current mixture. The proposed methods are illustrated with the well known the flare experimental data described by McLean and Anderson(1966).

Application of Finite Mixture to Characterise Degraded Gmelina arborea Roxb Plantation in Omo Forest Reserve, Nigeria

  • Ogana, Friday Nwabueze
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.34 no.6
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    • pp.451-456
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    • 2018
  • The use of single component distribution to describe the irregular stand structure of degraded forest often lead to bias. Such biasness can be overcome by the application of finite mixture distribution. Therefore, in this study, finite mixture distribution was used to characterise the irregular stand structure of the Gmelina arborea plantation in Omo forest reserve. Thirty plots, ten each from the three stands established in 1984, 1990 and 2005 were used. The data were pooled per stand and fitted. Four finite mixture distributions including normal mixture, lognormal mixture, gamma mixture and Weibull mixture were considered. The method of maximum likelihood was used to fit the finite mixture distributions to the data. Model assessment was based on negative loglikelihood value ($-{\Lambda}{\Lambda}$), Akaike information criterion (AIC), Bayesian information criterion (BIC) and root mean square error (RMSE). The results showed that the mixture distributions provide accurate and precise characterisation of the irregular diameter distribution of the degraded Gmelina arborea stands. The $-{\Lambda}{\Lambda}$, AIC, BIC and RMSE values ranged from -715.233 to -348.375, 703.926 to 1433.588, 718.598 to 1451.334 and 3.003 to 7.492, respectively. Their performances were relatively the same. This approach can be used to describe other irregular forest stand structures, especially the multi-species forest.

An Evolutionary Operation with Mixture Variables for Mixture Production Process (혼합물 생산공정을 위한 성분변수의 진화적 조업법)

  • Kim, Chi-Hwan;Byun, Jai-Hyun
    • Journal of Korean Institute of Industrial Engineers
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.334-344
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    • 2003
  • A mixture experiment is a special type of response surface experiment in which factors are the ingredients or components of a mixture, and the response is a function of the proportions of each ingredient. Evolutionary operation is useful to improve on-line full-scale manufacturing process by systematically changing the levels of the process variables without jeopardizing the product. This paper presents an evolutionary operation procedure with mixture variables for large-scale mixture production process which can be beneficial to practitioners who should improve on-line mixture quality while maintaining the production amount of the mixture product.

The influential Investigation and Surface Change by Concentration to the Antimicrobial Agent and Insecticide on Metallic Material (항균·방충제의 농도에 따른 금속재질에 미치는 영향성 및 표면변화 조사)

  • Lee, Jae Hui;Cho, Nam Chul;Lee, Sang Bae
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.361-372
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    • 2015
  • The experiment attempts to find out the effect of the mixture of the antimicrobial agent and insecticide on metallic material including Silver(99.9%), Copper(99.9%), Lead(99.9%) and Iron(99.5%) by Oddy test. The mixtures of the antimicrobial agent and insecticide were prepared in 60ml; with the standard concentration of 17.5% in B77 Essential oil mixture, one for mixture of concentration of ${\pm}1{\sim}2%$ and insect repellent material; the other for mixture of low concentration and antimicrobial agent(BS-2 and BS-3) material. After Oddy test, we investigated the variation in the surface of the samples by visual inspection, weighing, color measurement and SEM-EDS analysis. The result showed that Lead had the biggest change in the surface, and Copper had the biggest change in the color. In addition, changes in the samples before and after the experiment were found to be greatest at concentration of 19% of Essential oil mixture of the antimicrobial agent and insecticide. Also, B78 Essential oil mixture produce change in samples. It means when the concentration of oil mixture rises, the variation of the samples gets bigger. And, the low concentration of mixture including B77 Essential oil mixture and B78 Essential oil mixture also produce big change in the samples. However, the low concentration of B77 Essential oil mixture that do not contain B78 Essential oil mixture was able to confirm that the change of the surface is not large.

Studies on Seed Mixtures for Slope Revegetation of the Road (도로사면녹화를 위한 식생배합에 관한 연구)

  • 이재필;김남춘;홍성관
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.113-123
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to find out appropriate rates of seed mixture of both native and foreign plants in order for stabilization of early afforestation and proper vegetation on road slope. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Characteristics of germination : After seeding, 2 weeks for both Lespedeza bicolor and Lespedeza cuneata, and 4 weeks for both Arundinella hirta and Zoysia japonica were needed for vigorous germination, and 1-4 wee17s for 3 cool-season grasses were spent for gradual germination. 2. Plant height : There was no difference between Lespedeza cuneata and Lespedeza bicolor in plant height by 7 treatments. As mixture rates of cool-season grasses were lowered, plant height of Arundinella hirta became longer. Descending order of co81-season grasses for plant height was Tall fescue, Perennial ryegrass and Creeping redfescue. 3. Number of tillers : The number of tillers tended to increase in the experimental plots where competition was low. 4 Ground cover rate : Ground cover rate was the highest in Mixture IV (96.7%) and was fluctuated from 13.3% on Sept. 13 to 45% on Nev. 3 in Mixture III. Descending order of gronud cover rates in 7 treaments was Mixture IV, Mixture III. Mixture II, Mixture Ⅶ, Mixture V, Mixture Ⅵ, Mixture I, and Mixtur III when measured on Oct. 13 5. Visual assessment: High preferences were observed on Mixture IV and Ⅶ In sun the best seed mixtures were Mixture IV and Ⅶ. It meant that (1) either mixture of 70% the native plants with 30% cool-season graaes or (2) mixture of 80% the native plants with 20% cool-season glasses was best for this study.

