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Estimation of Leg Collision Strength for Large Wind Turbine Installation Vessel (WTIV) (대형 해상풍력발전기 설치 선박(WTIV) Leg구조의 충돌 강도평가)

  • Park, Joo-Shin;Ma, Kuk-Yeol;Seo, Jung-Kwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.551-560
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    • 2020
  • Recently, the offshore wind power generator market is expected to grow significantly because of increased energy demand, reduced dependence on fossil fuel-based power generation, and environmental regulations. Consequently, wind power generation is increasing worldwide, and several attempts have been made to utilize offshore wind power. Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) requires a leg-structure design with a collision energy of 35 MJ owing to the event of a collision under operation conditions. In this study, the results of the numerical analysis of a wind turbine installation vessel subjected to ship collision were set such that the maximum collision energy that the leg could sustain was calculated and compared with the PSA requirements. The current leg design plan does not satisfy the required value of 35 MJ, and it is necessary to increase the section modulus by more than 200 % to satisfy the regulations, which is unfeasible in realistic leg design. Therefore, a collision energy standard based on a reasonable collision scenario should be established.

Prediction of Structural Behavior of FRP Rebar Reinforced Concrete Slab based on the Definition of Limit State (한계상태 정의에 따른 FRP Rebar 보강 콘크리트 슬래브의 구조거동 예측)

  • Oh, Hongseob;Kim, Younghwan;Jang, Naksup
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.371-381
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    • 2020
  • The failure mode of concrete reinforced with FRP is defined as the concrete crushing and the fiber rupture and the definition of limit state is a slightly different according to the design methods. It is relatively difficult to predict of FRP reinforced concrete because the mechanical properties of fibers are quite depending on its of fibers. The design code by ACI440 committee, which has been developed mainly on GFRP having low modulus of elasticity, is widely used, but the applicability on other FRPs of this code has not been sufficiently verified. In addition, the ultimate and serviceability limit state based on the ACI440 are comparatively difficult to predict the behavior of member with the 0.8~1.2 ��b because crushing and rupturing failure can be occurred simultaneously is in this region of reinforcement ratio, and predicted deflection is too sensitive according to the loading condition. Therefore, in this study, reliability and convenience of the prediction of structural performance by design methods such as ACI440 and MC90 concept, respectively, were examined through the experimental results and literature review of the beam and slab with the reinforcement ratio of 0.8 ~ 1.4. As a result of the analysis, it can be applied to the FRP reinforced structure in the case of the simple moment-curvature formula (LIM-MC) of Model Code, and the limit state design method based on the EC2 is more reliable than the ultimate strength design method.

Engineering Characteristics of Mudeungsan Tuff and Ipseok-dae Columnar Joints (무등산응회암과 입석대 주상절리대의 공학적 특성)

  • Noh, Jeongdu;Jang, Heewon;Lim, Chaehun;Hwang, Namhyun;Kang, Seong-Seung
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.161-173
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    • 2020
  • This study is to examine the engineering characteristics of colunmar joints in Mudeugsan National Park, a global geopark. For these purposes, physical and mechanical properties of Mudeungsan Tuff, evaluation for the weathering degree of columnar joints, and crack behavior monitoring in columnar joints were conducted. The physical properties of Mudeungsan tuff were 1.02% for the average porosity, 0.38% for the average absorption, 2.69 g/㎤ for the average specific gravity, and 4,948 m/s for the average elastic wave velocity. Its mechanical properties were 337 MPa for the average uniaxial compressive strength, 68 GPa for the average elastic modulus, 0.29 for the average Poisson's ratio, 41.3 MPa for the average cohesion strength, and 62.8° for the average friction angle. the average rebound Q-value of the silver Schmidt hammer for the three columnar joint blocks at the Ipseok-dae was shown as 49.3. when this value is converted into uniaxial compressive strength, it becomes 70.5 MPa, which is about 21% of the uniaxial compression strength of Mudeungsan tuff. In addition, according to the results of crack monitoring measurements for the three columnar joint blocks at the Ipseok-dae, the crack behavior is less than 1 mm, so it is believed that its behavior in Ipseak-dae columnar joints has hardly occured to date.

