• Title, Summary, Keyword: moisture diffusion

Search Result 193, Processing Time 0.039 seconds

The coupling effect of drying shrinkage and moisture diffusion in concrete

  • Suwito, A.;Ababneh, Ayman;Xi, Yunping;Willam, Kaspar
    • Computers and Concrete
    • /
    • v.3 no.2_3
    • /
    • pp.103-122
    • /
    • 2006
  • Drying shrinkage of concrete occurs due to the loss of moisture and thus, it is controlled by moisture diffusion process. On the other hand, the shrinkage causes cracking of concrete and affects its moisture diffusion properties. Therefore, moisture diffusion and drying shrinkage are two coupled processes and their interactive effect is important for the durability of concrete structures. In this paper, the two material parameters in the moisture diffusion equation, i.e., the moisture capacity and humidity diffusivity, are modified by two different methods to include the effect of drying shrinkage on the moisture diffusion. The effect of drying shrinkage on the humidity diffusivity is introduced by the scalar damage parameter. The effect of drying shrinkage on the moisture capacity is evaluated by an analytical model based on non-equilibrium thermodynamics and minimum potential energy principle for a two-phase composite. The mechanical part of drying shrinkage is modeled as an elastoplastic damage problem. The coupled problem of moisture diffusion and drying shrinkage is solved using a finite element method. The present model can predict that the drying shrinkage accelerates the moisture diffusion in concrete, and in turn, the accelerated drying process increases the shrinkage strain. The coupling effects are demonstrated by a numerical example.

A Study on the Dry Shrinkage and Moisture Diffusion Coefficient of Polymer-Modified Mortars by the Moisture Diffusion (수분확산에 의한 폴리머 시멘트 모르터의 건조수축과 확산계수에 관한 연구)

  • 조영국;소양섭
    • Magazine of the Korea Concrete Institute
    • /
    • v.8 no.5
    • /
    • pp.145-154
    • /
    • 1996
  • Polymer-modified mortars have an excellent water proofness and water retentivity. Therefore, the study on the moisture diffusion behavior- is very important. The purpose of' this study is to investigate the effects of relative humidity and moisture content in mortars on the moisture diffusion, and the relationship between the shrinkage and moisture diffusion coefficient of polymer-modified mortars cured at $20{\circ}C$ 50% R.H and 80% R.H. The pore size distribution of the polymer-modified mortars was also measured. From the test results, the relative humidity and moisture content in mortars influenced on the moisture diffusion of polymer-modified mortars. The shrinkage and moisture diffusion coefficient of polymer-modified mortars cured at $20{\circ}C$ 50% R.H. was bigger than that cured at $20{\circ}C$ 80% R.H.. and decreased with increasing polymer-cement ratio regardless of polymer type.

Prediction of Time-dependent Moisture Diffusion Coefficient in Early-age Concrete (초기재령 콘크리트의 시간 의존적인 수분확산계수 예측에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Su-Tae;Kim, Jin-Keun
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
    • /
    • v.9 no.4
    • /
    • pp.141-148
    • /
    • 2005
  • The nonlinear humidity distribution occurs due to the moisture diffusion when a concrete is exposed to an ambient air. This nonlinear humidity distribution induces shrinkage cracks on surfaces of the concrete. Because shrinkage cracks largely affect the durability and serviceability of concrete structures, the moisture diffusion in concrete must be investigated. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of the moisture diffusion coefficient that governs moisture diffusion within concrete structures. To propose the model, numerical analysis was performed with several experiments. Because the moisture diffusion coefficient is changed with aging, especially at early ages, the proposed model includes aging effect by terms of the porosity as well as the humidity of concrete.

Modeling of Moisture Diffusion Coefficient with Porosity in Concrete (공극률 변화를 고려한 콘크리트의 수분확산계수 모델)

  • 강수태;전상은;김진근;김성욱
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.321-326
    • /
    • 2003
  • The nonlinear humidity distribution occurs due to the moisture diffusion when a concrete is exposed to an ambient air. These nonlinear humidity distribution induces shrinkage cracks on surfaces of the concrete. Because shrinkage cracks largely affect the durability and serviceability of concrete structures, the moisture diffusion in concrete must be investigated. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of the moisture diffusion coefficient that governs moisture diffusion within concrete structures. To propose the model, numerical analysis were performed based on several experiments. Because the moisture diffusion coefficient is changed with aging, especially at early ages, the proposed model includes aging effect by terms of the porosity as well as the humidity of concrete.

