• Title, Summary, Keyword: municipal solid waste

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Drying methods for municipal solid waste quality improvement in the developed and developing countries: A review

  • Tun, Maw Maw;Juchelkova, Dagmar
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.529-542
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    • 2019
  • Nowadays, drying methods for municipal solid waste quality improvement have been adopted in the developed and developing countries to valorize wastes for a renewable energy source, reduce dependency on fossil fuel and keep safer disposal at landfills. Among them, biodrying, biostabilization, thermal drying and solar drying are the most common. Drying of municipal solid waste could offer several environmental and economic benefits. Therefore, this review highlighted the drying methods for municipal solid waste quality improvement around the world and compared them based on the reduction of moisture, weight and volume of municipal solid wastes against drying temperature and time by using statistical analysis. It was observed that the drying temperature of different drying methods accounted for 115 ± 40℃ for thermal drying, 59 ± 37℃ for solar drying, 55 ± 15℃ for biodrying and 58 ± 11℃ for biostabilization. Among the drying methods, thermal drying provided the shortest drying time. The moisture reduction, weight reduction, volume reduction and heating value increase of municipal solid waste could vary with drying temperature and time. Finally, the benefits and drawbacks of different drying methods were specified, and recommendations were made for the future efficient drying.

Modeling the socio-economic waste generation factors: A case study of Faridabad (Haryana State, India)

  • Satija, Ajay;Singh, Dipti;Singh, Vinai Kumar
    • Proceedings of the Jangjeon Mathematical Society
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.689-701
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    • 2018
  • Municipal Solid Waste Management is an extremely complex task especially in Metropolitan cities. An accurate planning is required for its sustainable development. Such planning requires waste generated data as well as waste collected data. A number of socioeconomic factors are responsible for its generation. The aim of present research is to establish various significant correlations between socioeconomic factors such as population, urban population, literacy rate, per capita income and municipal solid waste (MSW) by regression analysis. The study is based on waste collected data of fastest growing metropolitan city Faridabad (Haryana State, India). The significant correlations between socioeconomic factors and MSW have been validated by p-value (< 0.05), high value of adjusted $R^2$ and minimum values of root mean square error (RMSE). Further the time series analysis has been performed to forecast the waste (collection) up to year 2019. The present study would be extremely beneficial for waste management authorities as well as policy makers of Municipal Corporation of Faridabad (MCF).

Municipal solid waste management in Aba, Nigeria: Challenges and prospects

  • Ezechi, Ezerie Henry;Nwabuko, Chima George;Enyinnaya, Ogbonna Chidi;Babington, Chibunna John
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 2017
  • Solid waste disposal and management is a critical problem in Nigeria. Annually, a huge quantity of municipal solid waste is generated in Aba. Municipal solid waste disposal in Aba poses severe challenge to environmental safety, public health and welfare of citizens. The situation is made worse by the indiscriminate dumping of refuse at roadsides, streets, waterways and empty lands. The impact of this waste management practice in Aba is environmental deterioration. Efforts to improve waste management in Aba have not recorded significant success. This paper therefore aims to highlight the challenges facing the waste management sector in Aba and proffer solutions on how to improve the sector.

Systematic investigation of heavy metals from MSWI fly ash and bottom ash samples

  • Ramakrishna., CH;Thriveni., T;Ahn, Ji Whan
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.35-44
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    • 2017
  • Disposal of municipal solid waste has become a major problem in many countries around the world. As landfill space for the disposal of ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration (MSWI) becomes scarce, numerous reports and researches address the various environmental issues about the municipal solid waste incineration waste management and other particulate matters with the range of 10 ~ 2.5. Although in many developing and industrialization countries landfill with the disposal of municipal solid waste, open incineration has become a common practice. Large municipal waste incinerators are major industrial facilities and have the potential to be significant sources of environmental pollution. Despite the significant volume reduction from incineration, waste recycling is important to ensuring the future welfare of mankind. The main goal of the present work is the physical and chemical characterization of the local incineration bottom ash towards its eventual re-utilization. In this paper, we reported the studies on physical and chemical characteristics of municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) fly ash and bottom ash containing particulate matter whose particulate sizes are lower than $PM_{10}$, $PM_{2.5}$ and heavy metal were investigated.

A comprehensive optimization model for integrated solid waste management system: A case study

  • Paul, Koushik;Chattopadhyay, Subhasish;Dutta, Amit;Krishna, Akhouri P.;Ray, Subhabrata
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.220-237
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    • 2019
  • Solid waste management (SWM) is one of the poorly rendered services in developing countries - limited resources, increasing population, rapid urbanization and application of outdated systems leads to inefficiency. Lack of proper planning and inadequate data regarding solid waste generation and collection compound the SWM problem. Decision makers need to formulate solutions that consider multiple goals and strategies. Given the large number of available options for SWM and the inter-relationships among these options, identifying SWM strategies that satisfy economic or environmental objectives is a complex task. The paper develops a mathematical model for a municipal Integrated SWM system, taking into account waste generation rates, composition, transportation modes, processing techniques, revenues from waste processing, simulating waste management as closely as possible. The constraints include those linking waste flows and mass balance, processing plants capacity, landfill capacity, transport vehicle capacity and number of trips. The linear programming model integrating different functional elements was solved by LINGO optimization software and various possible waste management options were considered during analysis. The model thus serves as decision support tool to evaluate various waste management alternatives and obtain the least-cost combination of technologies for handling, treatment and disposal of solid waste.