Physicochemical Properties of Extruded Defatted Hemp Seed and Its Energy Bar Manufacturing (압출성형 삼종실의 이화학적 특성과 에너지바의 제조)

  • Gu, Bon-Jae;Norajit, Krittika;Ryu, Gi-Hyung
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.127-134
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    • 2010
  • This study was to develop high-nutritious energy bar from extruded hemp obtained by extrusion process. Mixture of rice flour and defatted hemp was extruded at a barrel temperature of 110 and 130$^{\circ}C$, and moisture content of 20 and 25%. Properties of extrudates such as bulk density, expansion index, breaking strength, apparent elastic modulus, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) have been analyzed. The antioxidant potential was determined by the DPPH-radical scavenging assay. The expansion index was the highest in rice-hemp extrudate at 130$^{\circ}C$ barrel temperature and 20% moisture content among the other hemp-added extrudates. The WAI was increased with increase in moisture content, while the WSI was increased with increase in barrel temperature. The peak viscosity of rice extrudate had higher valule than those of extrudate added with hemp. DPPH scavenging activity of rice-hemp extrudate at 130$^{\circ}C$ barrel temperature and 20% moisture content showed the highest value. Sensory properties, moisture content and color were assessed for quality of energy bar. The color values of the energy bar indicated decreasing L (lightness) and b (yellowness), and increasing a (redness) after 30 days storage at ambient condition. The highest overall acceptable was the energy bar added with rice-hemp extrudate at 130$^{\circ}C$ barrel temperature and 20% moisture content.

Effects of Die Temperature and Moisture Content on the Quality Characteristics of Extruded Rice with Mealworm (사출구 온도와 수분함량이 갈색거저리(Mealworm) 첨가 압출성형 백미의 품질 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Cho, Sung Young;Chatpaisarn, Apapan;Ryu, Gi Hyung
    • Food Engineering Progress
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.116-125
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    • 2017
  • This study aims to make extruded rice snack with high quality in texture and nutrition by adding mealworm. Addition of the mealworm has the merit to fill in high-quality protein and unsaturated fatty acids which are insufficient in rice. Thus, the physicochemical properties were investigated through the process of extrusion cooking. As the extrusion process varied, the die temperatures were set to $120^{\circ}C$ and $130^{\circ}C$. Also, the moisture contents were adjusted to 30% and 35%. The specific length, the expansion ratio, and the water absorption index increased as the added content of mealworm became higher. On the contrary, the density, the breaking strength, the apparent elastic modulus, and the water solubility index decreased. As mealworm and moisture content increased, DPPH radical scavenging activity significantly increased but the rancidity decreased. As a result, the addition of mealworm to the extruded rice snack was effective in improving texture, nutrition, and antioxidation.