  • PDF

Estimation of Effective Moisture Diffusivity of Rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) (유채 종자의 수본확산계수에 관한 연구)

  • Duc, Le Ahn;Hong, Sang-Jin;Han, Jae-Woong;Keum, Dong-Hyuk
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
    • /
    • v.33 no.5
    • /
    • pp.296-302
    • /
    • 2008
  • The effective moisture diffusivity and its dependence on drying temperature during drying of rapeseed were experimentally investigated. The data were recorded from thin layer drying experiments at nine different combinations of drying air temperatures of 40, 50, and $60^{\circ}C$ and the relative humidities of 30, 45, and 60%. The moisture diffusion equation was analyzed using stepwise multiple regression analysis. Effective moisture diffusivities were calculated based on the moisture diffusion equation for a spherical shape using Fick's second law. The effective diffusivities during the drying of rapeseed were $l.72{\times}10^{-11}$, $2.41{\times}10^{-11}$ and $3.31{\times}10^{-11}\;m^2{\cdot}s^{-1}$ at 40, 50 and $60^{\circ}C$, respectively. The activation energy for moisture diffusion during drying was $28.47\;kJ{\cdot}mol^{-1}$. The dependence of moisture diffusivity on temperature was described by an Arrhenius-type equation. Drying occurred in the falling rate period and the internal moisture diffusion phenomenon is the governing physical mechanism of the moisture movement in the particles.

Molecular Diffusion of Water in Paper (IV) - Mathematical model and fiber-phase moisture diffusivities for unsteady-state moisture diffusion through paper substrates - (종이내 수분확산 (제4보) - 종이의 비정상상태 수분확산 모델과 섬유상 수분확산 계수 -)

  • 윤성훈;박종문;이병철
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
    • /
    • v.34 no.3
    • /
    • pp.17-24
    • /
    • 2002
  • An unsteady-state moisture diffusion through cellulosic fibers in paper was characterized from the moisture sorption experiment and the mathematical modeling. The sorption experiment was conducted by exposing thin dry paper specimens to a constant temperature-humidity environment. Oven dried blotting papers and filter papers were used as test samples and the gains of their weights were constantly monitored and recorded as a function of sorption time. For a mathematical approach, the moisture transport was assumed to be an one-dimensional diffusion in thickness direction through the geometrically symmetric structure of paper. The model was asymptotically simplified with a short-term approximation. It gave us a new insight into the moisture uptake phenomena as a function of square root of sorption time. The fiber-phase moisture diffusivities(FPMD) of paper samples were then determined by correlating the experimental data with the unsteady-state diffusion model obtained. Their values were found to be on the order of magnitude of $10^{-6}-10^{-7}cm^2$/min., which were equivalent to the hypothetical effective diffusion coefficients at the limit of zero porosity. The moisture sorption curve predicted from the model fairly agreed with that obtained from the experiment at some limited initial stages of the moisture uptake process. The FPMD value of paper significantly varied depending upon the current moisture content of paper. The mean FPMD was about 0.7-0.8 times as large as the short-term approximated FPMD.

Analysis of Time-Dependent Deformation of CFRP Considering the Anisotropy of Moisture Diffusion

  • Arao, Yoshihiko;Koyanagi, Jun;Hatta, Hiroshi;Kawada, Hiroyuki
    • Advanced Composite Materials
    • /
    • v.17 no.4
    • /
    • pp.359-372
    • /
    • 2008
  • The moisture absorption behavior of carbon fiber-reinforced plastic (CFRP) and its effect on dimensional stability were examined. Moisture diffusivity in CFRP was determined by measuring a specimen's weight during the moisture absorption test. Three types of CFRP specimens were prepared: a unidirectionally reinforced laminate, a quasi-isotropic laminate and woven fabric. Each CFRP was processed into two geometries - a thin plate for determination of diffusivity and a rod with a square cross-section for the discussion of two-dimensional diffusion behavior. By solving Fick's law expanded to 3 dimensions, the diffusivities in the three orthogonal directions were obtained and analyzed in terms of the anisotropy of CFRP moisture diffusion. Coefficients of moisture expansion (CMEs) were also obtained from specimen deformation caused by moisture absorption. During moisture absorption, the specimen surfaces showed larger deformation near the edges due to the distribution of moisture contents. This deformation was reasonably predicted by the finite element analysis using experimentally determined diffusivities and CMEs. For unidirectional CFRP, the effect of the fiber alignment on CME was analyzed by micromechanical finite element analysis (FEA) and discussed.