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Effects of Feeding Corn-lablab Bean Mixture Silages on Nutrient Apparent Digestibility and Performance of Dairy Cows

  • Qu, Yongli;Jiang, Wei;Yin, Guoan;Wei, Chunbo;Bao, Jun
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.509-516
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    • 2013
  • This study estimated the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of corn-lablab bean mixture silages relative to corn silages. The effects of feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages on nutrient apparent digestibility and milk production of dairy cows in northern China were also investigated. Three ruminally cannulated Holstein cows were used to determine the ruminal digestion kinetics and ruminal nutrient degradability of corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages. Sixty lactating Holstein cows were randomly divided into two groups of 30 cows each. Two diets were formulated with a 59:41 forage: concentrate ratio. Corn silage and corn-lablab bean mixture silages constituted 39.3% of the forage in each diet, with Chinese wildrye hay constituting the remaining 60.7%. Corn-lablab bean mixture silages had higher lactic acid, acetic acid, dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ash, Ca, ether extract concentrations and ruminal nutrient degradability than monoculture corn silage (p<0.05). Neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) concentrations of corn-lablab bean mixture silages were lower than those of corn silage (p<0.05). The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF for cows fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was higher than for those fed corn silage (p<0.05). Feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield and milk protein of dairy cows when compared with feeding corn silage (p<0.05). The economic benefit for cow fed corn-lablab bean mixture silages was 8.43 yuan/day/cow higher than that for that fed corn silage. In conclusion, corn-lablab bean mixture improved the fermentation characteristics and nutrient value of silage compared with monoculture corn. In this study, feeding corn-lablab bean mixture silages increased milk yield, milk protein and nutrient apparent digestibility of dairy cows compared with corn silage in northern China.

Segmenting Inpatients by Mixture Model and Analytical Hierarchical Process(AHP) Approach In Medical Service (의료서비스에서 혼합모형(Mixture model) 및 분석적 계층과정(AHP)를 이용한 입원환자의 시장세분화에 관한 연구)

  • 백수경;곽영식
    • Health Policy and Management
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.1-22
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    • 2002
  • Since the early 1980s scholars have applied latent structure and other type of finite mixture models from various academic fields. Although the merits of finite mixture model are well documented, the attempt to apply the mixture model to medical service has been relatively rare. The researchers aim to try to fill this gap by introducing finite mixture model and segmenting inpatients DB from one general hospital. In section 2 finite mixture models are compared with clustering, chi-square analysis, and discriminant analysis based on Wedel and Kamakura(2000)'s segmentation methodology schemata. The mixture model shows the optimal segments number and fuzzy classification for each observation by EM(expectation-maximization algorism). The finite mixture model is to unfix the sample, to Identify the groups, and to estimate the parameters of the density function underlying the observed data within each group. In section 3 and 4 we illustrate results of segmenting 4510 patients data including menial and ratio scales. And then, we show AHP can be identify the attractiveness of each segment, in which the decision maker can select the best target segment.

A Study on the Multi-space Method in Fashion Illustration (현대 패션일러스트레이션의 다중공간 표현에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jee-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.644-654
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    • 2009
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of current fashion illustrations within the framework of Multi-space method. Multi-space means being piled up one moment & space on others, and being amassed in a scene. This method is related with Dadaism, Surrealism and Postmodernism, and also influences on the current fashion illustration. In this study, the types of Multi-space method could be classified into 4 types; Repetitive Time Mixture in Multi-space, Juxtaposed Time Mixture in Multi-space, Reiterated Space Mixture in Multi-space, Projected Space Mixture in Multi-space. The characteristics of Multi-space were analyzed and the results are as followed. The distinctive methods for Time Mixture in Multi-space are repetition and juxtaposition in a scene. Time Mixture in Multi-space can make the nonlinear narration and unreal illusory space in fashion illustrations more effectively. Reiterated Space Mixture in Multi-space can be related with the heterogeneous, surrealistic illusions in current fashion illustrations. Projected Space Mixture in Multi-space can be characterized into inter-penetration. It can derive spectators to mix the projected & transparent images in a scene for their own imaginary stories. The final imagination can be made differently according to the personal experiences of spectators.

Skewness of Gaussian Mixture Absolute Value GARCH(1, 1) Model

  • Lee, Taewook
    • Communications for Statistical Applications and Methods
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.395-404
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    • 2013
  • This paper studies the skewness of the absolute value GARCH(1, 1) models with Gaussian mixture innovations (Gaussian mixture AVGARCH(1, 1) models). The maximum estimated-likelihood estimator (MELE) employed (a two- step estimation method in order to estimate the skewness of Gaussian mixture AVGARCH(1, 1) models. Through the real data analysis, the adequacy of adopting Gaussian mixture innovations is exhibited in reflecting the skewness of two major Korean stock indices.

Speaker Identification Using PCA Fuzzy Mixture Model (PCA 퍼지 혼합 모델을 이용한 화자 식별)

  • Lee, Ki-Yong
    • Speech Sciences
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2003
  • In this paper, we proposed the principal component analysis (PCA) fuzzy mixture model for speaker identification. A PCA fuzzy mixture model is derived from the combination of the PCA and the fuzzy version of mixture model with diagonal covariance matrices. In this method, the feature vectors are first transformed by each speaker's PCA transformation matrix to reduce the correlation among the elements. Then, the fuzzy mixture model for speaker is obtained from these transformed feature vectors with reduced dimensions. The orthogonal Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) can be derived as a special case of PCA fuzzy mixture model. In our experiments, with having the number of mixtures equal, the proposed method requires less training time and less storage as well as shows better speaker identification rate compared to the conventional GMM. Also, the proposed one shows equal or better identification performance than the orthogonal GMM does.

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