A Study on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Sawdustboards combined with Polypropylene Chip and Oriented Thread (폴리프로필렌사(絲)칩과 배향사(配向絲)를 결체(結締)한 톱밥보드의 물리적(物理的) 및 기계적(機械的) 성질(性質)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Suh, Jin-Suk;Lee, Phil-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.1-41
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    • 1988
  • For the purpose of utilizing the sawdust having poor combining properties as board raw material and resulting in dimensional instability of board, polypropylene chip (abbreviated below as PP chip) or oriented PP thread was combined with sawdust particle from white meranti(Shorea sp.). The PP chip was prepared from PP thread in length of 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm for conventional blending application. Thereafter, the PP chip cut as above was combined with the sawdust particle by 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% on the weight basis of board. Oriented PP threads were aligned with spacing of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5cm along transverse direction of board. The physical and mechanical properties on one, two and three layer boards manufactured with the above combining conditions were investigated. The conclusions obtained at this study were summarized as follows: 1. In thickness swelling, all one layer boards combined with PP chips showed lower values than control sawdustboard, and gradually clear decreasing tendendy with the increase of PP chip composition. Two layer board showed higher swelling value than one layer board, but the majority of boards lower values than control sawdustboard. All three layer boards showed lower swelling values than control sawdustboard. 2. In the PP chip and oriented thread combining board, the swelling values of boards combining 0.5cm spacing oriented thread with 1.0 or 1.5cm long PP chip in 12 and 15% by board weight were much lower than the lowest of one or three layer. 3. In specific gravity of 0.51, modulus of rupture of one layer board combined with 3% PP chip showed higher value than control sawdustboard. However, moduli of rupture of the boards with every PP chip composition did not exceed 80kgf/cm2, the low limit value of type 100 board, Korean Industrial Standard KS F 3104 Particleboards. Moduli of rupture of 6%, 1.5cm-long and 3% PP chip combined boards in specific gravity of 0.63 as well as PP chip combined board in specific gravity of 0.72 exceeded 80kgf/$cm^2$ on KS F 3104. Two layer boards combined with every PI' chip composition showed lower values than control sawdustboard and one layer board. Three layer boards combined with.1.5cm long PP chip in 3, 6 and 9% combination level showed higher values than control sawdustboard, and exceeded 80kgf/$cm^2$ on KS F 3104. 4. In modulus of rupture of PP thread oriented sawdustboard, 0.5cm spacing oriented board showed the highest value, and 1.0 and 1.5cm spacing oriented boards lower values than the 0.5cm. However, all PP thread oriented sawdustboards showed higher values than control saw-dustboard. 5. Moduli of rupture in the majority of PP chip and oriented thread combining boards were higher than 80kgf/$cm^2$ on KS F 3104. Moduli of rupture in the boards combining longer PP chip with narrower 0.5cm spacing oriented thread showed high values. In accordance with the spacing increase of oriented thread, moduli of rupture in the PP chip and oriented thread combining boards showed increasing tendency compared with oriented sawdustboard. 6. Moduli of elasticity in one, two and three layer boards were lower than those of control sawdustboard, however, moduli of elasticity of oriented sawdustboards with 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5cm spacing increased 20, 18 and 10% compared with control sawdustboard, respectively. 7. Moduli of elasticity in the majority of PP chip and oriented thread combining boards in 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5cm oriented spacing showed much higher values than control sawdustboard. On the whole, moduli of elasticity in the oriented boards combined with 9% or less combination level and 0.5cm or more length of PP chip showed higher values than oriented sawdustboard. The increasing effect on modulus of elasticity was shown by the PP chip composition in oriented board with narrow spacing. 8. Internal bond strengths of all one layer PP chip combined boards showed lower values than control sawdust board, however, the PP chip combined boards in specific gravity of 0.63 and 0.72 exceeded 1.5kgf/$cm^2$, the low limit value of type 100 board and 3kgf/$cm^2$, type 200 board on KS F 3104, respectively. And also most of all two, three layer-and oriented boards exceeded 3kgf/$cm^2$ on KS F. 9. In general, screw holding strength of one layer board combined with PP chip showed lower value than control sawdustboard, however, that of two or three layer board combined with PP chip did no decreased tendency, and even screw holding strength with the increase of PP chip composition. In the PP chip and oriented PP thread combining boards, most of the boards showed higher values than control sawdustboard in 9% or less PP chip composition.

