• Title, Summary, Keyword: mudflat solar salt

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Evaluation of Plasticizer Pollution Levels in Mudflat Solar Salt, Salt Water, and Sea Water of Nationwide Saltpan (국내 염전에서 생산된 갯벌천일염, 함수 및 해수의 가소제(DEHP) 오염 수준 평가)

  • Kim, Hag-Lyeol;Baek, Hyung-Hee;Kim, In-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.10
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    • pp.1460-1466
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasticizer pollution levels in mudflat solar salt, salt water and sea water of the nationwide saltpan. Also, it was analyzed the relationship between DEHP in solar salt and PVC mat following private period. DEP (ranging from 0.00 to 1.55 ppb), DIBP (0.00~2.38), DBP (0.00~4.90), DEHA (0.00~2.32), and BBP (0.00~1.45) in solar salt were shown a extremely low concentrations, and DEHP was present a concentrations ranging from 0.00 to 268.5 ppb in solar salt. Further, DMP, DPrP, DNPP, DNHP, and DCHP were not detected in all solar salt. Phthalate in sea water and salt water was present a infinitesimal amount levels. DEHP levels in sea water and salt water were not shown a high risk levels ranging from 0.00 to 3.4 ppb, and from 0.00 to 21.4 ppb, respectively. As expected in PVC mat of nationwide saltpan, the correlation between DEHP in solar salt and PVC mat private period showed a low positive correlation coefficient ($r^2$=0.0362).

Evaluation of Heavy Metal Contents in Mudflat Solar Salt, Salt Water, and Sea Water in the Nationwide Salt Pan (전국 염전에서 생산된 갯벌천일염, 함수 및 해수의 중금속 함량 평가)

  • Kim, Hag-Lyeol;Yoo, Young-Joo;Lee, In-Sun;Ko, Gang-Hee;Kim, In-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.41 no.7
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    • pp.1014-1019
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to evaluate the heavy metal contents of mudflat solar salt, salt water, and sea water produced in the nationwide salt pan. In mudflat solar salt, moisture contents were significantly different (p<0.001) between regions, ranging from 7.357% to 14.862%. Arsenic (As) content ranged from 0.007 ppm to 0.497 ppm, cadmium (Cd) from 0.000 ppm to 0.101 ppm, plumbum (Pb) from 0.000 ppm to 0.191 ppm, hydrargyrum (Hg) from 0.006 ppb to 0.180 ppb, and copper (Cu) from 0.039 ppm to 4.794 ppm between regions, which were significantly different (p<0.001). Further, As, Cd, Pb, and Hg contents of sea and salt water were not in excess of their criterion points. Our results suggest that heavy metal contents of mudflat solar salt, salt water, and sea water produced in the nationwide salt pan were at safe levels. However, continuous management of heavy metal contamination, such as PVC met, is still necessary.

Evaluation of mineral, heavy metal and phthalate contents in mudflat solar salt and foreign salt (국내산 갯벌천일염과 외국산 소금의 미네랄, 중금속 및 phthalate 함량 평가)

  • Kim, Hag-Lyeol;Lee, In-Seon;Kim, In-Cheol
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.520-528
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluated a phthalate, heavy metal contents and physicochemical quality properties in korean mudflat solar salt and foreign salts. DEHP in mudflat solar salt (MSS) was detected a low level (9.00~669.89 ppb), but it was shown a high level excess to 1.5 ppm criteria in the foreign solar salt (FSS) 5 type (3,440.64, 3,266.56, 2,189.65, 4,010.69, 4,554.20 ppb) and foreign large solar salt (FLSS) 1 type (1,983.27 ppb). Also, DEHP in FSS 2 type (930.15, 1,310.07 ppb) and FLSS 1 type (924.92 ppb) was detected a high level not excess to criteria. No detected DMP, DEP, DIBP, DBP, DAP, BBP, DCHP and DEHA contents in MSS and foreign salt (FS). Na ion was shown a significantly higher level (p<0.05) in FS (407,345.87~426,612.14 ppm) than in MSS (363,633.98 ppm), but it was shown a high level in Mg (p<0.01), K (p<0.05), Ca ion (p<0.05) of FSS compared to foreign refined salt (FRS). Cl ion (532,727.07 ppm) of MSS was the most low level (p<0.001) compared to FS, but it was shown a high level (p<0.001) in Br ion (625.07 ppm). $SO_4$ ion was not shown a significant difference in DS and FS. It was display a high level in Mn of MSS, and Al, Fe of FLSS. Heavy metal contents (As, Cd, Pb and Hg) in MSS and FS was not significant difference, it was safety level as edible salt.