Moisture Absorption Properties of Liquid Type Epoxy Encapsulant with Nano-size Silica for Semiconductor Packaging Materials (나노크기 실리카를 사용한 반도체용 액상 에폭시 수지 성형재료의 흡습성질)

  • Kim, Whan-Gun
    • Journal of the Semiconductor & Display Technology
    • /
    • v.9 no.2
    • /
    • pp.33-39
    • /
    • 2010
  • The moisture absorption properties such as diffusion coefficient and moisture content ratio of liquid type epoxy resin systems with the filler were investigated. Bisphenol A type and Bisphenol F type epoxy resin, Kayahard MCD as hardener and 2-methylimidazole as catalyst were used in these epoxy resin systems. The nano-sized spherical type fused silica as filler were used in order to study the moisture absorption properties of these liquid type epoxy encapsulant according to the change of filler size. The temperature of glass transition (Tg) of these epoxy resin systems was measured using Dynamic Scanning Calorimeter (DSC), and the moisture absorption properties of these epoxy resin systems according to the change of time were observed at $85^{\circ}C$ and 85% relative humidity condition using a thermo-hygrostat. The diffusion coefficients in these systems were calculated in terms of modified Crank equation based on Ficks' law. An increase of Tg and diffusion coefficient with filler size in these systems can be observed, which are attributed to the increase of free volume with Tg. The change of maximum moisture absorption ratio according to the filler size and filler content cannot be observed; however, the diffusion coefficients of these systems decreased with filler content. The diffusion via free volume is dominant in the epoxy resin systems with low nano-sized filler content; however, the diffusion with the interaction of absorption according the increase of the filler surface area is dominant in the liquid type epoxy encapsulant with high nano-sized filler content.

Studies on Predicting the Kiln Drying Time and Moisture Content of Board and Dimension Lumber of Pinus densiflora using an Internal Moisture Diffusion Model of Softwood (침엽수재(針葉樹材)의 수분확산(水分擴散)모델을 이용(利用)한 소나무판재(板材)와 평소각재(平小角材)의 열기건조(熱氣乾燥) 시간(時間)과 함수율(含水率) 추정(推定)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Sang-Bong;Jung, Hee-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.17 no.3
    • /
    • pp.67-81
    • /
    • 1989
  • This experiment was carried out to know the mothod of changing the step of moisture content schedule with time in conventional kiln drying. For the purpose of this object. we made drying model by applying the moisture diffusion model by J.FSiau(1984) to average moisture content equation by J.Crank(1956) derived it from Fick's second law. And to verify this method of drying model. 2.5cm-thick boards and 5.0cm-thick dimension lumbers of Pinus densiflora were kiln-dried with the schedule of T11-C3 and T10-C4, respectively. And then the drying rates were investigated and compared with those calculated from drying model. The results obtained were as follows 1. Average drying rate and total drying time of board to dry to 6.5% moisture content were 0.64%/hr and 109hr., and those of dimension lumber to dry to 8.3% moisture content were 0.4%/hr. and 162hr., respectively. 2. The moisture content of shell and core decreased by equalizing treatment and increased by conditioning treatment both on board and dimension lumber. But the moisture gradient was lower after conditioning than after equalizing. 3. As the drying was proceeded, the transverse bound water diffusion coefficient all but linearly decreased, the water vapor diffusion coefficient abruptly curvilinearly increased, while the transverse diffusion coefficient curvilinearly decreased both on board and dimension lumber. But each of diffusion coefficients on board was larger than that on dimension lumber. 4. Compared to experimential drying rate of board. theoretical drying rate was larger at 30.0%-21.8% moisture content range and was similiar at 21.8%-5.4% moisture content. And in case of dimension lumber, the drying rate was similiar at 30.0%-16.1% moisture content range but theoretical drying rate was much lower at 16.1%-8.3% moisture content range. 5. The possibility of adapting this drying model to changing the moisture content schedule step with time was in the range of 21.8%-5.4% moisture content on board. And in the case of dimension lumber that was in the range of 30.0%-16.1% moisture content.

  • PDF

Mass Transfer Characteristics in the Osmotic Dehydration Process of Carrots (당근의 삼투건조시 물질이동 특성)

  • Youn, Kwang-Sup;Choi, Yong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.27 no.3
    • /
    • pp.387-393
    • /
    • 1995
  • Diffusion coefficients of moisture and solid, reaction rate constants of carotene destruction, and the fitness of drying models for moisture transfer were determined to study the characteristics of mass transfer during osmotic dehydration. Moisture loss and solid gain were increased with increase of temperature and concentration; temperature had higher osmotic effect than concentration. Diffusion coefficient showed similar trend with osmotic effect. Diffusion coefficients of solids were larger than those of moisture because the movement of solid was faster than that of moisture at the high temperature. Reaction rate constants were affected to the greater extent by concentration changes than by temperature changes. Arrhenius equation was applied to determine the effect of temperature on diffusion coefficients and reaction rate constants. Moisture diffusion required high activation energy in $20^{\circ}Brix$, while relatively low in $60^{\circ}Brix$. To predict the diffusion coefficients and reaction rate constants, a model was established by using the optimum functions of temperature and concentration. The model had high $R^2$ value when applied to diffusion coefficients, but low when applied to reaction rate constants. Quadratic drying model was most fittable to express moisture transfer during drying. In conclusion, moisture content of carrots could be predictable during the osmotic dehydration process, and thereby mass transfer characteristics could be determined by predicted moisture content and diffusion coefficient.

  • PDF