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Ecophysiological Interpretations on the Water Relations Parameters of Trees(II) - Seasonal Changes in Tissue-Water Relations Parameters Obtained from P-V Curves on the Pinus koraiensis and Abies holophylla Shoots - (수목(樹木)의 수분특성(水分特性)에 관한 생리(生理)·생태학적(生態學的) 해석(解析)(II) - P-V 곡선(曲線)에 의한 잣나무와 젓나무 지엽(枝葉)의 수분특성(水分特性) 인자(因子)의 계절변화(季節变化) -)

  • Han, Sang Sup;Choi, Heung Seon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.61 no.1
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    • pp.8-14
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    • 1983
  • This study was to diagnose the ontogenetic ability of drought tolerance in trees, and was to investigate the seasonal changes in tissue-water relations parameters, ${\pi}_o$, ${\pi}_p$, $E_{max}$, $N_s/DW$, $V_o/W_s$ and $RWC_{(tlp)}$, obtained from P-V curves on the Pinus koraiensis and Abies holophylla shoots. The results obtained are as follows; 1) Seasonal changes of original osmotic pressure at maximum turgot, ${\pi}_o$, were -1.2 to -1.6 MPa in Pinus koraiensis and -1.4 to -1.7 MPa in Abies holophylla. 2) Seasonal changes of osmotic pressure at incipient plasmolysis, ${\pi}_p$, were -1.8 to -2.1 MPa in Pinus koraiensis and -1.6 to -2.1 MPa in Abies holophylla. 3) Seasonal changes of relative water content at incipient plasmolysis, $RWC_{(tlp)}$, were 70 to 77% in Pinus koraiensis and 69 to 85% in Abies holophylla. 4) Seasonal changes of maximum bulk modulus of elasticity at maximum hydration, $E_{max}$, were 2.2 to 6.3 MPa in Pinus koraiensis and 3.1 to 7.9 MPa in Abies holophylla. 5) Seasonal changes of number of osmoles of solute in symplasm versus dry weight, $N_s/DW$, were 0.5 to 1.3 in Pinus koraiensis and 0.3 to 1.0 in Abies holophylla. 6) Seasonal changes of original osmotic water volume versus total water volume (symplasmic and apoplastic water), $V_o/W_s$, were 55 to 65%r in Pinus koraiensis and 40 to 65% in Abies holophylla. Consequently, as the comparative values of ${\pi}_o$, ${\pi}_p$, $E_{max}$, $N_s/DW$, $V_o/W_s$, and $RWC_{(tlp)}$, it might be suggested that Abies holophylla shoot could have more or less a greater ability of drought tolerance as compared with Pinus koraiensis shoot.