Municipal Solid Waste Management: Challenges and Opportunities in Nepal

  • Gurung, Anup;Oh, Sang-Eun
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.421-427
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    • 2012
  • Nepal is one of the least urbanized countries in the world where more than 80% of the total population live in rural areas. In recent years, the rate of urbanization became rampant which ultimately accelerated immense pressure on municipal services, especially on managing the ever increasing amount of wastes. Due to lack of technology, infrastructure and financial capacity management of increasing amount of solid waste has become a major challenge in municipalities of Nepal. The indiscriminate dumping of solid wastes already affected the urban environment by creating a serious occupational health and environmental hazard to the vicinity of the dumping sites. However, there is great possibility of recovering methane from the landfill sites since the typical Nepalese municipal solid waste contains more than 65% of organic wastes. Despite having enormous potential of generating electricity from hydropower, Nepal is facing acute shortage of energy. Therefore, comprehensive scientific research and development is necessary for making solid waste to environmentally friendly by converting waste to the energy.

Appropriate Technologies for Municipal Solid Waste Management in Bantayan Island, Philippines

  • Yu, Kwang Sun;Thriveni, Thenepalli;Jang, Changsun;Whan, Ahn Ji
    • Journal of Energy Engineering
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.54-61
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    • 2017
  • In general, solid waste arises from lots of human activities such as domestic, agricultural, industrial, commercial, waste water treatment, construction, and mining activities etc. If the waste is not properly disposal and treated, it will have a negative impact to the environment, and hygienic conditions in urban areas and pollute the air with greenhouse gases (GHG), ground water, as well as the soil and crops. In this paper, the Carbon Resources Recycling Appropriate Technology Center feasibility studies are reported at Bantayan Island, Philippines on the municipal solid waste management. The present objective of our study is to characterize the municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash and case study of MSWI production status in Bantayan, Philippines. Currently, wide variety of smart technologies available for MSWI management in developed countries. Recycling is the other major alternative process for MSWI landfill issues. In this paper, the feasibility studies of applied appropriate technologies for the municipal solid waste generation in Bantayan Island, Philippines are reported.

Application of food waste leachate to a municipal solid waste incinerator for reduction of NOx emission and ammonia water consumption

  • Park, Jong Jin;Kim, Daegi;Lee, Kwanyong;Lee, Kyung Tae;Park, Ki Young
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.171-174
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    • 2015
  • This study investigates the possibility of applying food waste leachate to a municipal solid waste incinerator in order to effectively dispose of the material and to reduce the environmental impact. The spray positions and the quantity of the food waste leachate in municipal solid waste incinerator were adjusted to examine the stability of the process and the environmental effect. The rear of the first combustion chamber was found to be the desirable location for an environmental perspective in this study. At a food waste leachate injection rate of $2m^3/h$, the concentration of the emitted NOx decreased from 130 ppm to 40 ppm. The consumption of ammonia water was reduced by about 36% after adding the food waste leachate. The inclusion of the food waste leachate to the municipal incinerator also increased the amount of steam that was produced. The results of this research indicated that a positive outcome can be expected in terms of diversifying the treatment options for food waste leachate. The results also provide guidance for institutional framework to manage the incineration of the food waste leachate.

Characterization of household solid waste and current status of municipal waste management in Rishikesh, Uttarakhand

  • Rawat, Suman;Daverey, Achlesh
    • Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.323-329
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    • 2018
  • The municipal solid waste (MSW) management system in one of the Class II Indian cities i.e. Rishikesh was studied and analysed to identify the key issues in solid waste management in the city. A total of 329 solid waste samples from 47 households were collected to characterize the household solid waste (HSW). The average (HSW) generation rate was 0.26 kg/c/d and it was composed of organic waste (57.3%), plastics (14%), paper (10.9%), and glass and ceramic (1.3%) and other materials (16.5%). There was an inverse relationship between household waste generation rate and family size (p < 0.05). The MSW management system practiced in Rishikesh is unsound. There is no waste segregation at source, no provisions of composting and no recycling by formal sector. The collection and transportation of waste is inadequate and inappropriate. Collected waste is dumped in open dumping site without scientific management. Following are some recommendations for developing a sustainable solid waste management system in Rishikesh city: (1) sensitize people for segregation at source; (2) promote reduction, reuse and recycling of wastes; (3) promote community based composting; (4) provision for 100% door to door collection and; (5) formalize the informal sectors such as rag pickers and recycling industries.

A Study the Physicochemical Characteristics of Municipal Solid Wastes

  • Kim, Young-Sik
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 2003
  • The objective of this study was investigate the generation rates, composition, proportion and calorific values each of material in the municipal solid wastes as well as the effect of incineration residual leachate on the environment in Yangsan sanitary landfill site. The results were as follows ; The annual average generation rate of municipal solid wastes in Yang-san is approximately 2.0 kg/cㆍd. The weight percent of combustible matters is on average 78∼87% and the lower heating values of municipal solid wastes is measured to be more than 2,151 kcal/kg after removing the briquette component. The food waste was major source of solid wastes in Yang-san city as 35% and its variation by seasons was negligible. Combustible part was larger than incombustible part of the domestic solid wastes in spring and summer. It is recommended that municipal solid wastes be treated by multiple methods such as the sanitary landfill, resources and recovery, composting and incineration.