Physicochemical Quality Properties of Mudflat Solar Salt and Roasted Salt (갯벌천일염과 구운 소금의 이화학적 품질 특성)

  • Lee, Jung-Hee;Kim, Hag-Lyeol;Kim, In-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.7
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    • pp.1048-1054
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was carried out to investigate the cause of sulfur dioxide occurrence, general element composition, sulfur compounds, heavy metals, macro- & micro-minerals, and oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) following baking time course of RS (RS1, RS2, RS3, and RS4) and mudflat solar salts (MSS). Sulfur dioxide ($SO_2$) and sulfite ($SO{_3}^{2-}$) were not detected in MSS or RS. However, sulfate ($SO{_4}^{2-}$) content significantly decreased in RS (29,878.15~36,097.45 ppm) compared to that in MSS (35,601.65 ppm). ORP was 181.15 mV in MSS, and 58.55 mV in RS1. Moisture content was 9.34% in MSS and 0.00% in RS with increased NaCl (94.77~95.77%). Moisture and NaCl contents showed no significant difference in RS. Insoluble and sandy residues were higher in RS than in MSS, whereas Ca and K showed no significant difference. Mg and Cl contents were higher in RS than in MSS. Br level was higher in MSS (628.1 ppm) than in RS (512.72~586.62 ppm), but there was no significant difference in $NO_3$. Heavy metals (Pb, As, and Hg) were more abundant in RS than in MSS, but levels were still safe. These results suggest that MSS and RS may increase protection against from $SO_2$ and $SO{_3}^{2-}$.

Sulfur Dioxide, Mineral Contents and Physicochemical Properties Generated during Manufacture of Bamboo Salt (죽염 제조공정에 따른 이산화황, 미네랄 함량 및 이화학적 특성)

  • Kim, Hag-Lyeol;Lee, Seong-Jae;Lee, Jung-Hee;Kim, In-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.43 no.8
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    • pp.1248-1256
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of behind $SO_2$ formation and elevated cause of reducing power in purple bamboo salt (PBS) along with an analysis of physicochemical properties, content of sulfur compounds, oxidation reduction potential (ORP), mineral contents of salt type (MSS, mudflat solar salt; BS, bamboo salt), and addition of raw bamboo (RB). $SO_2$ content of 630 ppm was detected in PBS. $SO_2$ was not detected in MSS, BS, or RB, whereas $SO_2$ (782 ppm) from $K_2SO_4$ was detected after heating a NaCl, KCl, $MgCl_2$, $MgSO_4$, MgO, $CaCl_2$, $K_2SO_4$, and $FeSO_4$ with RB. $SO_2$ content of BS increased with baking time, and it originated from BSRB1 (13.88 ppm) to BSRB4 (109.13 ppm). $SO_3{^{2-}}$ originated only from MSSRB4 and BSRB2~BSRB4. Sulfate ion content decreased along with increasing $SO_2$ and sulfite ion contents. ORP increased with baking time of MSS and BS, and it was present at higher levels in BSRB4 (-211.40 mV) of BS than MSS. Insoluble content was higher in BS than MSS. Further, Ca, K, and Mg ion contents decreased in MSS and increased in BS with baking time. BSRB4 had 1.4 fold higher levels of Ca, 1.5 fold higher levels of Mg, and 1.8 fold higher levels of K than BS. Li, Al, Mn, Fe, and Sr in MSS as well as Al, Fe, and Ni in BS increased with baking time. Anions (Cl, $NO_3$, and Br) and heavy metals (Pb, Cd, Hg, and As) between MSS and BS were not significantly different. These results suggest that the reducing power of BS was due to $SO_2$ and sulfite ion. To increase the amounts of these compounds and reducing power, higher melting temperature and longer baking time are necessary along with BS, which is created by the addition of RB to roasted salt.