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Mechanical and Rheological Properties of Rice Plant (수도(水稻)의 역학적(力學的) 및 리올러지 특성(特性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Huh, Yun Kun;Cha, Gyun Do
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.98-133
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    • 1987
  • The mechanical and rheological properties of agricultural materials are important for engineering design and analysis of their mechanical harvesting, handling, transporting and processing systems. Agricultural materials, which composed of structural members and fluids do not react in a purely elastic manner, and their response when subjected to stress and strain is a combination of elastic and viscous behavior so called viscoelastic behavior. Many researchers have conducted studies on the mechanical and rheological properties of the various agricultural products, but a few researcher has studied those properties of rice plant, and also those data are available only for foreign varieties of rice plant. This study are conducted to experimentally determine the mechanical and the rheological properties such as axial compressive strength, tensile strength, bending and shear strength, stress relaxation and creep behavior of rice stems, and grain detachment strength. The rheological models for the rice stem were developed from the test data. The shearing characteristics were examined at some different levels of portion, cross-sectional area, moisture content of rice stem and shearing angle. The results obtained from this study were summarized as follows 1. The mechanical properties of the stems of the J aponica types were greater than those of the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid in compression, tension, bendingand shearing. 2. The mean value of the compressive force was 80.5 N in the Japonica types and 55.5 N in the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid which was about 70 percent to that of the Japonica types, and then the value increased progressively at the lower portion of the stems generally. 3. The average tensile force was about 226.6 N in the Japonica types and 123.6 N in the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid which was about 55 percent to that of the Japonica types. 4. The bending moment was $0.19N{\cdot}m$ in the Japonica types and $0.13N{\cdot}m$ in the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid which was 68 percent to that of the Japonica types and the bending strength was 7.7 MPa in the Japonica types and 6.5 MPa in the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid respectively. 5. The shearing force was 141.1 N in Jinju, the Japonica type and 101.4 N in Taebaeg, the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid which was 72 percent to that of Jinju, and the shearing strength of Taebaeg was 63 percent to that of Jinju. 6. The shearing force and the shearing energy along the stem portion in Jinju increased progressively together at the lower portions, meanwhile in Taebaeg the shearing force showed the maximum value at the intermediate portion and the shearing energy was the greatest at the portion of 21 cm from the ground level, and also the shearing strength and the shearing energy per unit cross-sectional area of the stem were the greater values at the intermediate portion than at any other portions. 7. The shearing force and the shearing energy increased with increase of the cross-sectional area of the rice stem and with decrease of the shearing angie from $90^{\circ}$ to $50^{\circ}$. 8. The shearing forces showed the minimum values of 110 N at Jinju and of 60 N at Taebaeg, the shearing energy at the moisture content decreased about 15 percent point from initial moisture content showed value of 50 mJ in Jinju and of 30 mJ in Taebaeg, respectively. 9. The stress relaxation behavior could be described by the generalized Maxwell model and also the compression creep behavior by Burger's model, respectively in the rice stem. 10. With increase of loading rate, the stress relaxation intensity increased, meanwhile the relaxation time and residual stress decreased. 11. In the compression creep test, the logarithmic creep occured at the stress less than 2.0 MPa and the steady-state creep at the stress larger than 2.0 MPa. 12. The stress level had not a significant effect on the relaxation time, while the relaxation intensity and residual stress increased with increase of the stress level. 13. In the compression creep test of the rice stem, the instantaneous elastic modulus of Burger's model showed the range of 60 to 80 MPa and the viscosities of the free dashpot were very large numerical value which was well explained that the rice stem was viscoelastic material. 14. The tensile detachment forces were about 1.7 to 2.3 N in the Japonica types while about 1.0 to 1.3 N in Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid corresponding to 58 percent of Japonica types, and the bending detachment forces were about 0.6 to 1.1 N corresponding to 30 to 50 percent of the tensile detachment forces, and the bending detachment of the Indica ${\times}$ Japonica hybrid was 0.1 to 0.3 N which was 7 to 21 percent of Japonica types. 15. The detachment force of the lower portion was little bigger than that of the upper portion in a penicle and was not significantly affected by the harvesting period from September 28 to October 20. 16. The tensile and bending detachment forces decreased with decrease of the moisture content from 23 to 13 percent (w.b.) by the natural drying, and the decreasing rate of detachment forces along the moisture content was the greater in the bending detachment force than the tensile detachment force.

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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY OF ORTHODONTIC STAINLESS STEEL WIRES : COMPARING A NEW KOREAN PRODUCT WITH OTHERS FROM FOREIGN COMPANIES (여러 스테인레스 스틸 호선의 물성 및 표면의 비교)

  • Lee, Sung-Ho;Kim, Tae-Woo;Chang, Young-Il
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the property of a new Korean stainless steel wire(Jinsung Ind.) comparing with other foreign Products. Five types of stainless steel wires (Standard, Resilient, HI-T of Unitek, Stainless steel of Ormco and Jinsung Ind.) in 0.016x0.022 and 0.019x0.02 were tested to observe for Composition analysis, size difference, tensile properties, flexure bending property, tortion property, surface hardness and surface topography by means of SEM. The findings suggest that: 1. In maximum tensile strength of tensile properties, Unitek Hi-T showed the greatest value, followed by Unitek Resilient, Jinsung Stainless Steel, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Standard in 0.016x0.022, and Unitek Hi-T showed highest value, followed by Jinsung Stainless Steel, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Resilient, Unitek Standard in 0.019x 0.025. 2. In elongation rate, Unitek Standard showed the greatest value, fellowed by Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Hi-T, Unitek Resilient, Jinsung Stainless Steel in 0.016x0.022, and Unitek Hi-T showed the highest value, followed by Unitek Standard, Ormco Stainless Steel, Jinsung Stainless Steel, Unitek Resilient in 0.019x0.025. 3. In modulus of elasticity, Jinsung Stainless Steel showed the greatest value, followed by Unitek Hi-T, Unitek Resilient, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Standard in 0.016x0.022, and Unitek Resilient showed the highest value followed by Jinsung Stainless Steel, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Hi-T, Unitek Standard in 0.019x0.025. 4. In bending fatigue test, Jinsung Stainless Steel showed the greatest fracture resistance, followed by Unitek Hi-T, Unitek Standard, Unitek Resilient, Ormco Stainless Steel in 0.016x0.022, and Unitek Hi-T showed the greatest fracture resistance followed by Jinsung Stainless Steel, Unitek Resilient, Unitek Standard, Ormco Stainless Steel in 0.019x0.025. 5. In twist test, Unitek Resilient showed the greatest fracture resistance, followed by Jinsung Stainless Steel, Unitek Hi-7, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Standard in 0.016x0.022, and Jinsung showed the greatest fracture resistance, followed by Unitek Resilient, Unitek Standard, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Hi-T. 6. In surface topography, every products showed indentation and pitting. Jinsung stainless steel wire showed long thin indentation and relatively smooth surface. Unitek wires showed indentation and pitting and Ormco wire showed a lot of irregular pittings.

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Suppression of misfit dislocations in heavily boron-doped silicon layers for micro-machining (마이크로 머시닝을 위한 고농도로 붕소가 도핑된 실리콘 층의 부정합 전위의 억제)

  • 이호준;김하수;한철희;김충기
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics A
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    • v.33A no.2
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    • pp.96-113
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    • 1996
  • It has been found that the misfit dislocations in heavily boron-doped layers originate from wafer edges. Moreover, the propagation of the misfit dislocation into a heavily boron-doped region can be suppressed by placing a surrounding undoped region. Using a surrounding undoped region the disloction-free heavily boron-deoped silicon membranes have been fabricated. The measured surface roughness, fracture strength, and residual tensile stress of the membrane are 20.angs. peak-to-peak, 1.39${\times}$10$^{10}$ and 2.7${\times}$10$^{9}$dyn/cm$^{2}$, while those of the conventional heavily boron-doped silicon membrane with high density of misfit dislocations are 500 peak-to-peak, 8.27${\times}$10$^{9}$ and 9.3${\times}$10$^{8}$dyn/cm$^{2}$ respectively. The differences between these two membranes are due to the misfit dislocations. Young's modulus has been extracted as 1.45${\times}$10$^{12}$dyn/cm$^{2}$ for both membranes. Also, the effective lattice constant of heavily boron-doped silicon, the in-plane lattice constant of the conventional membrane, and the density of misfit dislocation contained in the conventional membrane have been extracted as density of misfit dislocation contained in the conventional membrane have been extracted as density of misfit dislocation contained in the conventional membrane have been extracted as 5.424.angs. 5.426.angs. and 2.3${\times}$10$^{4}$/cm for the average boron concentration of 1.3${\times}$10$^{20}$/cm$^{-23}$ cm$^{3}$/atom. Without any buffer layers, a disloction-free lightly boron-doped epitaxial layer with good crsytalline quality has been directly grown on the dislocation-free heavily boron-doped silicon layer. X-ray diffraction analysis revealed that the epitaxial silicon has good crystallinity, similar to that grown on lightly doped silicon substrate. The leakage current of the n+/p gated diode fabricated in the epitaxial silicon has been measured to be 0.6nA/cm$^{2}$ at the reverse bias of 5V.

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